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Uko byagenze u Bubiligi bugahinduka indiri y’abakoze Jenoside n’abayihakana

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 6 Ukuboza 2022 saa 07:24
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U Bubiligi nk’igihugu cyakolonije u Rwanda, byahoranye umubano wihariye haba mu bya politiki, igisirikare n’uburezi, kuko hari benshi mu myaka yahise baminurijeyo. Ubwo Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yabaga, benshi bahungiye muri icyo gihugu bafataga nk’iwabo ha kabiri, baba abari barokotse cyangwa abakoze Jenoside bakwiye imishwaro FPR imaze kubohora igihugu.

Si ibintu byapfuye kwikora kuba uyu munsi mu Bubiligi hariyo benshi mu bakekwaho uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi cyangwa abayihakana, ku buryo nabo buri ku wa 7 Mata bagira imihago yabo yo "kwibuka bose".

Uruhererekane rwatumye ibyo bikorwa bisugira mu Bubiligi byagarutsweho mu nyandiko y’umunyamakuru Charlotte Wirth, yasohotse mu kinyamakuru Médor ku wa 1 Ukuboza 2022.

Kugeza ubu mu Bubiligi bibarwa ko ubu habayo abayarwanda basaga 13,000. Icyakora, ngo umubare munini wabo wagezeyo nyuma ya Jenoside.

Abo bari mu byiciro bitandukanye: ababayo kubera imirimo itandukanye bakorerayo n’abagezeyo bahunze kubera uruhare bagize muri Jenoside, barangajwe imbere n’ubutegetsi bwa MRND ya Juvénal Habyarimaa.

Si buri wese wari ufite ubushobozi bwo guhungira mu Bubiligi by’ako kanya, uretse n’abanyuze mu bihugu byinshi mbere yo kugerayo. Abo ngo bari biganjemo abayobozi muri Guverinoma, abayobozi mu nzego zitandukanye, abanyamategeko, abaganga n’abandi, nk’uko byashimangiwe n’umwanditsi Yolande Mukagasana, mu kiganiro yatangiye mu mujyi wa Anderlecht.

Abahungaga icyo gihe ari abayobozi kandi ngo bagendaga nyuma yo kweza amasanduku ya Leta, ayo mafaranga bakayakoresha mu kwihisha ubutegetsi bwabashakishaga no gucika ubutabera.

Urubanza rw’ukekwaho uruhare muri Jenoside ruheruka muri icyo gihugu ni urwa Fabien Neretse rwatangiye mu 2019, aza gukatirwa gufugwa imyaka 25.

Birashoboka ko n’abandi bazakomeza gufatwa cyangwa ntibazanafatwe kubera impamvu zitandukanye.

Uruhare rw’amashyaka ya gikirisitu

Uruhare rw’imiryango ya gikirisitu mu mateka ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi rwakomeje gutindwaho, kuva no mu itegurwa ryayo.

Umwe mu miryango yagize uruhare muri aya mahano ni ‘L’Internationale démocrate-chrétienne’ (IDC), ihuriro ry’imitwe ya politiki ya gikirisitu ryashinzwe mu bihugu by’i Burayi mu 1961. Ni izina ryakoreshejwe kugeza mu 1999, riza guhinduka Internationale démocrate centriste.

MRND ya Perezida Juvénal Habyarimana yaje kwinjira muri iryo huriro nubwo n’ubusanzwe amashyaka ya gikiristu y’i Burayi ariyo yagize uruhare mu guhugura Kayibanda Gregoire agashinga Parmehutu mu myaka ya 1957.

Mu Rwanda, IDC ifatwa nk’iyabaye umuvugizi wa MRND mu bihugu by’i Burayi, inagira uruhare mu kwangisha amahanga umuryango RPF Inkotanyi wakuyeho ubutegetsi bw’ishyaka bakoranaga, ryateguye ndetse rigakora Jenoside ndetse bivugwa ko yari ifite ishami mu biro bya Perezida Habyarimana i Kigali.

Uwo muryango mu kumvikanisha impamvu zawo, wavugaga ko RPF yateye igihugu cya gikirisitu ndetse ko ari Abagande, mu gihe yari igizwe n’Abanyarwanda bari barameneshejwe mu gihugu cyabo.

Uruhare rw’amashyaka ya gikirisitu rwogera kugaruka bigeze mu guhungisha abayobozi batsinzwe, ubwo bageraga mu Bubiligi.

