Raporo yo mu 2000: Uko impuguke zasesenguye ishwanyagurika ry’umubano w’u Rwanda na Uganda

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 24 Kamena 2019 saa 07:21
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Umubano w’u Rwanda na Uganda uhera hambere mu gihe cya mbere y’ubukoloni. Ahanini wakunze kurangwa n’ubuhahirane busesuye. Gusa amateka yo mu myaka 25 ishize agaragaza ko uguhangana kwakunze kuranga umubano wabyo, inshuro nyinshi kugaturuka kuri Uganda yakunze gufata u Rwanda nk’insina ngufi.

Mu gihe muri iyi minsi hakomeje umwuka mubi hagati y’ibihugu byombi aho u Rwanda rushinja Uganda gukorera iyicarubozo abaturage barwo no gutera inkunga imitwe igamije kuruhungabanyiriza umutekano, ni ngombwa gusubiza amaso inyuma kuri bimwe mu bihe bikomeye byaranze imibanire y’ibihugu byombi.

Kuri iyi nshuro turifashisha raporo yasohowe na International Crisis Group (ICG) ku wa 4 Gicurasi 2000 yiswe "Uganda and Rwanda: Friends or Enemies"

Ubwo mu 1981 Perezida Museveni yari ahanganye n’ubutegetsi bwa Obote, mu gisirikare cye hinjiyemo abanyarwanda bari impunzi muri Uganda barimo Fred Gisa Rwigema na Paul Kagame, binjira atari ugukunda igisirikare gusa ahubwo bitewe ahanini no kuba na bo baratotezwaga.

Ageze ku butegetsi mu 1986, Kaguta Museveni yazamuye mu ntera Rwigema wagizwe Major General mu birori byitabiriwe na Perezida Juvénal Habyarimana. Rwigema yaje no kugirwa Minisitiri w’Ingabo wungirije. Paul Kagame yagizwe Major anahabwa kuyobora urwego rw’iperereza.

Uku guhabwa imirimo ariko ntikwishimiwe n’abanya-Uganda bamwe, birengagije icyuya n’amaraso Abanyarwanda bamennye mu kubohora icyo gihugu.

Ibyo byatumye Museveni aza kwihinduka Abanyarwanda, akura Rwigema ku mwanya wa minisitiri w’ingabo wungirije na Kagame yoherezwa kwihugura mu bya gisirikare muri Fort Leavenworth Academy muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika.

Iki gikorwa cyarushijeho kubumvisha ko nubwo babohoye Uganda iwabo ari mu Rwanda, batangira gutegura uburyo bagomba gutaha nubwo Habyarimana yavugaga ko u Rwanda ari nk’ikirahure cyuzuye amazi.

Urugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda rwatangiye ku wa 1 Ukwakira 1990 ubwo Museveni yari muri Amerika.

Uguhangana kw’Abanyarwanda n’abanya-Uganda muri NRM

Raporo ya ICG ivuga ko mu myaka itanu urugamba rwo kubohora Uganda rwamaze, abanyarwanda n’abanya-Uganda bagiye bagirana ubucuti, aho nka murumuna wa Museveni, Gen. Salim Saleh yakoranaga na Rwigema, abandi nka Major Gen Mugisha Muntu na Colonel Kiiza Besigye bakaba inshuti za Kagame.

Gusa ngo Salim Saleh ntiyari afitanye ubucuti na Kagame, ahanini bitewe n’imyitwarire ye [Salim] idahwitse.

Fred Rwigema ari kumwe n’umuvandimwe wa Museveni Salim Saleh mu 1985

Iyi raporo ya ICG hari aho igira iti “Aba bayobozi bombi ba gisirikare bakunze kugongana bitewe n’imiyoborere yabo itandukanye. Paul Kagame yari umuntu ugendera ku murongo kandi utavuga menshi mu gihe Salim Saleh yari umuntu uvuga menshi akikundira ubucuruzi.”

“Hari n’abavuga ko uko kutavugana kwakomotse ku kuba Salim Saleh yari mukuru kuri Paul Kagame muri National Resistance Army (NRA). Amakuru ava mu gisirikare cya Uganda anavuga ko inzigo yaba yarakomotse ku bihano by’imyitwarire byahawe Salim Saleh mu ntambara yo kubohora Uganda ubwo Kagame yari akuriye akanama gashinzwe imyitwarire muri NRA.”

