U Rwanda ruhanze amaso inganda mu rugendo rwo kuzahura ubukungu nyuma ya Coronavirus

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 18 Ukuboza 2020 saa 12:32
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Mu gihe u Rwanda n’Isi muri rusange biteguye kurandura icyorezo cya Coronavirus nyuma y’ivumburwa ry’inkingo zitandukanye, nta gushidikanya ko ingaruka zacyo ku bukungu ntaho zenda kujya, ndetse bamwe mu bahanga mu by’ubukungu bavuze ko ibihugu byiganjemo ibikiri mu nzira y’iterambere, birimo n’u Rwanda, bishobora kuzahangana n’izi ngaruka mu gihe cy’imyaka irenga 10.

Ibi biramutse bigenze gutya, u Rwanda rwaba rufite ibyago byo kutagera ku ntego z’iterambere rwiyemeje kuzaba rwagezeho muri 2024, zizwi nka NST1.

Mu rwego rwo kubyirinda rero, ibimenyetso biragaragaza ko leta y’u Rwanda iri gushyira imbaraga nyinshi mu ivugururwa rw’urwego rw’inganda, kugira ngo ruzazibe icyuho kinini cyane kizasigwa n’ihungabana ry’ubukungu ryitezwe ku Isi yose, mu myaka izakurikira iki cyorezo.

Urwego rw’inganda mu Rwanda rwari rusanzwe ruzamuka ku muvuduko ushimishije, kuko nko mu mwaka ushize rwagize uruhare rungana na 18% ku musaruro mbumbe w’igihugu, rukurikira urwego rw’ubuhinzi rwari rwagize 24% n’urwa serivise rwari ruyoboye na 49%.

Leta y’u Rwanda kandi yateganyaga kugira ngo igihugu kizagere ku ntego cyiyemeje muri gahunda ya NST1, urwego rw’inganda rwakagombye kuzaba rugira uruhare rungana na 34% ku musaruro mbumbe w’igihugu mu mwaka wa 2024.

Kugira ngo rero ibi bigerweho, igihugu kirasabwa gukora ibishoboka byose kigakemura ibibazo uruhuri biri muri uru rwego, byiganjemo ibyo kutagira ubushobozi bw’abakozi, gukora ibintu bicye ugereranyije n’ubushobozi bw’inganda ndetse no kugabanya ibiciro birimo iby’amashanyarazi bigituma uru rwego rusohora ibicuruzwa bihenze, bidashobora guhangana n’ibicuruzwa biturutse hanze y’u Rwanda ku isoko.

Ikibazo cy’umusaruro mucye w’inganda kandi ntigishingira ku ibura ry’isoko, kuko n’ubwo inganda nyinshi zisohora umusaruro mucye ku kigero zakabaye zikoreraho, iyo witegereje isoko ry’u Rwanda usanga rikinjiraho ibicuruzwa byinshi cyane kandi bisa neza neza n’ibyo inganda z’imbere mu gihugu zakabaye zikora.

Nk’urugero, turebye nko ku muceri, inganda zo mu Rwanda zitunganya gusa umusaruro ungana na 45% by’ukenewe mu gihugu, nyamara hari inganda z’umuceri 25 mu gihugu hose zikorera ku bushobozi buri munsi ya 25% by’ubwo zagenewe gukoreraho.

Iki kibazo kandi kiri no mu musaruro w’ibigori, aho inganda zitunganya ibigori zikora gusa umusaruro ungana na 35% by’ukenewe wose mu gihugu.

Ku rundi ruhande, inganda zikora isukari zitunganya 11% by’umusaruro ukenewe mu gihugu, izikora imbaho zigatunganya 4%, imyenda bikaba 10%, mu gihe ku bikoresho bya pulasitike ari 11%.

Muri rusange rero, impuzandengo igaragaza ko inganda nyinshi zo mu Rwanda zitunganya umusaruro uri hagati ya 30% na 50% by’ubushobozi bwazo, kandi atari uko isoko ryabuze, ahubwo kubera izindi mbogamizi nyinshi zikibangamiye urwego rw’inganda mu Rwanda.

Bamwe mu bafite inganda n’abaziyobora bavuga ko zimwe mu mbogamizi bagihura na zo zirimo ubushobozi bucye bw’abakozi. Andrew Kanyonya, ukora mu ruganda rwa Kigali Designers and Outfitters rukora imyenda, yagize ati “aho tugeze amagingo aya ni ku rwego dukeneye guhererekanya ubumenyi kuko ikibazo cy’ubumenyi bucye ari imbogamizi ikomeye ku rwego urwo ari rwo rwose”.

