Umushinga wo gukoresha ingufu za nucléaire ugeze kure: Menya ibijyanye n’ikigo gishinzwe uko zizakoreshwa

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 28 Ukwakira 2020 saa 10:01
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Inama y’Abaminisitiri yateranye ku wa 27 Ukwakira 2020 yemeje Iteka rya Perezida rishyiraho Urwego rw’Igihugu rushinzwe Ingufu za “Atomique”. Ni urwego rugiyeho bwa mbere mu Rwanda, ruzaba rufite inshingano zo guhuza ibikorwa by’ubushakashatsi ku ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za nucléaire no kuzibyaza umusaruro mu Rwanda.

Ishyirwaho ry’iki kigo risanga umushinga mugari u Rwanda rufite wo gutangira kubyaza umusaruro ingufu za nucléaire mu gukemura ikibazo cy’ubuke bw’amashanyarazi, mu bikorwa by’ubuvuzi, ubuhinzi n’izindi ngeri.

Ubusanzwe ingufu za “Atomique” ni ingufu zitangwa n’itunganywa ry’ubutare bwa uranium, ari nabwo butanga ingufu za nucléaire.

Ijambo Atomique rikomoka ku rindi, “atome”, risobanurwa mu bijyanye n’ubutabire nk’akantu gato cyane. Iyo batunganya ingufu za nucléaire, bifashisha intima cyangwa “atome” ya uranium, bakayishyushya ikitandukanyamo utundi duce duto cyane, ibizwi nka “fission nucléaire”.

Iyo izo ntima nto zimaze gutandukana, zitanga ubushyuhe hanyuma nabwo bukifashishwa mu gushyushya amazi ari nayo avamo umwuka unyuzwa mu mashini zabugenewe zigatanga ingufu z’amashanyarazi cyangwa se izindi zifashishwa mu buvuzi nko mu gushiririza kanseri, cyangwa se indi mirasire ikoreshwa mu byuma bisaka.

Kuko mu Rwanda hataboneka uranium, bizasaba ko igihugu kijya kiyigura mu mahanga aho icukurwa. Garama imwe ya Uranium ishobora gutanga MW 1 ku munsi, ni ingufu zingana n’izatangwa na toni eshatu z’amakara. Ubaye utunganyije ikilo kimwe cya Uranium, wabona umuriro ungana na MW 1000.

Uru rwego rushinzwe ibijyanye n’Ingufu “Atomique” mu mpine kizaba cyitwa RAEB [Rwanda Atomic Energy Board]. Inshingano zarwo z’ingenzi ni ugukurikirana ibikorwa by’ubushakashatsi n’ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za Nucléaire mu Rwanda.

Ruzaba rushinzwe kandi gukurikirana ibijyanye n’umutekano w’ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za Nucléaire mu gihugu ku buryo zitanga umusaruro bijyanye na gahunda y’igihugu y’iterambere ndetse n’icyerekezo cya 2050.

Rushinzwe kandi gukurikirana ishyirwaho ry’Ikigo cyigisha ibijyanye n’Ubumenyi mu bya Nucléaire ndetse n’imishinga y’ikoranabuhanga iyerekeyeho.

Kuva mu ntangiriro z’umwaka ushize, u Rwanda rwohereje mu Burusiya abantu bagiye kwihugura ku ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za nucléaire. Ubu aba mbere bari kurangiza umwaka wa mbere w’ururimi kuko amasomo atangwa mu Kirusiya. Bamwe bazigayo imyaka itanu, abandi itandatu, hari n’abaziga itatu. Abariyo barenga 70.

U Rwanda ni Umunyaryango w’Ikigo Mpuzamahanga gishinzwe iby’Ingufu za Nucléaire, IAEA. Ni ikigo cyigenga ariko gishamikiye ku Muryango w’Abibumbye, cyashyizweho ku wa 29 Nyakanga 1957 hagamijwe kwimakaza ikoreshwa mu buryo bw’amahoro, ingufu za Nucléaire.