Mu gihe cy’umwaka Charlotte Wirth avuga ko byamufashe mu gukurikirana aya makuru, avuga ko yabashije guhura n’uwitwa Jean de Dieu, umwe mu bayobozi babashije guhungira mu Bubiligi nyuma ya 1994. Uyu mugabo avuga ko yabaye mu bantu ba hafi ba Habyarimana ndetse agakora mu bijyanye n’iperereza.

Yahamije ko bagitangira kugera mu Bubiligi, hashyizweho uburyo bwihariye bwo gufasha Abanyarwanda by’umwihariko abari abayobozi mu Rwanda.

Benshi mu batanze amakuru bahurije ku izina ry’uwitwa Eugène Nahimana, nk’umwe mu bantu b’ingenzi bafashaga cyane abantu bageraga mu Bubiligi.

Uyu Nahimana ngo kugeza mu 2015, yayoboraga umuryango ufasha Abanyafurika bashya kwisanga mu Bubiligi, Fédération d’Espoir Afrique (FEDA).

Ni umuryango wemerwa mu Bubiligi na Communauté Française (COCOF) nk’uwita ku gufasha impunzi kwinjira mu buzima bushya, ku buryo wakomeje gukoresha amafaraga uhabwa na leta.

Mu myaka hagati ya 2005 na 2007, ari na yo myaka FEDA yagaragaje konti zayo, uwo muryango ngo wahawe hagati y’amayero 40,000 na 60,000 nk’inkunga ku mwaka.

Aho harimo amafaranga yatanzwe na COCOF, inkunga yatanzwe na Région bruxelloise (ORBEm, ubu yahindutse Actiris), ayatanzwe na Guverinoma muri gahunda yo gufasha abimukira (Fonds d’impulsion à la politique des immigrés – FIPI), n’andi yatanzwe n’ubuyobozi bw’Abafulama (Vlaamse Gemeenschapscommissie na minisiteri y’abafulama ishinzwe imirimo ya Leta).

Eugène Nahimana ngo yari umuntu uzwi mu Bubiligi na mbere ya Jenoside, kuko go yabaye umuvugizi wa MRND mu Bubiligi, akaba n’umwe mu bantu bakurikiranirwaga hafi n’urwego rushinzwe iperereza mu Bubiligi, Sûreté de l’État.

Byongeye, uyu ngo yari umuntu wa hafi wa minisitiri w’umufulama, Rika De Backer wo mu ishyaka rya gikirisitu (Parti social-chrétien, CVP), ryaje guhinduka Parti chrétien-démocrate flamand (CD&V).

Uyu Nahimana ngo yari afite konti mu Bubiligi, yanyuzwagaho inkunga zahabwaga RTLM (Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines), radiyo yabibye urwango rwagejeje kuri Jenoside.

Muri icyo gihe ngo FEDA yateguye ibikorwa byinshi byatewe inkunga na rya shyaka rya gikirisitu ry’Abafulama, bigamije icengezamatwara mu Babiligi ku bibazo byo mu biyaga bigari.

Muri kimwe mu bikorwa byateguwe, minisitiri wo muri CD&V, Brigitte Grouwels w’i Bruxelles, yabaye umushyitsi mukuru mu 2005.

Médor ngo yaje kubaza CD&V kuri iyo mikoranire, ariko iryo shyaka ryari ku butegetsi kuva mu 1958 kugeza mu 1999 no kuva mu 2007 kugeza uyu munsi, ariko ntiryagira icyo risubiza.

Ibikorwa bitandukanye by’uwo muryango byiswe ko udaharanira inyungu byakomeje kwitabirwa n’abantu bashakishwaga n’ubutabera ku ruhare bagize muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, barimo nka Jean-Baptiste Ndarihoranye wabaye Minisitiri w’Ubuzima.

Nubwo u Bubiligi bwanze kumwohereza i Kigali kubera ko yari yaramaze kubona ubwenegihugu, ubushinjacyaha bwaje gufungura iperereza ku ruhare rwe.

Undi mu bakomeje kwitabira ibyo bikorwa ni uwayoboye ibiro bya Minisitiri w’Intebe Jean Kambanda, Shingiro Mbonyumutwa, akaba yari n’umuyobozi wa MDR Power.

