Sobanukirwa neza itandukaniro rya ‘Operating System’ zikoreshwa muri mudasobwa

Yanditswe na Nkurunziza Ferdinand
Kuya 29 Mata 2020 saa 07:58
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Ikoranabuhanga rya mudasobwa rimaze guhindura ubuzima mu ngeri zitandukanye. Imirimo myinshi ikorwa n’abatuye Isi igenda irushaho kwiyegereza mudasobwa ndetse hari n’ishobora guhagarara burundu mu gihe zaba zitagikoreshwa.

Mu ntangiriro z’Ikinyejana cya 19, Umwongereza Charles Babbage ni we wakoze mudasobwa ya mbere, ifatwa nk’iyahereweho hahimbwa izindi zirimo n’izo dukoresha ubu.

Bishingiye ku nyota yo kongera ubushobozi bwa mudasobwa no kurushaho kuyibyaza umusaruro, abahanga bo mu Kinyejana cya 20 bakoze uko bashoboye kose, bakora mudasobwa zisumbya ubushobozi izari zarakozwe hashingiwe ku buhanga bwa Charles Babbage kuko zitari zikijyanye n’igihe ndetse ntizitange n’umusaruro ujyanye n’ubumenyi bwari bugezweho icyo gihe.

Uramutse ukoresha mudasobwa mu kazi kawe cyangwa mu buryo busanzwe, birashoboka ko waba warumvise ijambo ‘Operating System’ rimwe cyangwa inshuro nyinshi.

‘Operating System’ ni gahunda ya mudasobwa ituma ibice byayo bifatika bigirana isano n’imikoranire ihuye neza, ku buryo nk’igihe umuntu ari kwandika akoresheje mudasobwa, inyuguti akanze ahita ayibona imbere mu kirahure cyayo nk’uko abyifuza.

Muri make nta muntu ukwiye kugira ingingimira mu gushimangira ko ‘Operating System’ ari yo bwonko n’umutima bya mudasobwa, nubwo na yo ibarirwa mu bice bidafatika bigize mudasobwa (Softwares).

Kubera ko iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga ryazanye n’ubucuruzi bujyanye na ryo; abakora porogaramu za mudasobwa (Softwares) bakoze ‘Operating System’ nke ugereranyije n’ubwinshi bw’izindi porogaramu zikora ibintu bimwe cyangwa se bijya gusa.

‘Operating System’ zizwi cyane kurusha izindi mu Isi y’ikoranabuhanga rya mudasobwa ni enye: Windows, MacOS, Chrome OS na Ubuntu Linux.

Umuntu uguze mudasobwa bwa mbere nta guhitamo guhagije aba afite ku ikoreshwa rya ‘Operating System’ ijyanye n’ibyifuzo bye byose ijana ku ijana, kuko iziyoboye izindi mu gukoreshwa na benshi, na zo zigiye zifite buri imwe icyo itandukaniyeho cyangwa irusha iyindi.

‘Operating System’ ni yo ituma n’izindi porogaramu za mudasobwa zose zikora ibyo zagenewe nyuma yo gushyirwa muri mudasobwa.

Buri ‘Operating System’ ifite ibyiza n’inenge yihariye

Windows na MacOS ni zo zifatwa nk’izikomeye kurusha izindi, hashingiwe ku bikoresho zikoreshwamo, za porogaramu zijyana na zo ndetse n’imigaragarire ya zo (interface) muri mudasobwa.

Chrome OS ikundirwa uburyo yubakitse neza kandi ikaba ikoreshwa mu bikoresho bihendutse, mu gihe Ubuntu Linux yo ikundirwa umutekano wa yo ndetse no kuba iboneka nta kiguzi.

Windows: ni yo iri muri za mudasobwa nyinshi kurusha izindi zose ku Isi, bituma ari na yo izwi n’abantu benshi cyane.

Ikoreshwa muri mudasobwa z’amoko atandukanye usibye Apple, ndetse ikagira ubushobozi bwo gukorana na porogaramu nyinshi bitagoranye cyangwa ngo bisabe undi mwihariko.

Muri iki gihe, igezweho ni Windows 10 ivugwaho kuba igaragara neza kurusha izayibanjirije zo mu bwoko bumwe (Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows Vista na Windows 8).

Nubwo Windows ishimirwa kuba ikora neza ibintu byinshi, inengwa kuba itaragira uburyo butekanye kandi budahindagurika nka ngenzi zayo za MacOS na Ubuntu Linux.

Imigaragarire ya Operating System ya 'Windows 10' muri mudasobwa

Apple MacOS: Izwiho kugira ubushobozi buhambaye mu ikoranabuhanga rya mudasobwa rigezweho muri iki kinyejana cya 21 ndetse ikaba igaragara neza.

Kubera ubukorikori n’ubuhanga abakoze iyi ‘Operating System’ bayihaye, byafashije abakoresha za porogaramu ziremereye nk’izifashishwa mu gukora amafoto, video, gushushanya imbata n’ibishushanyo mbonera by’ibikorwaremezo […] koroherwa n’akazi kabo.

