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Uyakomerekeje nkana afungwa imyaka 7: Uburenganzira bw’amatungo n’inyamaswa mu Rwanda

Yanditswe na Iradukunda Serge
Kuya 12 June 2022 saa 11:29
Yasuwe :

Imwe mu nkuru ziheruka guca ibintu mu Rwanda ni ivuga ko umuntu yakatiwe gufungwa imyaka itanu kubera kwica itungo, ibi byabaye ku wahoze ari Umuyobozi w’Umusigiti wa Cyinzovu mu Murenge wa Kabarondo mu Karere ka Kayonza, Musengamana Sadate wahamijwe icyaha cyo gufata nabi amatungo yororerwa mu rugo, kuyakomeretsa cyangwa kuyica.

Uyu mugabo yatawe muri yombi tariki ya 12 Gashyantare 2022 nyuma y’uko ashinjwe kuba yarasanze ingurube nto kuri uyu musigiti yayoboraga akavuga ko haramu yabateye, ubundi atangira kuyikubita biyiviramo urupfu. Nyirayo yahise atabaza ubuyobozi bw’inzego z’ibanze bushyikiriza uyu mugabo Urwego rw’Ubugenzacyaha (RIB).

Nubwo Iman yireguraga avuga ko atishe iyi ngurube abishaka ahubwo yayicyahaga ku nzu y’Imana, Urukiko rwisumbuye rwa Ngoma rwanzuye ko afungwa imyaka itanu kuko ahamwa n’icyaha cyo kwica ingurube y’abandi ndetse rumuca n’ihazabu ingana n’amafaranga ibihumbi 500 Frw.

Iki cyemezo cy’urukiko cyakiriwe n’abantu mu buryo butandukanye, bamwe bavuga ko rwahannye rwihanukiriye mu gihe abandi bo bashimangiraga ko batari bazi ko kwica itungo ari icyaha.

Gushyiraho amategeko arengera inyamaswa no guhana wihanukiriye uwayarenzeho si umwihariko w’u Rwanda kuko bikunze kugaragara no mu bihugu byateye imbere.

Mu 2021 Inteko Ishinga Amategeko y’u Bwongereza yatoye itegeko rigena ko umuntu uhohotera amatungo n’inyamaswa cyangwa se akazibuza amahwemo mu buryo bumwe cyangwa ubundi ashobora gufungwa imyika itanu hashingiwe ku ngaruka ibikorwa bye byagize ku buzima bw’iyo nyamaswa cyangwa itungo.

Umuyobozi w’Umuryango ushinzwe kurengera inyamaswa mu Bwongereza, Chris Sherwood yavuze ko gukaza iri tegeko bizatuma ubuzima bw’inyamaswa muri iki gihugu burushaho kubungabungwa kandi nazo zikarengerwa n’amategeko.

No mu Rwanda hari itegeko nk’iri ndetse rigena n’ibihano ku warirenzeho, Ingingo ya 190 y’Itegeko riteganya ibyaha n’ibihano muri rusange ivuga ko “Umuntu wese, ku bw’inabi, ufata nabi amatungo cyangwa inyamaswa zororerwa mu rugo cyangwa uyatwara nabi ku buryo bubangamira ubuzima bwayo, aba akoze icyaha.”

Ikomeza ivuga ko “iyo abihamijwe n’urukiko, ahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’iminsi umunani ariko kitarenze amezi abiri, ihazabu y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda atari munsi y’ibihumbi 50 Frw ariko atarenze ibihumbi 100 Frw n’imirimo y’inyungu rusange mu gihe kitarenze iminsi cumi n’itanu cyangwa kimwe gusa muri ibyo bihano.

Iyi ngingo ivuga ko iyo gufata amatungo nabi cyangwa kuyatwara nabi byayaviriyemo gukomereka cyane cyangwa urupfu “igihano kiba igifungo kitari munsi y’amezi abiri ariko kitarenze amezi atandatu.”