Abanyarwanda batashye Uganda itabizi

Mu kiganiro yahaye intore ziri ku Rugerero ruciye Ingando mu Mujyi wa Kigali ku wa 18 Kamena 2019, Umujyanama Mukuru wa Perezida wa Repubulika mu bya Gisirikare n’Umutekano, Gen. James Kabarebe, yavuze ko Abanyarwanda bisanze mu Ngabo za Uganda atari uko ari ubushake.

Ati “Twisanze muri izo ngabo tujya gukorera igisirikare muri ibyo bihugu by’abandi, tudashimwa, tutubahwa, ducunaguzwa, ko turi Abanyarwanda tudakwiye kuba turi muri ibyo bihugu.”

Icyo gihe abarimo Paul Kagame bari bafite ubumenyi bwinshi bwa gisirikare, baricaye mu Ukuboza 1987 bashinga FPR-Inkotanyi nk’umutwe wa politiliki, ariko nta mutwe w’ingabo kubera ko “twitwaga ko twari mu ngabo z’icyo gihugu (Uganda) .”

Ubwo urugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda rwatangiraga, Umunyarwanda ufite mugenzi we w’inshuti yamuryaga akara ati “iri joro turambuka,” bisaba abanyarwanda bari muri NRA gutoroka, bamwe bagategerwa mu nzira.

Gen. Kabarebe ati “Abari hafi mu mujyi wa Kampala twaracitse turatoroka, turaza tugera Kagitumba mu Mutara hariya, turasa abasirikare ba Habyarimana bari bicaye aho banywa byeri bakina amakarita, twinjira mu gihugu, abandi bashaka inzira zidukurikira, zikurikira abaje mbere. Bamwe bagafatirwa mu nzira, abandi bakabona aho banyura, bagenda baza buhoro buhoro.”

“Nta na hamwe muri Uganda abasirikare b’Abanyarwanda bahuye ngo babategure, ngo bababwire ngo ejo tuzagenda, mwitegure, mugire mutya.”

Icyo gihe Rwigema ngo yahise afata amapeti yari yarahawe na Uganda nka Major General, ageze mu Rwanda ayajugunya hakurya muri Uganda, maze abanyarwanda bari muri NRA bahinduka Armée Patriotique Rwandais, APR.

Rwigema yishwe mu ba mbere, hakurikira abandi na nka Major Bayingana na Bunyenyezi. Urugamba rwarazambye, rwongera kuburwa na Major Paul Kagame wahise ahagarika amashuri muri Amerika.

Nk’uko raporo ya IGC ibivuga, “Ubufasha Uganda yahaye FPR bwasobanurwa mu bintu bibiri. Abanya-Uganda bamwe bashyigikye umugambi wa FPR, by’umwihariko icyifuzo cyo gutaha iwabo nk’uko bari barabyangiwe n’ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana, bumva ko bafitiye umwenda abasirikare b’abanyarwanda kubera uruhare bagize mu gukuraho ubutegetsi bwa Obote na Okello.”

“Ariko abandi basirikare b’abanya-Uganda n’abanyapolitiki bamwe bari bafite inyungu zihariye mu gusigasira imyanya yabo, batinyaga kuzayirwanira n’Abanyarwanda.”

Raporo ivuga ko Besigye yari mu nshuti za Kagame mu gisirikare

Nyuma y’urugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda

Nyuma yo kubohora u Rwanda no guhagarika Jenoside mu 1994, Ingabo za APR zamenesheje iza Habyarimana zihungira mu mashyamba ya Congo. Zatangiye kugaruka zigaba ibitero ku Rwanda, narwo rubasangayo mu bikorwa bya gisirikare byakuye ku butegetsi Perezida Mobutu Sese Seko wazihaye ikaze muri RDC n’intwaro zahunganye, binageza Laurent Desire Kabila ku butegetsi.

Nyamara na Kabila yatangiye gucudika n’Interahamwe. U Rwanda na Uganda byahuriye muri Congo, hagenda habaho ubwumvikane buke kugeza ubwo bwaje no gukozanyaho bihuriye mu gihugu cy’abaturanyi.

