Uko ikoranabuhanga ryagize ingaruka ku mitekerereze n’ubuzima bwo mu mutwe

Yanditswe na Dufitumukiza Salathiel
Kuya 10 Ugushyingo 2020 saa 02:38
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Igihe Isi ya none igezemo yubakiye ku ikoranabuhanga rigenda rivumburwa rikanavugururwa uko bukeye n’uko bwije ngo abayituye barusheho kujyana n’ibigezweho, hanoroshywa imikorere y’akazi mu ngeri zitandukanye.

Birishimirwa kuko byorohereza umuntu agakora byinshi mu gihe gito kandi atavunitse cyane, ariko hakanemezwa ko byangiza ubusugire bw’imitekerereze n’ubuzima bwo mu mutwe.

Mu bihe bitandukanye, ikoranabuhanga ryakunze kugaragazwa mu buryo bwiza, bigatuma benshi badafata umwanya wo gushyira mu nyurabwenge ngo bamenye n’uruhande rw’ingaruka mbi ryagize ku buzima bwa muntu n’imibereho ye; bikamurenga bikagera kuri sosiyete abamo.

Uko kudafata umwanya wo kubitekerezaho, hari ubwo bituma abantu bahura n’izo ngaruka zirimo guhindura imitekerereze, imyitwarire n’imigirire ariko ntibasobanukirwe ko ari zo.

Ni bwo uzumva bamwe bagira bati “Ni amajyambere n’ibihe”, abandi bati “Ibibe biha ibindi”.

Ingaruka mbi z’ikoranabuhanga zigaragazwa mu byiciro binyuranye, aho hari izigaragarira mu mitekerereze, iz’imigirire n’imikorere, iz’ubuzima bwo mu mutwe n’imyitwarire, ndetse hakaba n’izigaragarira ku mpinduka ziba ku bice by’umubiri.

Inyandiko ngufi yashyizwe ku rubuga rwa Kid Slox ku wa 8 Gicurasi 2018, yagaragaje ko hari ingaruka mbi z’ikoranabuhanga zigera muri eshanu abenshi batajya banakeka ko rifite aho rihuriye na zo, bakabifata nk’ibizanwa n’impinduka z’ibihe.

Ikigaragazwa ku isonga ni imibanire n’imibereho yo muri sosiyete yahindutse, igasimbuzwa imibanire n’ubuzima byo mu Isi y’imbuga nkoranyambaga.

Umuco karande w’Abanyarwanda uvuga ko ”Ifuni ibagarira ubushuti ari akarenge.” Gusa ibi ikoranabuhanga risa n’iryabihonyoye kuko umuntu kuvugana n’undi, cyangwa bakandikirana mu buryo buziguye, hari abasigaye bumva bihagije ku buryo bitakiri ngombwa gusurana cyangwa kubonana amaso ku yandi ngo baganire.

Kuba ibiganiro byarimuriwe kuri telefoni cyangwa irindi koranabuhanga ririmo n’iry’amashusho byabangamiye zimwe mu ngeri z’umuco muri sosiyete zitandukanye hirya no hino mu Isi.

Nko mu Rwanda, mbere y’uko umugeni ashaka umugabo yajyaga kwa nyirasenge akamuhanura; ariko ubu amuhamagara kuri telefoni cyangwa akamwandikira ku rubuga ati “Ndi hafi gukora ubukwe.”

Inama z’umuryango zakorwaga bahana uwatandukiriye cyangwa bashimira uwagize ubutwari, zirasa n’izigenda zicika intege ku buryo hari abemeza ko bishobora kuzasigara mu mateka kuko ubuzima gakondo bwa muntu busigaye bufatwa nk’ubutajyanye n’igihe.

Abana bajyaga kwa nyirakuru na Sekuru kubaganiriza, babamara irungu no kubafasha imirimo imwe n’imwe; ubu bahugiye mu mikino y’amashusho (video games), filimi no gukoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga.