Ni umugabo wibukirwa ku ijambo yavugiye kuri Radio Rwanda ku wa 21 Mata 1994, abiba urwango, avuga ko Abatutsi baturutse mu mahanga bagiye kumara Abahutu.

Jean de Dieu yagize ati "Twahoraga twumva amagambo amwe. Ngo nta Jenoside yabaye, ndetse niba yaranabaye yakozwe na Paul Kagame. Ni we wahanuye indege bituma haba ubwicanyi."

Ibyo byose ariko nyamara ngo byabaga bigamije gutera icyuhagiro abanyabyaha, maze abere akaba ari bo bambikwa icyasha.

Imiryango myinshi yashyashyaniraga kubafasha

Bakigera mu Bubiligi, abanyarwanda bafite aho bahuriye n’umugambi wa Jenoside bahitaga binjizwa mu buzima busanzwe.

Médor yatangaje ko yabashije kubarura imiryango idaharanira inyungu igera muri 40 yemera ko hariho umurongo wo guha ikaze abayobozi baturutse mu Rwanda. Mu nkunga bahabwaga harimo n’izavaga mu isanduku ya Leta.

Muri abo bose harimo abakekwagaho ibyaha bya Jenoside, abari mu butegetsi bw’icyo gihe, kimwe n’abari abanyamigabane bazwi ba RTLM.

Mu bagiraga uruhare muri iyo mikorere hagarukamo abayobozi bo mu ishyaka rya gikirisitu mu Bubiligi n’abari abasirikare.

Iyo miryango yose ngo usanga igenda igira ahantu ihuriye nko kuba ikorera ahantu hamwe cyangwa abayobozi bayo bafite uko bahuza ibikorwa.

Jean de Dieu yakomeje ati "Twabaga tuziranye. Benshi muri twe twahoze turi abakozi ba Leta ndetse turwanya FPR. Bakomeje kugira inyota y’ubutegetsi, bakumva ko umunsi umwe bazasubirayo."

FEDA kandi ngo ntiyari yonyine mu kwakira abajenosideri n’abambari babo, kuko na Sofradie, umuryango washinzwe mu 1995 ugamije guharanira ubufatanye, agaciro n’ahazaza h’Abanyarwanda nawo wabigizemo uruhare.

Uwo muryango ngo wari ushyize imbere icyo wise "gufasha Abanyarwanda kwisanga mu gihugu cyabakiriye," wari uyobowe na benshi n’abantu ba hafi ya Habyarimana, bashakishwaga n’ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda n’u Bubiligi.

Nyuma yo kudahanwa batangiye gupfobya Jenoside

U Bubiligi ngo bwahise buhinduka igihugu kigoye uwarokotse Jenoside ubonamo benshi mu bayigizemo uruhare, ariko na bo ntiborohewe, kuko ngo ubwo ari abanyarwanda bose, badashobora guhurira hamwe nk’uko byashimangiwe na Jean-Luc Nsengiyumya.

Abagize uruhare muri Jenoside bahise bashyira imbaraga mu kuyipfobya no kuyihakana.

Mu Bubiligi kandi ni ho hakorera umuryango wiyise Jambo asbl, ugizwe n’igisekuru gishya ku bari abayobozi ku bwa Habyarimana, barimo abahamijwe uruhare muri Jenoside mu rukiko mpuzamahanga rwashyiriweho u Rwanda cyangwa izindi nkiko zo mu Rwanda.

Ni abantu nyamara Jenoside yabaye ari bato, ariko ubu bahakana ibyo ababyeyi babo bakoze.

Charlotte Wirth yavuze ko uyu muryango ukora icengezamatwara ryawo ukoresheje urubuga rwa Jambo News rukorera i Bruxelles ndetse "Jambo ifashwa n’amafaranga ya Leta."

Umuhanga mu kugenza ibyaha muri Roland Moerland muri Kaminuza ya Maastricht, wibanda cyae ku bijyanye no guhakana Jenoside, yavuze ko abahakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi babiterwa n’uko aho babikorera habibemerera, kandi bikomeje gutyo, “amateka y’u Rwanda yakwiyandika bundi bushya."

Jambo yashinzwe mu 2008 ivuga ko ari umuryango uharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu, ko wemera jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, ariko ukanavuga ko hari indi jenoside yakorewe Abahutu mu Rwanda na RDC.

Ibyo bigize igikorwa cyo gupfonya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, kuko hazamo intekerezo z’uko habaye Jenoside ebyiri.

