Uko Mgr Nsengiyumva Vincent yiyeguriye politiki mbi ihatse umugambi wo kurimbura Abatutsi (Igice cya I)

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 28 Kanama 2019 saa 08:15
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Mu 1994 u Rwanda rwacuze imiborogo Abatutsi bicwa amanywa n’ijoro ku buryo mu minsi 100 abarenga miliyoni bari bamaze kwamburwa ubuzima muri jenoside yateguwe n’ubutegetsi bubi n’abambari babwo. Abagize uruhare muri uyu mugambi mubisha, bafite isura nyinshi kandi bari mu byiciro byose bya sosiyete nyarwanda.

Uruhare rwa bamwe mu banyamadini n’amatorero mu mugambi wa Jenoside n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryayo, ntirushidikanywaho kuko uretse abayoboke bayo bijanditse mu bwicanyi bakica bagenzi babo basenganaga, baturanye, hari n’abayobozi bayo bagombaga kwamagana ikibi ariko bakagishyigikira kugeze ubwo intama zabo zisogotwa bareba.

Kuri iyi nshuro, turagaruka kuri Musenyeri Nsengiyumva Vincent, umwe mu bashyigikiye 100% politiki yose mbi y’urwango n’ubwicanyi ya Leta ya Habyarimana, ntiyitandukanye nayo cyangwa ngo agire inama ubutegetsi yari inshuti yabwo magara ngo bureke gutegura no gushyira mu bikorwa ubwicanyi na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Musenyeri Nsengiyumva wari Arkiyepiskopi wa Kigali, kuva mu 1976-1994, yabaye umuyobozi mu ishyaka MRND rya Perezida Habyarimana, aba inshuti magara y’ubutegetsi bwe ku buryo byari kumworohera kugira icyo ahindura ku mugambi wa jenoside wategurwaga.

Mu kiganiro cyihariye na IGIHE, Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo kurwanya Jenoside, Jean Damascène Bizimana, yagarutse birambuye kuri uyu mugabo wibukirwa cyane kuri politiki yo gukandamiza abatutsi no kubabuza uburenganzira mu mirimo no mu mashuri.

Ikiganiro kirambuye

IGIHE: Musenyeri Nsengiyumva Vincent, ni umwe mu bihaye Imana beruye bajya muri politiki aho yari umuyobozi mu ishyaka MRND, mbere yo gusabwa kubivamo na Vatican. Gukora politiki kwe guhuzwa gute no kwijandika mu mugambi wa Jenoside?

Dr Bizimana : Nibyo Musenyeri Visenti Nsengiyumva yagiye muri politiki kuva muri 1976 akimara kugirwa Arkiyepiskopi wa Arkidiyosezi Gatorika ya Kigali, muri 1976 yahise ashyirwa na Perezida Habyarimana muri Komite nyobozi y’ishyaka rimwe rukumbi MRND ryari ku butegetsi ryari rimaze umwaka rishinzwe ku wa 05/07/1975.

Musenyeri Nsengiyumva yavuye muri Komite ya MRND muri 1990 abisabwe n’ubuyobozi bukuru bwa Kiliziya gatorika i Vatican ariko yavuyemo atseta ibirenge, yabaye nk’uweguzwa kuri uwo mwanya w’icyubahiro atifuzaga kurekura. Guhuza uwo mwanya ukomeye wa politiki Musenyeri Nsengiyumva yarimo no kwijandika kwe mu mugambi wa jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bigomba gusobanuka neza tukumva neza uruhare rwe nyarwo muri Jenoside.

Nta kimenyetso simusiga cyemeza ko Musenyeri Nsengiyumva ari muri ba ruharwa bateguye Jenoside nk’uko tubifite kuri ba Colonel Bagosora, Jean Kambanda, Jean Bosco Barayagwiza, Matayo Ngirumpatse n’izindi ntagondwa zari mu gatsiko k’abajenosideri kiyise Hutu power.