Iyo icyaha gihindutse ntikibe gufata nabi cyangwa gutwara nabi ahubwo bikaba gukomeretsa no kwica iri tegeko rivuga ko “Iyo abihamijwe n’urukiko, ahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’imyaka itanu ariko kitarenze imyaka irindwi n’ihazabu y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda atari munsi y’ibihumbi 500 Frw ariko atarenze miliyoni imwe.”

Izo mu gasozi zirarinzwe no kugera ku cyari cy’inyoni

Uretse amatungo yo mu rugo arengerwa n’amategeko n’inyamaswa zo mu gasozi mu Rwanda nazo hashyizweho amategeko azirengera no kugera ku cyari cy’inyoni.

Mu 2021 nibwo hasohotse Itegeko rirengera urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima rigena ibyaha n’ibihano ku muntu wese wakoze amakosa agize icyaha kibangamira urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima.

Ni kenshi wumva inkuru zinyuranye hirya no hino mu gihugu ngo abantu bishe inyamaswa y’inyagasozi yaba iyavuye muri Pariki cyangwa se indi, bigateza impagarara.

Urugero rwa hafi ni urw’umugabo w’imyaka 30 wo mu Karere ka Nyamagabe, wafashwe na RIB nyuma yo kwica ifumberi yari asanze muri Pariki ya Nyungwe.

Ibi byakorwaga nta murongo uhamye ariko ku wa 11 Ugushyingo 2021, hasohotse itegeko mu igazeti ya Leta rigamije kurengera urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima.

Ibyaha byiganje muri iri tegeko birimo ibikibangamiye ubwisanzure bw’inyamaswa zo mu gasozi kuko usanga abaturarwanda bakizifata nk’izitagira kivugira bityo uburenganzira bwazo bugahungabanya.

Muri iri tegeko ingigo yaryo ya 58 ivuga ko gutwara cyangwa kwangiza igi cyangwa icyari by’inyamaswa zo mu gasozi aba akoze icyaha.

Iyo abihamijwe n’urukiko, ahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’amezi atandatu ariko kitarenze imyaka ibiri n’ihazabu y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda atari munsi y’ibihumbi magana atanu ariko atarenze miliyoni imwe y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda.

Ingingo irebana no gukura inyamaswa mu ndiri kamere yayo, kuyigirira nabi, cyangwa kuyizerereza, nabyo hari abakunze kubikora bibwira ko bitagize icyaha gusa itegeko rivuga ko mu ndiri kamere yayo, uyigirira nabi cyangwa uyizerereza aba akoze icyaha.

Iyo abihamijwe n’urukiko, ahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’amezi atandatu ariko kitarenze imyaka ibiri n’ihazabu y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda atari munsi y’ibihumbi magana atanu ariko atarenze miliyoni imwe y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda.

Ni itegeko rikubiyemo ibyaha bigizwe n’ibice bibiri birimo ibyaha bikorewe ibinyabuzima ndangasano, ibyaha bikorerwa ahantu hakomye birimo gutwika bihanishwa igifungo hagati y’imyaka itatu n’itanu ariko iyo bikorewe muri Pariki y’igihugu igifungo kikaba hagati y’imyaka itanu n’icumi n’ihazabu y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda itari munsi ya miliyoni zirindwi ariko ntarenge miliyoni 10 Frw.

Amatungo amatungo afatiye runini ubukungu bw’igihugu

Imwe mu mpamvu abantu bakwiye kubungabunga amatungi ni uko ubworozi ari umwe mu myuga imaze igihe mu Rwanda, ibintu bituma kugeza n’uyu munsi ugifatiye runini umubare munini w’abaturage mu bijyanye n’imibereho yabo ya buri munsi, haba mu kubaha amata, ifumbire, inyama byaba ibyo bakeneye ku giti cyabo cyangwa se kugurisha ngo babone amafaranga yo gukora ibindi.