Na none hari impungenge ko ubutumwa butangwa binyuze mu bimenyetso by’ingingo z’umubiri, uburyo bw’imivugire ndetse no kuvuga by’ako kanya (direct speaking) bishobora kuzahungabana, bitewe no kuba ikoranabuhanga ryaratumye abantu batakiganira amaso ku maso.

Si ibyo gusa kuko abashakashatsi bavuga ko ubu abantu benshi bafite ikibazo cy’ubwigunge n’agahinda gakabije, bituruka ku kuba batakibona abo kubaba hafi ngo babature agahinda kabo.

Uretse abigunze, ngo hari n’abandi bahitamo gushyira ubuzima bwabo ku mbuga nkoranyambaga, kuko ariho basigaye bumva bafite inshuti zibari hafi kurusha muri sosiyete barimo.

Ni ibintu byangirije imitere y’ubuzima nyabwo bwa muntu, kuko ari “Inyamaswa yifitemo kubana n’abandi” muri kamere yayo nk’uko byemezwa n’inzobere mu by’imibanire zitandukanye.

Icya kabiri cyagaragajwe ko ari ingaruka z’ikoranabuhanga ariko benshi badakeka, ni idindira ry’uburezi, aho abanyeshuri benshi bifashisha internet bakopera mu gihe bakora imikoro n’ibizamini, aho gukoresha ubwonko bwabo ngo bavumbure cyangwa bakore ubusesenguzi.

Bivugwa ko abanyeshuri (by’umwihariko urubyiruko) bakoresha internet cyane bajya ku mbuga nkoranyambaga no gukina imikino y’amashusho, bikageza n’aho babikorera mu ishuri.

Ibyo bibangamira imyigire yabo ndetse bikavugwa ko bituma bagira umusaruro w’amanota make mu bizamini n’imikoro.

Gusa hejuru ya byose, abashakashatsi bagaruka ku kuba ikoranabuhanga ryaratumye batakaza ubushake n’ubushobozi byo kugira icyo bavuga ku ngingo zimwe na zimwe no kuzisesengura, ahubwo bakayoboka iyo gufata ibitekerezo abandi bashyize kuri internet bakabyiyitirira (plagiarism).

Ku mwanya wa gatatu, abashakashatsi bemeza ko ikoranabuhanga ryagize ingaruka ku bice by’umubiri w’umuntu [urikoresha] uhereye ku kuba yagira umubyibuho ukabije.

Hari abamara amasaha menshi bakoresha imashini na za mudasobwa ariko ntibafate umwanya wo gukora siporo, bikabatera kugira umubyibuho ukabije, ndetse bigatuma amaraso adatembera neza mu mubiri.

Byagaragajwe ko kandi kumara umwanya munini wicaye imbere ya mudasobwa usibye gutuma umuntu aribwa umugongo, byamutera kuribwa mu ijosi.

Kureba muri “Screen” igihe kirekire birwaza amaso n’umutwe, mu gihe kumvira umuziki muri “ecouteur” bituma umuntu atumva neza, naho guhora ukandisha igikumwe ku matushe (touches) bigatuma gitakaza ubushobozi bwo kumva neza icyo ugikojejeho.

Ikigaragazwa ku mwanya wa kane ni ibyaha bikorwa hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga bikomeje kwiyongera, ndetse n’ubuzima bwite bwa benshi byoroshye kubumenya bitewe n’uko babushyize ahagaragara.

Ibyaha birimo ibyo gucuruza abantu, gusahura amabanki, ivangura n’irondaruhu n’ibyihohoterwa bikomeje kwiyongera ndetse bikavugwa ko bitizwa umurindi n’ikoranabuhanga.

Ibyo byiyongeraho kuba kuri internet ariho hakunze kuba amarembo y’ibyaha by’ubusambanyi.

Urubuga rwa Statistic Brain rugaragaza ko 39% mu ngimbi n’abangavu bakunda kohererezanya ubutumwa buganisha ku mibonano mpuzabitsina, naho abasaga kimwe cya kabiri cy’abari hagati y’imyaka 10 na 20 bakiriye ubutumwa bugaragaza ubwambure.