Uruhare rwa Mgr Nsengiyumva muri Jenoside ni urwo kuba nk’uwari ku isonga y’abasenyeri ba Kiliziya Gatorika mu Rwanda kuko yiyitaga “Archeveque metropolitain”, bishatse kuvuga ko yari Musenyeri wumvaga ko asumba abandi, yarashyigikiye 100% politiki yose mbi y’urwango n’ubwicanyi ya Leta ya Habyarimana, nta bushishozi agize bwo kwitandukanya n’ikibi no kubwira Habyarimana n’ubutegetsi bwe ko ibyo bakoraga byari ibyaha bikomeye; mbese ngo ababuze gutegura no gushyira mu bikorwa ubwicanyi na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Icyo ni kimwe.

Icya kabiri ni uko Jenoside yateguwe Musenyeri Nsengiyumva abibona, abizi, abikurikira umunsi ku munsi, ari inshuti magara ya Perezida Habyarimana n’umugore we Agatha Kanziga n’abambari babo, ariko aho kubahana nk’umukuru mu bihaye Imana kandi wari mu bavuga rikijyana, yahisemo kubashyigikira muri iyo politiki y’urwango, ivangura, amacakubiri n’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside bituma umugambi wa Jenoside ubwayo ushobora gutegurwa no gushyirwa mu bikorwa mu buryo bworoshye kandi bwizweho bihagije.

Kuba Leta y’abicanyi yarabuze gihanura, ahubwo abagombye kuyihanura nka Musenyeri Nsengiyumva bakayishyigikira batihishiriye, byayihaye imbaraga zo gutegura Jenoside ntacyo yikanga. Uru nirwo ruhare rwe kandi si ruto. Ni ubufatanyacyaha mu itegurwa rya Jenoside cyane cyane ko hagati ya Ukwakira 1990 na Werurwe 1994 ari imyaka yagaragayemo ibikorwa biremereye by’ubwicanyi ku Batutsi nk’ubwakorewe za Muhororo, Bugesera, Mutara, Nasho, Kibuye, Mbogo, Kinigi n’ahandi henshi mu gihugu.

Ibi bikorwa byo gutegura Jenoside no gukora igeragezwa ryayo nta na kimwe Musenyeri Nsengiyumva yigeze yamagana, ntacyo yasabye ko cyahagarara cyangwa ngo asabe ko ubutabera bwahabwa abahemukiye n’abishe ngo babe babibazwa. Iyo rero ushinzwe kurengera abantu kandi yigisha Imana atannye muri ubwo buryo, biha imbaraga abicanyi n’abambari babo.

Musenyeri Nsengiyumva ni umwe mu bari bariyeguriye politiki mu buryo bweruye

IGIHE: Hari ibikorwa cyangwa amagambo Mgr Nsengiyumva yaba yaragiye atangaza byerekana ko ari umwe mu bihayimana bari buzuye ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside?

Dr Bizimana: Ni byinshi. Kimwe mu bikorwa bibi twamuvugaho kandi kizakomeza kuranga umurage mubi yasize kikaba kigaragaza ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside yamurangaga ni uruhare yagize muri 1989 mu kugambanira Padiri Felisiyani Muvara wari umaze kugirwa Musenyeri wungirije wa Diyosezi ya Butare.

Padiri Muvara yabonye ibaruwa ya Vatikani ku wa 30/12/1988 imugira Musenyeri wungirije Mgr Gahamanyi wa Diyosezi ya Butare akaba yaragombaga guhabwa inkoni y’ubushumba ku wa 26/03/1989. Kuba Vatikani yarashyizeho Padiri Muvara w’umututsi guhabwa ubusenyeri ngo azungirize Mgr Gahamanyi nawe w’umututsi byabaye ikibazo gikomeye ku butegetsi bwa Habyarimana no muri bamwe mu bihaye Imana ba Kiliziya gatorika bari barasabitswe n’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside.

