Ibimenyetso by’uburyo Kabuga Félicien yabaye umwe mu bacurabwenge ba Jenoside

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 16 Gicurasi 2020 saa 01:09
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Kabuga Félicien ufatwa nk’umuterankunga wa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, yafatiwe mu Bufaransa, bishyira iherezo ku myaka 26 yari amaze yihishahisha, ahunga ubutabera bwari bumutegereje ngo aryozwe ibyo yakoze.

Kabuga w’imyaka 84 ni umwe mu bakekwaho ibyaha bashakishwaga kurusha abandi kuri iyi si. Ni umwe mu bari ku rutonde rw’umutuku rwa Polisi Mpuzamahanga, Interpol, wahigwaga bukware ku byaha birimo Jenoside, ibyibasiye inyokomuntu no gushishikariza abandi gukora Jenoside.

Interpol ivuga Kabuga nk’umugabo mugufi wa metero na santimetero 67, wavutse tariki 19 Nyakanga 1935. Avuga neza indimi zirimo Ikinyarwanda, Igifaransa, Ikidage n’Icyongereza.

Yahizwe kenshi n’urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda (ICTR) ariko rwafunze imiryango rutaramufata, kugeza ubwo kumuhiga bishyikirijwe urugereko rwasimbuye urwo rukiko. Abanyamerika bageze aho bemera gushyiraho miliyoni eshanu z’amadolari ku muntu uzamufata cyangwa agatanga amakuru aganisha ku kumufata ariko ntaraboneka.

Kabuga, umuherwe wiyegereje ingwe

Kumenya Kabuga neza biratuma umuntu asobanukirwa uburyo umugambi wa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi wanogejwe neza ukanaterwa inkunga n’abahezanguni bagera kuri 50 guhera mu myaka ya 1990. Icyo gihe Kabuga yari umucuruzi ukomeye mu gihugu, uvuga rikijyana mu butegetsi bwa Perezida Juvénal Habyarimana.

Kabuga yari umucuruzi ukomoka i Byumba mu majyaruguru y’igihugu, ibice byakomokagamo ibindi bikomerezwa by’icyo gihe. Yari atunze hegitari 350 z’icyayi n’uruganda rukora ifu y’ingano.

Yari n’umushoramari wubaka inzu zigezweho i Kigali. Inyubako ye yo ku Muhima ni yo yagombaga kuba ihahiro rinini [shopping mall] ya mbere mu Rwanda. Iyo nyubako yari kuba iherereyemo hoteli y’ibyumba 120, ibiro 80 n’ihahiro ryagutse. Yubatse indi nzu nziza i Remera yari ifite na Piscine yabagamo we n’umuryango we w’abana 11.

Abanyarwanda bavuga ko uhagarikiwe n’ingwe avoma, Kabuga na we ibyo yakoraga byose ingwe yabaga imuri iruhande kuko yari yarahanye nayo igihango gikomeye.

Uyu munyemari yari yariyegereje benshi mu bantu bari bakomeye mu gihugu ahereye mu miryango yabo. Abakobwa be babiri bari barashyingiranywe n’abahungu ba Perezida Habyarimana. Abandi bakwe be babiri bari abantu bakomeye mu gihugu barimo Augustin Ngirabatware wabaye Minisitiri w’igenamigambi guhera mu 1990 kugeza mu 1994 n’undi witwa Fabien Singaye.

Singaye yari umunyamabanga wa kabiri muri Ambasade y’u Rwanda mu Busuwisi. Yari intasi ya Leta ya Habyarimana ishinzwe gucungira hafi Abatutsi batavuga rumwe na Leta babaga hanze, bateguraga gutahuka mu gihugu cyabo ku ngufu. Ibyo byamubashishaga gukorana bya hafi na Paul Barril wari umuyobozi wa jandarumori (gendarmerie) mu Bufaransa.

Kabuga yakomeje kwiyegereza ya ngwe yari imuhagarikiye ubwo umukobwa we witwa Winnie yarongorwaga n’Umunyamabanga Mukuru w’Interahamwe, Eugène Mbarushimana.

Ku giti cye kandi Kabuga yafatwaga nk’umujyanama wihariye wa Perezida Habyarimana mu bijyanye n’imari.

Ibyo bikomerezwa byose by’ingoma byari byibumbiye mu gatsiko kiswe ‘Akazu’, kari kayobowe n’umugore wa Perezida ari we Agathe Kanziga, kagizwe n’abasirikare bakuru, abategetsi bakuru, abacuruzi n’abayobozi b’amabanki bake.

Akazu mu mugambi wa Jenoside

Mu kazu niho hagiye hanogerezwa imigambi y’uburyo bwo gutera inkunga intambara yo kurwanya FPR Inkotanyi yari yatangije urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu.