Charlotte yavuze ko mu 2011 na 2012, uyu muryango wahawe n’ubuyobozi bwa Bruxelles amafaranga yo gutegura irushanwa mu bijyanye n’itangazamakuru.

Ibikorwa by’uyu muryago byahurijweho n’abahanga mu mategeko no kugenza ibyaha nka Roland Moerland, umushakashatsi Catherine Gilbert wo muri Kaminuza ya Newcastle n’umwavoka Eric Gillet, nk’ibihakana bikanapfobya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Ku rundi ruhande, ngo usanga isano iri hagati ya Jambo n’abahoze mu buyobozi mu Rwanda ishingiye ku masano yo mu miryango cyangwa ubucuti.

Hazamo nka Léon Habyarimana, umuhungu wa Juvénal Habyarimana akanaba umukwe wa Félicien Kabuga uri kuburanishwa ku byaha bya Jenoside i La Haye mu Buholandi.

Harimo kandi Placide Kayumba, aho Se Dominique Ntawukuriryayo yakatiwe gufungwa imyaka 25 nyuma yo guhamywa uruhare muri Jenoside. Abandi ni abavandimwe Gustave, Ruhumuza na Patrice Mbonyumutwa, abahungu ba Shingiro Mbonyumutwa, wagize uruhare mu kubiba urwango.

Patrice Mbonyumutwa, umunyamategeko wo Luxembourg, aba mu miryango myinshi ihuza abanyarwanda b’impunzi, akanakoresha cyane izina rye rindi nka Rudatinya. Uyu yari no mu baburaniye Fabien Neretse wahamijwe uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, mu 2019 akatirwa gufungwa imyaka 25.

Jambo kandi yiyemeje gukora ibishoboka mu kubaka umubano n’u Bubiligi ndetse n’u Burayi, nk’uko byaje kugaragara mu nyandikomvugo y’inama yayo yabaye mu 2019.

Mu bagize uyu muryango, Laure Uwase wabaye umunyamabanga mukuru wawo akaba n’umunyamategeko, asa n’aho ari we umaze gutera intambwe muri politiki, kuko mu matora ashize yari umwe mu bakandida depite b’ishyaka CD&V.

Aheruka kandi gushyirwa mu kanama k’impuguke kiga ku mateka y’ahahise y’u Bubiligi muri Congo.

Umushakashatatsi Catherine Gilbert wo muri Kaminuza ya Newcastle mu bijyanye na Jenoside, yavuze ko impungenge kuri uru rubyiruko ari uko rushaka guhindura amateka yanditswe, akanyuranya n’ibyabaye.

Yakomeje ati "Ibi bisekuru bishya nta makuru y’umwimerere bifite yo kwibuka kuri Jenoside. Ayo bafite ntajyanye n’ibyahaye mu 1994. Umurongo bafite washyizweho ndetse ukwirakwizwa mu bato n’ababyeyi babo kugira ngo bakomeze guhanyanyaza."

"Kandi mu Bubiligi bakurira mu burezi butajya buvuga ku Rwanda. Nta buryo buhari bwo guhinyuza ibyo bavuga, uretse ubukoreshwa n’ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda bafata nk’umwanzi wabo."

Umwanditsi Yolande Mukagasana we yavuze ko iyo arebye ibyo Jambo ikora, yenda gusuka amarira.

Yagize ati "Nta bana nkigira. Bakorewe iyicarubozo baricwa. Nta basaza banjye ngira, nta barumuna cyangwa bakuru banjye, nta babyeyi, nta mugabo. Ndi njyenyine rukumbi nk’aho navutse njyenyine. Tekereza ko basenya ubuzima ku myaka 40, bakakuvutsa ibyo mwubatse mu buzima bwanyu bwose. Byose byarashize. Guhakana ibyo twabayemo ni ukutubuza kubaho. Nahitamo gupfa."

Yavuze ko abagize Jambo yifuza kubibutsa ko ari Abanyarwanda, ku buryo atabacira urubanza abahora kuba baragize ababyeyi bakwirakwije urwango ku Batutsi, ahubwo ko ari Jenoside yakoze ibi byose.

Avuga ko bakwiye kuzibukira umurongo bafashe, bakisubiza ubumuntu.

Eugène Nahimana yafashije abajenosideri benshi guhungira mu Bubiligi
Laure Uwase ni umwe mu bagize Jambo asbl ihakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

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