Usibye ikibazo cy’ubumenyi, urwego rw’inganda runabangamiwe cyane no kubona igishoro kinini, kiba gikenewe cyane muri uru rwego kuko rubarwa nk’ishoramari ry’igihe kirekire.

Leta yashyizeho Ikigega gishinzwe gufasha inganda kubona igishoro cy’igihe kirekire, gusa umubare w’abakigana uracyari muto, ndetse Kanyonga akavuga ko biterwa n’uko ibigenderwaho kugira ngo umuntu ahabwe inguzanyo bigoranye kubibona, cyane cyane ku nganda zikishakisha.

Nk’urugero, kugira ngo uruganda ruhabwe inguzanyo ingana na miliyoni 100Frw, rusabwa kwerekana ingwate ifite agaciro ka 120% by’inguzanyo ikenewe, ibintu Kanyonga avuga ko “nta nganda nto zapfa kubishobora”.

Hejuru y’ibyo byose, inganda nto zivuga ko zigorwa cyane n’ihangana ryazo n’inganda nini, zo usanga zarahawe ibizifasha birimo nko gusonerwa umusoro, kandi n’ubundi zisanzwe ari inganda zifite igishoro kinini kiziha amahirwe kuruta inganda nto yo kwikubira isoko.

Mu rwego rwo gukurura abashoramari, leta y’u Rwanda yashyizeho gahunda yo gukuraho umusoro w’imyaka irindwi ku bashoramari bazanye mu gihugu arenga miliyoni 50$.

Abafite inganda ziciriritse bavuga ko n’ubwo iyi gahunda ifasha mu kuzana abashoramari banini mu gihugu, inasenya urwego rw’inganda zikiri nto kuko iyo izo mu Rwanda zihanganye n’izavuye hanze zifite igishoro kinini kandi zisonewe umusoro, biba bigoye ko zazitanga ku isoko.

Ibi byose bigaragazwa nk’ibibazo bibangamiye inganda zo mu Rwanda, ari na yo mpamvu uru rwego rukijegajega, n’ubwo rwitezweho byinshi n’igihugu.

Leta iri gukora iki kuri ibi bibazo?

Nta gushidikanya ko urwego rw’inganda ari rwo ruhanzwe amaso mu kuzahura ubukungu bw’igihugu butazoroherwa n’ingaruka buzagirwaho n’icyorezo cya Coronavirus.

Uru rwego rusanzwe ruzwiho gutanga akazi ku bantu benshi, cyane cyane urubyiruko. Iki cyiciro cy’abaturage ni kimwe mu bizagerwaho cyane n’ingaruka z’uhungabana ry’ubukungu, na cyane ko nk’urwego rw’ubukerarugendo, rwari rusanzwe rutanga akazi ku bakozi barenga 142,000 barimo na nyakabyizi, na rwo rwazahaye cyane muri ibi bihe.

Nta gushidikanya rero ko mu gihe urwego rw’inganda rwaba ruzanzamutse, rushobora kuziba icyuho kizasigwa n’urwego rw’ubukerarugendo mu gutanga imirimo, bikarinda abantu kubura akazi cyangwa gusubira mu mirimo nk’ubuhinzi isanzwe n’ubundi ikorwa n’igice kinini cy’abanyarwanda.

Ni muri urwo rwego rero muri gahunda yo guteza imbere inganda, leta imaze iminsi mu mavugurura azatuma uru rwego rutanga umusaruro wifuzwa, na cyane noneho ko rugiye gukenerwa kurusha uko byari biteganyijwe.

Mu rwego rwo gusobanukirwa ibibazo byose biri mu rwego rw’inganda mu Rwanda, ndetse no kurebera hamwe ibyakorwa kugira ngo bikemuke, Minisitiri w’Intebe aherutse gushyiraho Akanama kari gashinzwe kuzenguruka mu nganda zose ziri mu gihugu kumva ibibazo byazo kugira ngo bizashakirwe ibisubizo.

Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Urwego rw’Igihugu rw’Iterambere, RDB, Clare Akamanzi, aherutse gutangaza ko aka kanama kashyizweho kugira gasesengure ibibazo biri mu rwego rw’inganda mu Rwanda.