Amasezerano agira u Rwanda igihugu cy’ikinyamuryango yasinywe tariki ya 4 Nzeri 2012, birugira kimwe mu bihugu 172 biwugize. Kuba ruri muri uyu muryango bizatuma ibikorwa bya RAEB byo gushyiraho ibigo bikora ibijyanye n’ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za Nucléaire biba bishingiye ku bipimo mpuzamahanga.

RAEB izatanga umusanzu ukomeye mu kwihutisha ibikorwa byo kubyaza umusaruro ingufu za nucléaire mu nzego zirimo ubuhinzi, amashanyarazi, mu bijyanye n’ubuvuzi, inganda, ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro ndetse no mu bijyanye n’ubumenyi bw’ibigize Isi.

Mu rwego rw’ubuhinzi, binyuze muri RAEB, ingufu za Nucléaire zizifashishwa mu bijyanye no kongera umusaruro w’ibikomoka ku buhinzi binyuze mu gutunganya imiti, ifumbire n’ibindi bikenerwa muri uru rwego.

Minisitiri w’Ibidukikije, Dr Mujawamariya Jeanne D’Arc, aherutse kubwira IGIHE ko ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za Nucléaire mu gihe zizatangira gukoreshwa mu Rwanda, zititezweho gutanga amashanyarazi gusa.

Ati “Byatuma duca ukubiri n’ibura ry’amashanyarazi, gukomeza kugura ibikoresho by’ibanze bituma tuvura kanseri, bizatuma duca ukubiri n’iyangirika ry’umusaruro uturuka ku buhinzi kuko tuzashobora kujya tuwubika igihe kirekire, twifashishije ingufu za Nucléaire."

Mu buhinzi, izi ngufu zishobora kandi kwifashishwa mu bijyanye no gukoresha imirasire mu kubika neza no kurinda ibiribwa igihe kirekire.

Mu rwego rw’Ubuzima, RAEB, izafasha ku buryo hifashishijwe ingufu za Nucléaire, ubuvuzi bwa kanseri mu gihugu butera imbere binyuze mu kuyishiririza n’ibindi.

Ikindi ni uko izi ngufu zizatanga umusaruro ukomeye mu kubika no gutunganya ibikoresho byo kwa muganga, mu kubika imiti, mu ikoranabuhanga rishingiye ku binyabuzima, ubushakashatsi mu nganda n’ibindi.

U Rwanda rwiteze ko ikoreshwa rya Nucléaire rizafasha mu guhindura imibereho n’iterambere by’igihugu binyuze mu guteza imbere inzego nyinshi z’iterambere.

Mu rwego rw’ingufu, ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za Nucléaire rizafasha u Rwanda mu cyerekezo cyarwo cyo kugabanya imyuka ihumanya ikirere ndetse no gukoresha ingufu zitangiza ikirere.

Ugereranyije n’izindi ngufu, ntabwo iza Nucléaire zangiza ikirere nk’uko bigenda kuri Nyiramugengeri, kuko zitohereza mu kirere imyuka ihumanya ya CO2.

Gigawatt imwe y’ingufu za Nucléaire irinda ko igihugu cyakohereza mu kirere umwuka uhumanya wa CO2 ungana na toni miliyoni icyenda, bingana n’uwakoherezwa mu kirere n’imodoka miliyoni ebyiri, bityo kuyikoresha bizatuma u Rwanda rugera ku ntego rwihaye yo kugabanya imyuka yangiza ikirere.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’Umuryango ushinzwe Ikoreshwa rya Nucléaire ku Isi, World Nuclear Association, bwagaragaje ko ikoreshwa ry’izi ngufu rigabanya toni 29 z’umwuka uhumanya wa CO2 kuri Gigawatt mu isaha (GWh).

Kugeza ubu, u Rwanda rwagabanyije imyuka ihumanya ikirere igira uruhare mu kwangiza akayungirizo k’izuba [ozone] ku kigero cya 54%. Intego ni uko mu 2030 iyi myuka izaba yagabanyijwe ku kigero cya 38%. Kugira ngo ibi bigerweho hazakoreshwa ingufu nk’izi za nucléaire, izisubiranya (amashanyarazi ava ku mirasire y’izuba n’ava ku mazi) kuko byagaragaye ko zitangiza.

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