Ku isonga harimo Mgr Perraudin na Mgr Visenti Nsengiyumva. Aba basenyeri bombi bakoresheje ububasha bari bafite bahimbira Padiri Muvara icyasha gikomeye ku mupadiri cyo kumubeshyera ko yari afite umwana yabyaranye n’umugore witwaga Veronika Nyirandegeya, ndetse baha amafaranga uyu mugore ngo azabyemeze. Icyo kinyoma bakigejeje ku ntumwa ya Papa mu Rwanda (Nonce) nawe akigeza mu buyobozi bukuru i Vatikani; hahise hakurikiraho gukora dosiye yihuse, bituma Padiri Muvara atumizwa i Roma igitaraganya asabwa kwandika avuga ko aretse ubusenyeri ku bushake, nyamara atari byo biturutse kuri ako kagambane.

Ibaruwa ireka ubusenyeri Padiri Muvara yayisinye tariki 24/03/1989 hasigaye iminsi ibiri gusa ngo ahabwe ubusenyeri, imyiteguro yose irimbanyije i Butare. Icyo gihe cyabaye ikibazo gikomeye, byabaye nk’inkuba ikubise i Butare no mu Rwanda hose. Nyuma byaje kumenyekana uko Padiri Muvara yagambaniwe, ndetse wa mugore wahawe amafaranga yo kumuhimbira ikinyoma, aricuza, abisabira imbabazi, asobanura uko byagenze, anavuga ko umwana we atari uwa Muvara, ko ataranigera aca iryera uwitwa Padiri Muvara, ko ahubwo uwo mwana yamubyaranye n’umuganga w’umurundi wakoraga mu bitaro bya Kigali witwaga Dr Batungwanayo.

Uwashaka kuvuga kuri aka kagambane kakorewe Padiri Muvara bigizwemo uruhare na Mgr Visenti Nsengiyumva, Mgr Perraudin n’abapadiri bari bafatanyije ubwo bugome n’urwango byaba inkuru ndende, ariko byanditsweho cyane na Jean Ndorimana n’izindi nyandiko zitandukanye harimo n’igitabo cyanjye “L’Eglise et le genocide au Rwanda. Les Peres Blancs et le negationnisme” nanditse muri 2001. Ni hambere. N’abandi bashakashatsi barimo Profeseri Paul Rutayisire, Padiri Bernardin Muzungu na Nyakwigendera Padiri Octave Ugirashebuja n’abandi babyanditseho bihagije, kikaba ari ikimenyetso cyerekana icyasha cyakorewe Padiri Muvara.

Icyakora abantu bose bazi kandi bamenye Nyakwigendera Padiri Felisiyani Muvara bemeza ko yari umupadiri w’intangarugero muri byose utari ukwiye gukorerwa akagambane nk’akamukorewe; n’ubwo nta n’undi wese wagombye kugirirwa nabi mu buryo ubwo aribwo bwose.

Padiri Muvara yishwe muri 1994 muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yicirwa i Butare ari padiri mukuru wa paruwasi katedrali ya Butare, nabwo yicishwa n’abandi bapadiri bagenzi be batatu: Etienne Kabera, Tadeyo Rusingizandekwe na Martini Kabalira. Ubu buhamya ku iyicwa rye nabuhawe mu 1997 na Nyakwigendera Padiri Modeste Mungwarareba nawe warenganyijwe bikomeye na Leta za Kayibanda na Habyarimana.

Ntange urundi rugero rwo mu gihe cy’ifungwa ry’abo babeshyeye ko ari ibyitso by’Inkotanyi muri 1990. Mfite ubuhamya bwanditse nahawe na Nyakwigendera Furere Jean Damascene Ndayambaje kandi yanabutanze ahantu henshi mbere yuko yitaba Imana. Furere Ndayambaje yari Umufurere w’umuyozefiti wigishaga Psychologie clinique mu Ishami ry’uburezi rya Kaminuza y’u Rwanda kuva muri 1988. Yavutse muri 1933 agira amahirwe adasanzwe yo kurokoka ubwicanyi bwose bwakorewe Abatutsi kuva 1959.