Ni intambara yari ihenze kandi isanduku ya Leta yasaga n’irimo ubusa, dore ko byahuriranye n’ubukene igihugu cyari gifite, imanuka ry’ibiciro n’intambara y’ubutita yari iri kurangira ku Isi.

Leta nta mafaranga yari ifite ahubwo yari ku gitutu cyo gushyira mu bikorwa imyanzuro yari yarafatiwe n’Ikigega Mpuzamahanga cy’Imari (IMF), cyari cyemeye kuyiguriza. Mu myaka itatu gusa u Rwanda amadeni ya Leta yari amaze kuva kuri miliyoni 500 z’amadolari ageze kuri miliyari y’amadolari.

Nta yandi mahitamo Habyarimana na Leta ye bari bafite atari ukwemera amabwiriza y’abaterankunga mpuzamahanga n’ibihugu bikomeye, yo kwemera amashyaka menshi.

Amafaranga ya IMF yazaga afite inzego agomba kujyamo zihariye. Ibyo byabangamiye Leta kuko yifuzaga ko amafaranga menshi ajya mu gisirikare no kurwana intambara. Byatumye Akazu gategura undi mugambi, kagafata ibikoresho cyangwa amafaranga yaje agenewe ibindi kakabijyana mu gisirikare.

Nk’iyo Minisiteri y’ubuzima yabaga yatumije imbagukiragutabara, zahabwaga Minisiteri y’ingabo, cyangwa Minisiteri yo gutwara abantu n’ibintu yatumiza imodoka zikajyanwa mu ngabo.

Abaterankunga ba Leta baje kumenya ayo manyanga barasakuza, ariko ntibyagira icyo bitanga.

Pierre Galand wahoze ari umusenateri mu Bubiligi, avuga ko mu 1992 mu mafaranga Leta yinjizaga ku mwaka, igisirikare cyakoreshaga 51 %.

Akazu kashatse ubundi buryo bwo gutera inkunga no gushakira ibikoresho Interahamwe, bayobya imisoro ku byinjiye mu gihugu.

Ubwo Galand yakoraga igenzura kuri konti za Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda mu 1997, uwahoze ari umuyobozi mukuru ushinzwe gasutamo yamusobanuriye uburyo Akazu kari karashyizeho, agira ati “Hari agace gato k’ikibuga cy’indege katakorwaho kari kagenewe gucishwamo ibicuruzwa bitanyujijwe kuri gasutamo”.

Akomeza agira ati “Umuryango wa Habyarimana, ni ukuvuga umugore we na musaza we nibo bari barashyizeho ako gace. Nibo bakaga imisoro ibyo bicuruzwa hanyuma bakabijyana ku isoko gushakisha amafaranga azakoreshwa mu guha ibikoresho Interahamwe.”

Abagize Akazu batangiye no kwinjira muri sosiyete z’ubucuruzi bashakisha amafaranga yo gutera inkunga Interahamwe. Leta yagenzuraga bya hafi inzego zikomeye nk’ingufu, gutwara abantu n’ibintu, amabanki n’ibindi. Nta na kimwe cyakorwaga kitazwi n’ishyaka MRND ryari ku butegetsi.

Guhera mu 1992, Kabuga afatanyije n’Akazu batangiye kwinjirira sosiyete za Leta bagamije kunyereza amafaranga ku nyungu zabo bwite. Mu zo bahereyemo harimo uruganda rw’ibibiriti rwa Sorwal rwari i Butare.

Tariki 13 Gashyantare 1992, Alphonse Higaniro wahoze ari Minisitiri wo gutwara abantu n’ibintu, akaba umwe mu bagize Akazu, yagizwe Umuyobozi Mukuru wa Sorwal. Uyu Higaniro umugore we yari umukobwa w’umuganga bwite wa Perezida Habyarimana.

Higaniro akigera muri Sorwal, ibaruramari yararihinduye. Hari igice cy’ibyakorwaga na Sorwal yafashe akajya abiha abacuruzi baranguza bakabitwara bishyuriye kuri sheki zitazigamiwe. Abo bacuruzi barahindukiraga bakaranguza n’abandi bacuruzi badandaza ariko abo bakabiri bo bakishyura amafaranga. Ayo mafaranga avuyemo yarakusanywaga akajya kwifashishwa mu guha imyitozo Interahamwe.

Abo bacuruzi baranguza bahembwaga kwemererwa gushora amafaranga yabo mu bundi bucuruzi bwunguka cyangwa bakemererwa kuguriza abandi amafaranga ku nyungu. Benshi babikiriyemo.

Sorwal kandi yaje guha akazi bamwe mu Nterahamwe ndetse inyubako zayo zakoreshwaga mu myitozo, n’imodoka zayo zirimo iyo mu bwoko ba Pajero 4 × 4 na Minibus zifashishwaga mu kubatwara.