Ibyo byose bivugwa ko bigirwamo uruhari rukomeye n’ikoranabuhanga, nyamara hari abatarihuza nabyo, bakabyitirira urubyiruko batarebye ikirubitera.

Kuba hari abashobora gukoresha internet bakabona imyirondoro n’amafoto n’ibindi biranga undi muntu batanabimusabiye uburenganzira, abashakashatsi bavuga ko byabangamiye ubuzima bwite bwa muntu; aho amenya ubuzima bwawe, isura n’ibikuranga byose kandi wowe utamuzi.

Icya gatanu cyagaragajwe ni uko ikoranabuhanga ribangamira ubuzima bwo mu mutwe, kuko rituma umuntu asinzira bidahagije, cyangwa akanabura ibitotsi.

Ibyo abashakashatsi babihuza no kuba umuntu ashobora no kubatwa n’ikoranabuganga ririmo internet bikamuviramo uburwayi bw’umutwe buzwi nka “The Chronic Smartphones Stress” buterwa no kurogowa n’abamenyesha n’ubutumwa mu gihe kitagenwe, cyangwa bikaba byabura bigateza agahinda gakabije.

Ikoranabuhanga rishobora na none kubangamira ubuzima bwo mu mutwe bivuye ku gukoresha internet birenze urugero, kuba ariho hantu hasangwa amakuru, kuba rikabiriza ukuri no kwigereranya n’abandi bitera bamwe kugira agahinda gakabije n’ubwigunge.

Bishimangirwa n’urubuga rwa Nature, aho muri Gashyantare 2020 rwatangaje ko abenshi mu rubyiruko bari mu kigero cy’ubugimbi n’ubwangavu, by’umwihariko abakobwa, gukoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga cyane bibatera agahinda gakabije, umunaniro no kwiyangiza.

Umwe mu basesenguye iyo ngingo, Jonathan Haidt, yavuze ko “usibye kuba abashakashatsi benshi basa n’abatekereza ko imbuga nkoranyambaga ari isukari [ari nziza], ko zigira ingaruka mbi k’uzikoresheje cyane gusa; ahubwo izo ngaruka zirenga abazikoresha, zikagera ku muryango n’ibikorwa bya buri munsi.”

Ati "Niba ku kigo umwana wanjye yigaho abafite imyaka 11 baba bakoresha Instagram mu ishuri, ingaruka zizagera kuri buri wese kuko n’abatayikoresha bazaba mu bwigunge.”

Urubuga Human Kinetics ruvuga ko imbuga nkoranyambaga zishobora gutuma habaho na za gatanya mu miryango imwe n’imwe biturutse ku gucana inyuma kw’abashakanye.

Urwo rubuga rwemeza ko hari abaca inyuma abo bashakanye, bakabikorana n’abandi bahuriye kuri izo mbuga, cyangwa akaba ariho gahunda zabo zose zipangirwa.

Human Kinetics inavuga ko hari abakozi birukanwa ku mirimo bashinzwe bivuye ku butumwa runaka bwashyizwe ku nkuta zabo bugasangizwa imbaga ikoresha urubuga runaka, nyamara bunyuranyije n’amabwiriza agenga akazi bakora.

Ku rundi ruhande, raporo Janna Anderson na Lee Rainie basohoye mu 2018, igaruka ku mibereho myiza y’abantu mu hazaza, bagaragaje ko mu bakoreweho ubushakashatsi, hafi kimwe cya kabiri bemeza ko ikoranabuhanga rizagirira Isi akamaro kurusho uko ryazana ingaruka mbi.

Ni mu gihe kimwe cya gatatu bo bavuze ko hazabaho ingaruka mbi zaryo kurusha imimaro ryazana.

Ikoranabuhanga riratungwa agatoki kuba nyirabayazana w'ibibazo byinshi byo mu mutwe

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