Ugukozanyaho kwa mbere kwabaye ku wa 7 Kanama 1999. Indi mirwano yatangiye ku mugoroba wo ku wa 14 Kanama 1999 ihagarara nyuma y’iminsi itatu, bapfa gushaka kwigarurira Kisangani.

Uwarashe isasu rya mbere yakomeje gutindwaho, ariko raporo ihuriweho y’u Rwanda na Uganda yabishyizeho umucyo mu Ukwakira 1999 yashinje Uganda ubushotoranyi.

Yavuze ko “Uganda kongera abasirikare bayo mu mujyi, gucukura indaki no kuhongera ibikoresho bya gisirikare, byafashwe nk’ubushotoranyi kuri RPA nayo ihohereza abasirikare benshi. Ntabwo habayeho kumenyesha u Rwanda impamvu UPDF yahinduye ibirindiro ku kibuga cy’indege, bifatwa nk’ubushotoranyi.”

Ibyo byavuyemo intambara yarangiye RPA itsinze ingabo za Uganda muri Kisangani, ibintu byababaje Uganda ku rwego rukomeye.

Ubwo Colonel James Kabarebe yoherezwaga i Kisangani nyuma y’imirwano, ngo yatutswe n’abasirikare ba UPDF bamwise ‘Kaporali muto” cyangwa ‘Small Corporal”, bamwitirira uwo bazi akiri mu Ngabo za Uganda.

Nk’ibihugu byari bihuriye ku rugamba rumwe, byarashobokaga ko bigira uburyo bwo guhuza ibikorwa bya gisirikare, ariko Uganda yaje kubangamira iki gikorwa.

Nk’uko Raporo ya ICG ibivuga, Colonel Patrick Nyamvumba (ubu ni general) yagize ati “Uburyo bwiza bwo kunoza ibikorwa byacu bwari ukugira ubuyobozi buhuriweho (joint command), ariko ntibyabaye. Naje hano ngo mbe muri ubwo buyobozi bugizwe na UPDF, RPA n’abahagarariye inyeshyamba. Nta na kimwe cyigeze gikorwa.”

Icyo gihe muri RDC ingabo za buri gihugu zabaga ziri ukwazo, uretse muri Kisangani honyine.

Gen. Nyamvumba Patrick na Gen. James Kabarebe ni bamwe mu basirikare b'u Rwanda bazi neza iby'intambara ya Uganda n'u Rwanda muri RDC

Uganda ntiyakiriye gutsindwa

Gitsindirwa i Kisangani byatumye abaturage ba Uganda n’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko bashyira igitutu ku bushobozi bwa Museveni no ku hazaza he. Muri kwa gusuzugura u Rwanda, abadepite bakambanye Museveni ariko bagumya no kwikoma Guverinoma y’u Rwanda.

Umwe yagize ati “Mu 1990 RPA yibye imbunda zacu. Guverinoma yaba irimo kubona ko RPA ishobora kuba irimo kuzikoresha mu kwica abairikare bacu muri Congo? Ni iyihe ntambwe irimo guterwa kugira ngo hagaruzwe izo mbunda?”

Icyo gihe Museveni yabonye ko uburyo bwo gucubya abaturage be ari ukwibasira RPA mu magambo atyaye. Muri ryo ijambo ku wa 30 Kanama 1999, Museveni yabaye nk’uwikura mu bibazo abyegeka ku bandi.

Ati “Icyo nabasobanurira ni uko abavandimwe bacu muri RPA batabashije gukura ngo bamenye uko ibintu bimwe na bimwe bikorwa. Bumva ko kunyura iya bugufi hano na hariya bizabageza ku ntego yabo. Ikindi maze iminsi numva ni uko RPA yashatse kwigarurira Congo ariko ko turimo kubakoma imbere.”

“Ku ruhande rwacu dushishikajwe no kongerera ubushobozi abanye-Congo ariko bigaragara ko Abanyarwanda batabyishimiye. Ariko nubwo twaba tubangamiye imigambi bafite muri Congo, ni gute bumva ko batugabaho ibitero ngo birangirire aho? Ni ukureba hafi cyane.”