Akenshi mu Rwanda ukunze gusanga umwuga w’ubworozi ujyana n’ubuhinzi ku buryo bidasigana cyane ko na Minisiteri ibireberera ari imwe.

Imibare ya Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi igaragaza ko mu 2020/21 uru rwego rwagize uruhare rungana na 26% by’ingano y’Umusaruro Mbumbe w’Igihugu GDP.

Uru rwego kandi usanga rwihariye 31% by’ibyo u Rwanda rwohereza mu mahanga, nko mu 2020/21 rwoherejeyo ibifite agaciro ka miliyoni 444.8$. mu bijyanye n’ubworozi hagati ya Nyakanga 2020 na Kamena 2020, u Rwanda rwohereje mu mahanga umusaruro w’inyama ungana n’ibiro 1,212,735. Izi zinjije 1,465,652$.

Muri uwo musaruro w’ibijyanye n’inyama inka zari zifitemo uruhare rwa 34%, ingurube zifite 14% inkoko zifite 22%

Muri icyo gihe kandi u Rwanda rwohereje mu mahanga litiro 2,828,730 z’amata. Aya yinjize 4,051,957$.

Uretse ibikomoka ku bworozi u Rwanda rugurisha mu mahanga runagurishayo amatungo atandukanye, nko muri iyo gihe rwagurishije amatungo 279,688 ruyakuramo 9,142,070$.

Akenshi usanga ubworozi bwo mu Rwanda bwibanda ku nka, ingurube, ihene, intama ndetse n’andi matungo magufi.

Imibare ya Minagri igaragaza ko kugeza mu 2020 mu Rwanda habarurwaga inka 1,449,888 zivuye kuri 1,143,231 mu 2011, ihene 2,844,001 zivuye kuri 297,078 mu 2011. Intama zo ni 601,836 zivuye ku zigera kuri 828,836 zari mu Rwanda mu 2011.

Uyu munsi mu Rwanda kandi habarurwa ingurube 1,441,077, inkwavu 801,490 n’inkoko 5,442,152.

Mu 2020/21 umubare w’inka zari mu Rwanda wiyongereye ku kigero cya 5,6% ugereranyije n’Umwaka w’Ingengo y’Imari wa 2019/2020, uw’inkwavu wo wazamutseho 16%, uw’intama uzamukaho 11%, uw’ihene uzamukaho 2% mu gihe uw’inkoko wazamutseho 2.5%

Uko umubare w’aya matungo ugenda wiyongera ni nako umusaruro uyakomokaho wiyongera bigateza imbere aborozi ndetse n’igihugu muri rusange, nko mu 2020 byarurwaga ko u Rwanda rwagize umusaruro w’amata ungana na litiro 891,326,000, uw’inyama ungana na toni 174,904, uw’amagi ungana na toni 8,272 ndetse n’uw’impu zikorwamo ibintu bitandukanye ungana na toni 6,305.

Uku gutera imbere ku bworozi mu Rwanda kwaturutse ku ngamba zitandukanye zirimo gutera intanga, korora kijyambere ndetse na gahunda zitandukanye zirimo na Girinka cyane ko imibare igaragaza ko kuva iyi gahunda yatangira mu 2006 hamaze gutangwa inka 406,776.

Uretse iyi gahunda ya Leta, gutera imbere ku bworozi u Rwanda kandi rubikesha uruhare rw’imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta igenda yoroza abaturage, nko mu 2020/21 imiryango itishoboye yahawe inka 26,614, ingurube 2,366 n’inkoko 41,691.

Uretse uru ruhare rw’amatungo yororerwa mu rugo mu guteza imbere igihugu na ba nyirayo, inyamaswa zo mu gasozi nazo buri mwaka zinjiriza igihugu akayabo binyuze mu bukerarugendo bukorerwa hirya no hino mu gihugu.

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