Mu buhamya yadusigiye agaragaza uburyo muri 1990 yafashwe agafungirwa muri gereza ya Ruhengeri yitwa Icyitso cy’Inkotanyi; nyuma yimurirwa muri gereza ya Kigali. Ageze I Kigali yahasanze abandi Bihaye Imana b’abatutsi bari bahafungiye baregwa nk’ibye barimo ba Padiri Augustin Ntagara, Justin Ruterandongozi, Mfizi Francois, Epimaque Sheriti na Furere Gerard Rwaka wayoboraga Ishuri ry’ubukungu n’ubucuruzi rya Rwamagana. Ku munsi w’icyumweru Mgr Nsengiyumva yaje gusura izo mfugwa no kubasomera misa.

Furere Ndayambaje avuga ko mu nyigisho ye Mgr Nsengiyumva yatutse cyane abihaye Imana b’abatutsi bari bafunze avuga ko bakwiye guhanwa by’intangarugero kuko ngo kuba barabaye ibyitso by’Inkotanyi kandi ari abapadiri n’abafurere biremereza icyaha cyabo. Ngo bakwiye guhanwa cyane kuko banga Perezida Habyarimana, bakaba bananga Musenyeri Nsengiyumva ubwe, ngo bakaba banifuza kumwica.

Mgr Nsengiyumva yakomeje agaragaza ibyaha n’ububi bwa buri wese muri abo bihaye Imana, avuga ko Padiri Ntagara yanditse abeshyera Leta ko ikora ubwicanyi ngo yohereza iyo nyandiko i Roma, ndetse ngo akabeshyera Mgr Nsengiyumva ubwe; avuga ko Padiri Sheriti yari afite isanduku ibitsemo amasasu n’imbunda; ko Furere Gerard bamusanganye ifoto ya Perezida wa Uganda ngo kandi akaba ari mubyara wa Mgr Barnabas wa diyosezi ya Mutolele muri Uganda; avuga ko Padiri Mfizi yacumbikiye Inkotanyi mu ishuri ryisumbuye yayoboraga rya Mukarange.

Yavuze ko Padiri Ruterandongozi yatutse abazamu ba gereza ya Kibungo bahanaga imfungwa z’ibyitso; asoza ashinja Furere Ndayambaje kuba ngo yarakomokaga i Nyamata akaba yarajyanye urubyiruko mu Nkotanyi. Furere Ndayambaje avuga ko Padiri Ntagara yagerageje kugaragaza ko ibyo bashinjwa ari ibinyoma, ariko ko Mgr Nsengiyumva yamucecekesheje.

Furere Ndayambaje JD asoza ubuhamya bwe avuga ko abasenyeri bagiye baza kenshi kubareba, uretse Mgr Gahamanyi niwe wenyine utarigeze aza muri gereza, ko kandi abo basenyeri bemeraga ibyo Leta yabeshyeraga abihaye Imana bari bafunze, uretse Mgr Joseph Sibomana wenyine niwe utarabyemeraga. Ndetse ngo iyo abasenyeri bazaga gushinyagurira izo mfungwa babyita kuzisura, zaganiraga nabo zambitswe amapiungu, nta mpuhwe na nkeya abasenyeri bazigiriye.

Mgr Sibomana niwe wenyine wasabaga ko babakuraho amapingu kandi akagaragaza ubumuntu n’impuhwe. Ubu buhamya bwa Furere Ndayambaje nabwo ni urugero rwivugira rwerekana ubumwe n’ubuhumyi bw’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside Mgr Nsengiyumva Visenti yari afitanye na Leta y’abicanyi.