Ibigo bigo by’ubucuzi n’inganda nabyo byarifashishijwe mu gutera inkunga Interahamwe. Ibyo birimo nka Cimerwa, Ocir-Thé, Magerwa, Electrogaz na Onatracom zose zashyizwe mu maboko y’abari bashyigikiye Interahamwe. Ni ukuvuga ko bashakishaga uko bafasha uwo mutwe cyangwa bagatanga inkunga y’amafaranga yo kuwufasha.

Benshi muri abo bateye inkunga umugambi wa Jenoside ntibagejejwe mu butabera uretse Alphonse Higaniro, wafatiwe mu Bubiligi mu 1995 akaza gukatirwa igifungo cy’imyaka 20 n’urukiko rw’i Bruxelles mu 2001.

Toni 25 z’imihoro n’imigabane muri RTLM

Igice cya mbere cy’inkuru z’uruhererekane ikinyamakuru Le monde kise “ Félicien Kabuga, le grand argentier des massacres” kivuga ko Interahamwe Leta yaje gusanga zidahagije ngo umugambi wa Jenoside ushyirwe mu bikorwa. Hari hakenewe igikoresho kibafasha gukora ubukangurambaga mu baturage.

Ni isomo ryari ryaravuye mu igerageza rya Jenoside ryabereye mu Bugesera mu ijoro ryo kuwa 4 rishyira ku wa 5 Werurwe 1992. Uwo munsi amagana y’abatutsi yishwe n’abaturanyi nyuma y’ubukangurambaga bwari bwakozwe na Radiyo Rwanda.

Nyuma yo kubona akamaro ko kwifashisha radiyo mu bukangurambaga, mu 1993 Perezida Habyarimana yashyigikiye umushinga wo gutangiza radiyo yigenga igomba gukwirakwiza amatwara y’abahezanguni b’abahutu yari amaze kumenyekana nka Hutu Power. Aha niho Félicien Kabuga ku gite cye yagize uruhare rugaragara mu ishingwa ry’iyo radiyo yiswe Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM).

Habyarimana ni umwe mu bari abanyamigabane bakuru muri uwo mushinga.

Kabuga yatanze amafaranga kugira ngo iyo radiyo itangire ndetse n’abandi benshi mu bari bagize Akazu batera inkunga. Alphonse Higaniro n’umugore we nabo bari barimo.

Kabuga yagiye gushakisha indi nkunga mu muryango Fondation Konrad-Adenauer wari ushamikiye ki ishyaka ryo mu Budage CDU (Parti Démocrate-Chrétien Allemande).

Ingengo y’imari yo gutangiza RTLM yakusanyijwe isaga ibihumbi 450 by’amayero. Mu kanya nk’ako guhumbya, iyo radiyo yari imaze kuba ikimenyabose biturutse ku ndirimbo zigezweho yakinaga n’abashyushyarugamba bayo bari intyoza mu gukwirakwiza urwango, bashishikariza kwanga Abatutsi.

Kabuga yongeye kwigaragaza mu mugambi wa Jenoside ajya kugura amatoni y’imihoro. Byari mu Ugushyingo 1993, icyo gihe sosiyete ya Kabuga yinjije mu gihugu toni 25 z’imihoro ivuye mu Bushinwa, nyuma muri Werurwe 1994 agura indi mihoro ibihumbi 50. Ubwo Jenoside yatangiraga tariki 7 Mata, Kabuga we ibyabaga ntibyamutunguye.

Yafashe umuryango we harimo n’umugore we (umututsikazi), abahungishiriza muri Ambasade y’Abafaransa, aho abandi bategetsi bakomeye b’icyo gihe bahungishirije imiryango yabo.

Nyuma y’iminsi itanu ingabo z’u Bufaransa zahungishije imiryango y’ibyo bikomerezwa ziyijyana i Burayi, naho Kabuga we kuva ubwo atangira kwihishahisha, kugeza kuri uyu wa 16 Gicurasi ubwo yafatirwaga mu Bufaransa.

Kabuga Félicien ashinjwa uruhare runini mu gutera inkunga Jenoside, harimo kugura imihoro yakoreshejwe mu kwica Abatutsi
Imihoro yakoreshejwe cyane muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, hari abarokotse benshi bagendana inkovu zayo
Ubwo abakoraga Jenoside bari bamaze guhunga, imihoro yicishijwe Abatutsi yasigaye yandagaye hirya no hino
Angelique Numukobwa ni umwe mu barokokeye i Nyanza mu 1994, agendana inkovu z'umuhoro
Interahamwe zajyaga kwica zitwaje imihoro, nk'umwe mu misanzu Kabuga yatanze muri Jenoside
Kuri za bariyeri, Interahamwe ntizatanaga n'imihoro

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