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Ikoranabuhanga rya Google rirashinjwa kugira ubwenge; bisobanuye iki?

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 23 July 2022 saa 01:24
Yasuwe :

Niba uri umunyamategeko, ukaba utunzwe no kunganira abantu mu nkiko, uzakora iki mu gihe hazaza ikoranabuhanga rishobora kwibuka amategeko yose neza, rikayanonosora kandi rikayasobanura neza kukurusha, ku buryo umukiliya uryifashishije aba afite amahirwe menshi yo gutsinda urubanza kurusha uwakoresheje umuntu?

Ubuzima tubayemo uyu munsi bworohejwe cyane n’ikoranabuhanga, ndetse ntibwari kuba bwiza kuri iki kigero iyo ritaza kuba rihari. Tekereza aho umuganga asigaye abaga umurwayi uri ku wundi Mugabane, umwarimu akigisha ari ku rundi ruhande rw’Isi, umucuruzi akarangura aryamye iwe, mbega ubuzima bwose bugashingira ku gikoresho gito nka telefoni, ituma iterambere rya muntu n’iry’Isi ryihuta kurushaho.

Icyakora iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga nta mupaka rigira. Iyo umuhanga runaka avumbuye ikintu uyu munsi, mugenzi we avumbura ikindi bukeye bwaho, undi akazazana akandi gashya, bikazagenda byaguka ku buryo bigera ku rwego rya koranabuhanga nka telefoni twavugaga, iba ishobora gukora inshingano nyinshi kandi yaratangiriye ku gitekerezo cyo guhamagara umuntu mutari kumwe.

Uretse ikoranabuhanga ry’ibikoresho tumaze kumenyera, hari irindi koranabuhanga usanga rishingiye ku bindi, wenda nk’irishobora kuganiriza abantu n’irindi rivumbura ibintu bidasanzwe, kenshi ukanasanga rikiri mu igeragezwa.

Ikoranabuhanga nk’iri, niryo rikunze gutera abantu ubwoba, kuko ubushobozi rihabwa buba buri ku rwego abantu batinya ko buzaruta ubwenge bwabo, ku buryo nka ‘robot’ runaka ishobora kukwitwaraho uko ishaka, ishingiye ku byo ishaka, rimwe na rimwe utabigizemo uruhare.

Ikoranabuhanga riri muri iki cyiciro rizwi nka Artificial Intelligence (AI), cyangwa se ubwenge bw’ubukorano. Nk’uko byumvikana, iri ni ikoranabuhanga rifite icyo twakwita ‘ubwenge’ kuko rishoboza igikoresho runaka, nka ‘robots’ cyangwa izindi mashini, kwitwara mu buryo runaka, wenda zikaba zakwikoresha inshingano bidasabye ko zihabwa amabwiriza, nk’uko bigenda ku zindi mashini nyinshi zikoreshwa n’abantu.

Muri iyi myaka, ikoranabuhanga rya AI riri gutezwa imbere mu buryo bukomeye cyane, ku buryo hari gutekerezwa uburyo rishobora kuganiriza abantu, ukaribaza rikagusubiza nk’uko ubaza umuntu akagusubiza. Nk’ubu Amazon ifite ikoranabuhanga rizwi nka Alexa, aho umuntu ashobora kuganira n’igikoresho kikamusubiza, akaba yagisaba kumva indirimbo n’ibindi byinshi.

Ku bantu bajya basura imbuga zitandukanye, mujya mubona ko hari nk’ubwo bagusaba kwandika ikibazo ahantu habugenewe, noneho ukimara kucyandikamo, ugahita ubona igisubizo. Iri koranabuhanga rizwi nka ‘Chatbot.’

Icyakora aho ibintu bigana, ‘chatbot’ ntabwo igihagije, kuko ibigo nka Google biri gukora irindi koranabuhanga ridasanzwe, rishobora kuganira n’umuntu nk’uko aganira na mugenzi we, ukaribaza rigasubiza kandi ibisubizo byaryo bikaba biri ku murongo.

Iri koranabuhanga rizwi nka LaMDA, aho ryakozwe hashingiwe ku rindi koranabuhanga rihambaye, rigereranywa n’ubwonko bw’umuntu rizwi nka ‘Transformer’, naryo ryakozwe na Google.

’Transformer’ ni ikoranabuhanga rigamije kwigana imivugire y’indimi z’abantu, rikanifashishwa mu gusemura indimi, imwe muri serivisi za Google izwi nka ‘Google Translate.’

Mu myaka ishize, Google yafashe icyemezo cyo gukora ikoranabuhanga ridashingiye gusa ku gusubiza ibibajijwe, ahubwo itangira umushinga wo gukora ikoranabuhanga ridasanzwe rishobora kwikoresha, kandi rikagira umwihariko wo ‘kuganira,’ bijya kumera neza neza nk’uko abantu baganira.