Ati “Twahawe inshingano na Minisitiri w’Intebe zo kureba ibicuruzwa igihugu kigomba kuba gifite, ndetse no gukora uko dushoboye tugaha imbaraga inganda zibikora”.

Mu nganda zagaragajwe nk’iz’ingenzi cyane ku buryo leta yiteguye kuzifasha mu buryo bwisumbuye, harimo izikora ibikoresho by’ubwubatsi, izitunganya umusaruro ukomoka ku buhinzi n’ubworozi ndetse n’izitunganya ibikoresho by’isuku.

Mu byemezo by’Inama y’Abaminisitiri Idasanzwe iherutse guterana kuri uyu wa 14 Ukuboza, hemejwe ko leta ishyiraho gahunda igamije gufasha urwego rw’inganda kongera kuzanzamuka. Iyo gahunda iteganya ko leta izajya isonera umusoro mu gihe cy’imyaka ibiri, inganda zikora mu nzego zagarutsweho mu rwego rwo kugabanya ikiguzi cyo gushinga uruganda mu Rwanda, dore ko kigaragazwa nk’ikikiri hejuru.

Iyi gahunda iteganya kandi ko leta izajya isonera umusoro ibikoresho byose biturutse hanze bije kubaka inganda nshya mu Rwanda. Mu gihe ibikoresho byakoreshejwe mu kubaka urwo ruganda byaguzwe mu Rwanda, bizajya bisonerwa umusoro ku nyongereragaciro (VAT).

Urwego rw’ubwubatsi, na rwo rusanzwe rutanga imirimo myinshi, na rwo rwashyiriweho gahunda yihariye, aho imishinga minini y’ubwubatsi izajya isonerwa umusoro nyongereragaciro ku bikoresho byaguze mu Rwanda mu gihe cy’imyaka itatu. Ibi byitezweho kuzamura ingano y’ibikoresho bigurirwa inganda z’ubwubatsi zo mu Rwanda, bityo zigatera imbere mu buryo bworoshye ari na ko hagabanuka icyuho cy’ibitumizwa mu mahanga, aho ibikoresho by’ubwubatsi biri mu bigize ingano nini y’ibituruka hanze.

Umuyobozi Mukuru Wungirije wa RDB, Zephanie Niyonkuru, yatangaje impamvu hashyizweho izi ngamba ari ukugira ngo bashishikarize abashoramari gushora mu gihe cya vuba.

Yagize ati “Intego ni ugushyiraho ingamba zikurura abashoramari kugira bashore imari aho gutegereza. Ubwo ni bwo buryo bwonyine bwo kurema imirimo mishya, kongerera ubushobozi bw’inganda zacu ndetse no kongera umusaruro wazo”.

Niyonkuru yavuze ko mu gushyiraho iyi gahunda batibanze gusa ku nganda zitangira, ahubwo ko banakoze ubusesenguzi ku bibazo inganda zisanzwe zifite bituma zidatanga umusaruro uhagije.

Yagize ati “twasuye zimwe muri izo nganda, twashakaga gushyiraho gahunda rusange izafasha inganda zisanzweho n’inganda nshya. Twaje kubona ko inganda zisanzweho zikoresha ubushobozi bucye [ugereranyije n’ubwo zifite] Twanarebeye hamwe ibisubizo bakeneye”.

Usibye kongera umubare w’abazabona akazi, iyi gahunda iramutse igeze ku ntego yayo yo kongera umubare w’inganda mu Rwanda, byagira ingaruka nziza ku bukungu kuko uko inganda ziba nyinshi, ari na ko zongera ubwiza n’ubwinshi bw’umusaruro, bikagabanya ikiguzi cy’ibyo u Rwanda rutumiza hanze n’ibyo rwoherezayo ndetse bikanongera imisoro nyuma y’igihe cy’isonerwa.

Izi mpinduka ziri gushyirwa mu bikorwa mu gihe n’ubundi urwego rw’inganda ruri mu zahungabanyijwe cyane n’icyorezo cya Coronavirus, kuko nko mu mezi atandatu ya mbere y’uyu mwaka, umusaruro w’uru rwego wagabanutseho 19%, kuko zimwe mu nganda zafunze imiryango mu bihe bya gahunda ya Guma mu Rugo, izindi zikabura amasoko kuko abantu batari bagihaha nk’uko byari bisanzwe.

Icyanya cyahariwe inganda mu Rwanda gicumbikiye inganda nyinshi, ziha akazi abarenga 7,000 bahabyukira buri gitondo bagiye gukora mu nganda zihubatse

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