IGIHE: Bivugwa ko Mgr Nsengiyumva yakoraga politiki y’ivangura afatanyije na MRND, niko mubibona namwe?

Dr Bizimana: Yego kandi ingero mfite ni nyinshi zerekana ko Musenyeri Visenti Nsengiyumva yaranzwe na politiki y’urwango n’ivangura ku Batutsi. Mgr Nsengiyumva yayoboye Komisiyo ya MRND yari ishinzwe imibereho y’abaturage mu gihe cy’imyaka 14. Ni igihe kinini cyatumye yica ibyo ashaka. Iyo Komisiyo ni imwe mu zashyiragaho uburyo abatutsi bakumirwa mu mashuri no mu kazi ku kigero cy’uko ngo batagombaga kurenga 10%.

Iyi politiki y’ivangura n’urwango yanashyigikiwe ku buryo bukomeye n’abarimu bo muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, barimo Profeseri Laurien Uwizeyimana na A. Munyatwari bashimangiye mu nyandiko zabo ko ngo umubare w’abatutsi mu mashuri no mu kazi wari munini ngo ukaba waragombaga gukomeza kugabanywa nturenze 10% birengagije ko abana b’abatutsi nabo bari bafite uburenganzira bwo kwiga nk’ubwa buri Munyarwanda wese nta vangura n’isumbanyabwoko iryo ariryo ryose.

Aka nako ni akaga u Rwanda rwagize rwo kubona abitwaga ko bize, ari amaso y’abaturage, bigisha za kaminuza, nyamara bakaba aribo basobanuraga ko kurenganya abantu hashingiwe ko ari abatutsi wari umurongo wa politiki ukwiye kwemerwa no gushyirwa imbere. Komisiyo ya MRND yayoborwaga na Mgr Nsengiyumva yashyize mu bikorwa uwo murongo. Iyo Komisiyo niyo yari ishinzwe kureba ko politiki y’ivangurabatutsi no kubakandamiza yubahirizwa mu burezi no mu mirimo.

Komisiyo ya MRND ishinzwe imibereho y’abaturage yakoraga igenzura (inspection) mu mashuri yisumbuye yose yo mu gihugu no mu nzego zose z’imirimo zaba iza Leta, Imiryango itari iya Leta n’inzego z’abikorera, basanga umubare w’Abatutsi urenga 10% bagasaba ko birukanwa.

Nigeze kuganira n’umuzungu w’Umusuwisi wabaye umujyanama muri Banki z’abaturage hagati ya 1984 na 1987 ansobanurira ko higeze gukorwa igenzura mu bakozi b’iyo Banki basanga umubare w’Abatutsi ari 16%, basaba ko babirukana bagasigamo 10%, we yerekana ko abo bakozi bafite akamaro kubera ubumenyi bwabo n’umusaruro baha Banki, ariko Leta iranga itegeka ko bakurwamo. Umuzungu yahisemo gusezera aritahira aho gushyigikira ako karengane.

Kuba Mgr Nsengiyumva ariwe wari ukuriye Komisiyo ya MRND yakoraga ako karengane bivuze ko ari ku isonga y’abayoboye ibikorwa byo gukandamiza Abatutsi no kubabuza uburenganzira bwabo bwo kwiga no kubona akazi kababeshaho nk’abandi Banyarwanda. Iyo Komisiyo kandi niyo yari ifite mu nshingano zayo ibirebana n’ikibazo cy’impunzi z’abanyarwanda zarimo benshi b’Abatutsi bari baravanywe ku gahato mu Rwanda mu myaka ya 1959, 1963, 1973 na nyuma yaho bakimwa uburenganzira ku gihugu.

Muri 1987, Inama nkuru ya MRND (Kongere) ibigiriwemo inama na Komisiyo yayoborwaga na Mgr Nsengiyumva yafashe icyemezo ndakuka cyo kwangira impunzi gutaha mu Rwanda mu mahoro, yemeza ko igihugu ntaho gifite kibashyira.