Abaturage benshi basabye ko ingabo zabo ziva muri Congo, nk’uko The New Vision yabyanditse icyo gihe ko 81 ku ijana by’Abanya-Uganda babyifuza, ariko ntibyari gukorwa kubera inyungu Museveni yari akurikiye muri icyo gihugu.

Imigambi yo kwihimura yatangiye ubwo

Igisirikare cya Uganda nticyigeze cyakira inshuro cyakubiswe n’Abanyarwanda, aho bumvaga ko ishema n’icyubahiro byabo byahungabanyijwe, ibitangazamakuru byanzika ko UPDF yatsinzwe ndetse abasirikare bayo barenga 200 bagapfa.

Raporo ya ICG ivuga ko hahise hatangira inama z’ibanga i Kampala zikitabirwa n’abasirikare bakiri mu mirimo n’abasezerewe, ngo “bashakishe uburyo bwo kwihimura ku cyo bafataga nk’ubugambanyi bw’abari bafatanyije n’u Rwanda.”

“Hari abari bafite ibitekerezo ko umubano n’u Rwanda warushaho kuzambywa. Amarangamutima yarushijeho kuzamuka ubwo bamwe mu basirikare bakuru bitabiraga umuhango wo gushyingura abaguye i Kisangani bambaye imyenda ya gisirikare. General Major Salim Saleh, umuvandimwe wa Museveni wanabaye umugaba w’ingabo, yari umwe mu bashyitsi ndetse atangaza ko yiteguye gusubira mu bikorwa bya gisirikare.”

Ikomeza iti “Abasirikare bakuru mu Ngabo za Uganda bavuga ko umubano n’u Rwanda utazongera na rimwe kuba nk’uko wahoze nyuma y’ibyabereye i Kisangani.” Uganda kandi yatangiye gushinja u Rwanda kugambirira kuyigirira nabi, aho yarushinje urupfu rwa Major Reuben Ikondere wishwe na Mai Mai mu gace ka Beni, mu Burasirazuba bwa RDC.

Brig. James Kazini wari umaze gupfusha abasirikare muri RDC, yakomeje kubwira abaturage ba Uganda ko ibyo yakoze “byari ku mabwiriza y’ubuyobozi.”

Gen Kazini niwe wari uyoboye Ingabo za Uganda ubwo zakubitwaga inshuro n'iz'u Rwanda i Kisangani

Museveni mu kugarurira agatima abasirikare nyuma y’ibyari bimaze kuba, yazamuye mu ntera abari bayoboye ingabo i Kisangani, mu “kuzamura morali ya UPDF no guhangana n’ikimwaro abaturage begekaga ku ngabo.”

Ibinyamakuru byo muri Uganda byandikaga kuri icyo kibazo mu buryo butandukanye, urebye nka Monitor yo ku wa 16 Kanama 1999 yasohoye inkuru ibanza, ivuga ko abasirikare ba Uganda baguye i Kisangani bari amagana ndetse “Kazini, Otafire na Mayombo batewe ibisasu biremereye.”

Muri New Vision ho Umujyanama wa Perezida Museveni, John Nagenda, mu gitekerezo cyahawe umutwe ugira uti “U Rwanda rukwiye gusaba imbabazi Uganda”, (New Vision yo ku wa 4 Nzeri 1999), yagize ati “uko byagenda kose, gerageza wishake mu mutima kugirira impuhwe u Rwanda n’abaturage barwo…ubu babonwa nk’indyarya n’abantu utakwizera ku buryo gukorana na bo bitoroshye ni nko gufata inzoka yinyagambura.”

Ku ruhande rw’u Rwanda naho, Ikinyamakuru Rwanda Times cyeruye ko Brigadier Kazini akomeje gucengeza mu bantu kwanga Abanyarwanda, The New Times yo ishinja ingabo za Uganda gusahura imitungo ya Congo aho kurwanya Kabila, ndetse ko u Rwanda rutazarebera igihe cyose inyungu zarwo zihutajwe.

Imvugo ya Kagame yatandukanye n’iya Museveni

Kagame yaje kugirira uruzinduko muri Uganda rwanagejeje ku guhagarika imirwano muri Kisangani, ariko Uganda yakomeje ibikorwa byo kugaragaza urwango ifitiye u Rwanda.