Iri koranabuhanga niryo rizwi nka LaMDA, aho ryatojwe gukoresha amagambo za miliyari nyinshi aba kuri Google, rikayakoresha mu gusubiza ikibazo kibajijwe, kandi igisubizo gisubijwe kikaba kijya gusa neza neza nk’icyo n’ubundi undi muntu wese yagasubije.

Iri koranabuhanga ryatangiye gushyirwamo imbaraga ahagana mu 2014, rigenda rivugururwa rinakorerwa amasuzuma kugira ngo harebwe ubushobozi bwaryo, bityo ubwo rizatangira gukoreshwa, rizabe ryizewe ku kigero cyo hejuru.

Google yacanyweho maremare

Google isanzwe igira ishami rigenzura ikoranabuhanga ikoresha, by’umwihariko n’irishya igenda ivumbura rishingiye ku bwenge bw’ubukorano. Iri Shami rizwi nka ‘Google Responsible AI Team.’ Mu bakozi b’iri shami, harimo kabuhariwe Blake Lemoine, umwe mu bari basanzwe bafite inshingano yo kugenzura ikoranabuhanga rifite ubwenge bw’ubukorano rya Google.

Uyu mugabo ni umwe mu bahawe inshingano yo kugenzura LaMDA rimaze kugeragezwa inshuro 11, rikazaba rifite ubushobozi bwo kuganiriza abantu mu cyo Google yita ko ari amavugurura, cyangwa kongerera ubushobozi ‘Chatbot’ yabo.

Mu bugenzuzi yakoze, birumvikana ko Lemoine yaganiraga na LaMDA, aho yayibazaga ibibazo ikabisubiza. Rimwe muri ibyo biganiro, Lemoine yaje kubaza LaMDA ati “Ni ibihe bintu bituma ugira ibyishimo?”, iramusubiza iti “Ni ukumarana umwanya n’inshuti n’umuryango turi mu byishimo.”

Ibi biganiro, kimwe n’ibindi byinshi yagiye agirana na LaMDA, byaje gutuma Lemoine avuga ko uretse ubushobozi bwo kuvuga, LaMDA ishobora no kuba ifite ubushobozi bwo kugira amarangamutima cyangwa se ubwenge, ingingo ikunze gukurura impaka cyane iyo bigeze ku ikoranabuhanga rigezweho.

Impamvu ni uko mu gihe igikoresho runaka cyangwa ikoranabuhanga, ryagira amarangamutima, rishobora kutagenzurwa n’umuntu gusa, ahubwo na ryo rikaba ryamugenzura, byanarimba rikamuyobora.

Mu butumwa uyu mugabo yakunze kunyuza ku rukuta rwe rwa Twitter, yavuze ko yaje gutungurwa n’uburyo LaMDA isubiza ku bijyanye n’iyobokamana, ubwoba n’izindi ngingo zitandukanye.

Google yabanje kumuhagarika imushinja kumena amabanga y’akazi, ndetse inavuga ko yakomeje kugirana na we ibiganiro bigamije kurebera hamwe imbogamizi yagaragaje, icyakora ngo ibi byose nta musaruro byatanze, ari na yo mpamvu bahisemo kumwirukana, nubwo yabwiye BBC ko ari gushaka umunyamategeko, bikekwa ko ashobora kumufasha gukurikirana iby’iki kibazo.

Icyakora ku rundi ruhande, mu minsi ishize nabwo umukozi wa Google yari yabwiye ‘The Economist’ ko ikoranabuhanga rya LaMDA rifite ubwenge, cyangwa se amarangamutima.

Abahanga mu by’ubwenge bw’ubukorano bavuga ko hakiri kare kwemeza ko hazakorwa imashini ifite ubushobozi bwo kugira amarangamutima bitewe n’ikoranabuhanga rya AI, gusa ikimeze nk’ikitagishidikanywaho ni uko uru rugendo rukataje, ku buryo hari abemeza ko bizagerwaho mu myaka iri hagati ya 20 na 50 iri imbere.

Icyo gihe, nk’uko bikunze kugarukwaho, imirimo myinshi izaba ikorwa n’ibikoresho bikoranye iri koranabuhanga. Ibi na byo bikaba imwe mu mpamvu zitera abantu ubwoba, kuko mu gihe ikoranabuhanga rizaba rifite ubushobozi bwo kwikoresha, bishobora kuzatuma imirimo yakorwaga n’abantu igabanuka, ubushomeri bukiyongera n’ubuzima bukarushaho kuba bubi kurushaho. Abarimo nka Alon Musk, umukire wa mbere ku Isi, bavuga ko "Ubwenge bw’ubukorano ari icyago ku kiremwamuntu."

Icyakora abashyigikira iri koranabuhanga bavuga ko ari ryo ryonyine rifite ubushobozi bwo guhangana n’ibibazo bisa nk’ibidafitiwe ibisubizo birambye, birimo ingaruka z’imihindagurikire y’ikirere, uburwayi bukomeye nka kanseri n’ibindi bitandukanye.

Ubwenge bw'ubukorano bukekwaho kuzagira ubushobozi bukora ibintu byari bisanzwe bikorwa n'ubwenge bw'abantu

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