Abakoresha ikoranabuhanga bayinengera ko ikoreshwa muri mudasobwa, iPad na iPhone z’ubwoko bumwe bukorwa n’Uruganda rwa Apple gusa.

Ikindi kibazo cya MacOS ni uko ugize ikibazo mu kuyikoresha, bigoranye ko abona umuha ubufasha mu buryo bworoshye kuko bisaba kubona abasanzwe bazobereye ibikoresho bya Apple, na bo bakiri bake cyane ku isi.

Porogaramu z’imikino kuri MacOS ziracyari nke kuko zitorohera abazikora kuzihuza neza nayo.

Uburyo mudasobwa zikorwa n'Uruganda rwa Apple ziba zigaragara nyuma yo gushyirwamo Operating System ya MacOS

Ubuntu Linux: Icyo irusha izindi ‘Operating System’ ni uko yo nta kiguzi isaba mu kuyitunga kandi ikaba iguha ibyo ukeneye byose mu buryo bworoshye cyane.

Nta buhanga bwinshi cyane bugamije inyungu Ubuntu Linux ikoranye kandi ishobora gushyirwa muri mudasobwa iyo ari yo yose ikoreshwamo Windows.

Ubuntu Linux ishobora no gukoreshwa bitabaye ngombwa ko umuntu abanza kuyishyira muri mudasobwa, ahubwo ikaba iri ku kintu icyo ari cyo cyose wabasha kubikaho porogaramu ya mudasobwa nka USB n’ibindi.

Iyi ‘Operating System’ ivugwaho kugaragara neza kandi ikorohereza abakoresha porogaramu zijyana na yo.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko ivugwaho kuba ikoranye ubuhanga butamenyerewe na benshi kandi porogaramu zijyana na yo zikaba ziri inyuma mu ikoranabuhanga ugereranyije na Windows, Chrome OS na MacOS.

Indi nenge ya Ubuntu Linux ni uko itajya ikoreshwaho porogaramu za Photoshop na Microsoft Office, nubwo hari izindi ifite zijya gukora kimwe n’izo zindi.

Ubuntu Linux ishimirwa kuba itekanye kandi idahindagurika, bituma ikoreshwa cyane mu byitwa ‘servers’ kandi ikaba yubakanywe ubushobozi bwo guhangana na virus n’abazikora bagamije kwiba cyangwa kwangiza amakuru y’ikoranabuhanga.

Operating System ya Ubuntu Linux izwiho kudahindagurika no kugira umutekano kurusha izindi

Google Chrome OS: Ni ‘Operating System’ ifatwa nk’iyaje korohereza ku buryo bukomeye abakoresha internet na porogaramu zijyana na yo.

Igitekerezo cyo kuyikora gishingiye ku kuyigira ububiko bwo kuri internet bwa mbere bugezweho kandi bisa n’aho yarenze urwo rugero, kuko isigaye inafasha kuba umuntu yakoresha porogaramu zisanzwe zihariwe na telephone ngendanwa gusa.

Imigaragarire ya Google Chrome OS iroroshye cyane kandi ibereye ijisho ry’abayikoresha ku buryo ntaho ihuriye na MacOS ndetse na Windows.

Ikibazo gikomeye kinengwa kuri Chrome OS ni uko porogaramu za telephone yifashisha zihindagurika cyane kubera ko nyinshi muri zo ziba zarakorewe telephone kuruta mudasobwa.

Chrome OS kandi ntikorana na porogaramu ya Adobe Photoshop, Microsoft Word n’izindi zitunganya video.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko yihariye uburyo bwinshi bukurura abakoresha mudasobwa bashya, by’umwihariko abanyeshuri kuko hari porogaramu nyinshi zikubiyemo imfashanyigisho.

Operating System ya Google Chrome OS izwiho kugira porogaramu nyinshi zifasha abanyeshuri no korohereza abakoresha mudasobwa bwa mbere

Mu gihe ugiye guhitamo ‘Operating System’ ushyira muri mudasobwa yawe ni byiza ko ubanza kureba ubushobozi bwa mudasobwa cyangwa ikindi gikoresho nka telephone, iPad n’ibindi ushaka kuyikoreshamo.

Ni ingenzi kandi kubanza ukareba za porogaramu zose zishobora gukoreshwamo, zirimo iz’imikino n’izikora ibintu byihariye nk’amafoto na video.

Ugomba kandi kureba imigaragarire (Interface) y’iyo ‘Operating System’, applications z’inyongera ifite, uburyo ikorana na telephone ngendanwa ndetse n’ububiko bwo kuri internet.

Icy’ingenzi kandi utagomba kwibagirwa ni ubushobozi bwa yo bwo kudahindagurika, umutekano wa yo n’amavugurura mashya (Updates) zigufasha kurushaho gukoresha mudasobwa yawe neza.


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