Ku bijyanye n’amashuri, hari abasenyeri banze ko amashuri gatorika na seminari ntoya zikumira abana b’abatutsi, bakabareka bakiga batitaye kuri 10% ryategekwaga na Leta. Abo basenyeri ni Mgr Gahamanyi Jean Baptiste wa Butare na Mgr Joseph Sibomana wa Kibungo. Mu Iseminari ntoya za Karubanda na Zaza, nta vangura ry’abana b’Abatutsi ryabayeho, aba basenyeri barekaga abana bose b’abahanga bakiga, baba abatutsi cyangwa abahutu nta kwita kuri 10%.

No mu nzego z’imirimo za Diyosezi ya Butare n’iya Kibungo nta vangura ryigeze ribaho rikumira abatutsi mu kubonamo akazi nk’uko byakorwaga ahandi. Ariko Musenyeri Nsengiyumva we yanengaga iyi mikorere ya bagenzi be ndetse yategetse ko ku Iseminari ye ya Ndera 10% byubahirizwa kandi akabigenzura nkuko byagendaga mu mashuri ya Leta. Ni urugero rwerekana ko yagize uruhare mu gukandamiza Abatutsi.

Uyu murongo wo gukandamiza Abatutsi Mgr Visenti Nsengiyumva yari awuhuje ku buryo butihishiriye na Mgr Andreya Perraudin wa Kabgayi na Mgr Joseph Ruzindana wa Byumba wakomokaga i Rambura ku musozi umwe na Perezida Habyarimana. Tujye duhuza byombi, tugaye abagize nabi ariko tunashime abakoze neza. Niyo mpamvu rwose dukwiye gushima cyane Mgr Joseph Sibomana kuko aho yabaye hose haba mu Ruhengeri, haba I Kibungo, yabaye intangarugero mu bumuntu no mu buzima bwe nk’uwihaye Imana.

Muri 1962 i Byumba icyo gihe yabarizwaga muri diyosezi ya Ruhengeri hishwe abatutsi 2000. Mgr Sibomana yarabatabarije bituma ikinyamakuru cyitwaga Temps Nouveaux d’Afrique cyandika inkuru cyise ngo” Un eveque hutu arrete le massacre des Tutsi au Ruanda” = Bisobanuye ngo Umusenyeri w’Umuhutu yahagarikishije ubwicanyi bukorerwa abatutsi mu Rwanda.

Muri 1973, Mgr Sibomana yanze ko mu Iseminari nto y’i Zaza abanyeshuri b’abatutsi birukanwa nkuko byakorwaga mu yandi mashuri ndetse afata bamwe mu baseminari arabahungisha, aho imirwano icogoreye abagarura mu ishuri bariga mu gihe mu yandi mashuri ya Kiliziya abatutsi birukanywe benshi bakagana inzira y’ubuhunzi.

Mgr Sibomana yanakiriye abaseminari birukanywe mu yandi maseminari abinjiza i Zaza bariga, bamwe baza gukomeza inzira y’ubupadiri nka ba Nyakwigendera Padiri Dominiko Karekezi wari wirukanywe i Kabgayi; abandi nabo bakomeza ubundi buzima kandi bakorera igihugu.

Aba bihaye Imana bagize neza nabo tugomba kujya tubibuka kandi abanyarwanda bakamenya ibyiza bakoze, ntidufate ababi gusa, kuko Kiliziya yaranzwe n’ababi n’abeza. Niko kuri.

Mu gice cya kabiri cy’iki kiganiro tuzabagezaho iby’uko Mgr Nsengiyumva ari we wahaga Penetensiya Agata Kanziga, umugore wa Perezida Habyarimana, ibivugwa ko yakoraga ubutasi ndetse akagira n’ijambo mu kuzamurwa mu ntera kw’abasirikare bakuru.


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