Mu ijambo rya Museveni ku wa 30 Kanama, yagaragaje uburakari afitiye u Rwanda n’ubuyobozi bwarwo. Ku wa 2 Nzeri 1999 visi Perezida Kagame na we yagejeje ijambo ku Nteko Ishinga Amategeko y’u Rwanda, ariko ntiyigeze yibasira Uganda uretse kuvuga ko ubuyobozi bwayo budashishikajwe n’igisubizo cya politiki.

Kagame yemeye ko hatageragejwe uburyo bwose ngo imirwano ikumirwe, ariko asaba Abanyarwanda guharanira kubaka umubano mwiza na Uganda.

Yasobanuye ko uko kurwana kutafatwa nk’ukwabaye hagati ya RPA na UPDF cyangwa u Rwanda na Uganda, ahubwo hagati y’abasirikare boherejwe n’ibyo bihugu nyuma yo kugira ibyo batumvikanaho.

Kagame yasubiye imbere y’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ku wa 16 Nzeri 1999 ubwo raporo ya nyuma kuri iyo mirwano yari imaze gukorwa, ikura icyasha ku ngabo zarwo ku mvano y’imirwano.

U Rwanda rwemeye kubahiriza imyanzuro ya raporo ihuriweho irimo guhindurira inshingano abari bayoboye ingabo i Kisangani aribo Lt Col Patrick Nyamvumba na Colonel James Kabarebe [aya niyo mapeti bari bafite icyo gihe]. Museveni yahinduriye inshingano Brig Kazini ariko akomeza gushingwa ibikorwa by’ingabo za Uganda muri RDC, akorera Kasese.

Lt Col Nyamvumba yahawe kuyobora muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo, nyuma aza guhagararira u Rwanda mu buyobozi buhuriweho bw’ingabo z’ibihugu byombi.

U Rwanda rwakomeje gushinja Uganda kurenga ku byemeranyijweho n’impande zombi. Major Emmanuel Ndahiro wari Umuvugizi w’u Rwanda yaje kuvuga ko “abayobozi bashya b’ingabo za Uganda i Kisangani, mu minsi mike bahamaze barimo kurenga ku byemeranyijweho ku rwego rwo hejuru, bashyizeho za bariyeri nyinshi, bongereye abasirikare mu bice bikikije umujyi ndetse bahagaritse kugira uruhare mu bikorwa bihuriweho byo gucunga umutekano n’inama”.

UPDF yahakanye ko yaba ishaka kongera kurwana na RPA. Ibyo byakurikiwe n’inama zitandukanye zirimo izahuje abashinzwe ubutasi bwa gisirikare, nk’iyahuje Col Henri Tumukunde wa UPDF na Lt Col Jack Nziza wa RPA.

Uganda yakomeje gusa n’icenga u Rwanda

Uganda yakomeje kugenda isa n’icenga u Rwanda, nk’aho Museveni yashatse kwemeranya ku masezerano na Kabila n’abo bakoranaga mu 1999 ndetse Museveni atangira kwiyegereza Angola na Zimbabwe, bashaka guheza u Rwanda mu ntambara ya Congo.

Museveni yagiye muri Zimbabwe kenshi, harimo aho ku wa 21 Mata 2000 yitabiriye inama ya Victoria Falls ku kibazo cya Congo, yanga kwitabira irahira rya Paul Kagame wari wabaye Perezida w’inzibacyuho ahubwo yohereza Visi Perezida we Dr Speciosa Wandira Kazibwe.

Iyi raporo yanzuye isaba u Rwanda na Uganda gukora ibishoboka byose ngo hakumirwe ko hagira indi ntambara ibaho, kuko yo “yaba mbi cyane, ahanini bitewe n’uko buri ruhande ruzi aho mugenzi warwo afite imbaraga nyinshi cyangwa intege nke”.

Ubwo Ingabo z'u Rwanda zari mu burinzi hafi y'umupaka wa Uganda mu 1999
Museveni ubwo yari ku rugamba rwamugejeje ku butegetsi, abanyarwanda bari bamuri hafi kugeza bamwicaje ku ntebe
Museveni amaze gufata ubutegetsi, yatangiye kwihinduka abanyarwanda, ashaka kubikiza umwe ku wundi

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