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Raporo ya Duclert yanyujijwemo ijisho

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 3 Kanama 2021 saa 07:01
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Uko byagenda kose, imyaka myinshi izashira hakiri akangononwa ku ngingo iyo ariyo yose ifitanye isano n’umubano w’u Rwanda n’u Bufaransa by’umwihariko ku ruhare iki gihugu cyo mu Burayi gishinjwa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Mu mezi atatu ashize, hatewe intambwe ndende igamije gushyira umucyo ku byari amahari yari amaze imyaka 27 yarabaye akarande, u Bufaransa ku busabe bwa Perezida Macron bushyira hanze Raporo igaragaza uruhare rwabwo mu mateka y’u Rwanda.

Ivuga ko bwagize “uruhare rukomeye kandi ntagereranywa” mu mateka ashaririye u Rwanda rwanyuzemo yagejeje ku kwicwa kw’Abatutsi barenga miliyoni mu 1994.

Ni raporo ku ruhande rw’u Rwanda yakiriwe mu buryo bw’amaburakindi, bigaragazwa n’imbwirwaruhame z’abantu batandukanye bagaragaje ko hari byinshi yirengagije, gusa ku rundi ruhande bakagaragaza ko ubusa buruta buri buri.

Ubu igishya kuri iyi raporo ni isesengura ryakozwe n’Umunyamateka François Robinet. Yigisha muri Kaminuza ya Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines mu Mujyi wa Versailles ndetse ni n’Umuyobozi w’Ishami ry’ubumenyi mu by’umutungo bwite muri Kaminuza ya Paris-Saclay.

Uyu mugabo yahawe inshingano zo kujora iyi raporo n’Ikinyamakuru cyitwa “ Études”, kimwe mu bimaze igihe kinini mu Bufaransa kuko cyatangiye mu 1856.

Mu busesenguzi bwe, Robinet yavuye imuzi Raporo yakozwe na Komisiyo ya Duclert yashyizwe hanze mu mapaji 992 ku wa 26 Werurwe 2021. Agaragaza ibyirengagijwe nkana, ibyo abashakashatsi bayikoze baciye hejuru, aho bageze bakaruma bahuhaho n’ibindi.

Inenge ku ishingwa rya Komisiyo yakoze raporo no kwirengagiza ingingo zimwe

Mu isesengura ry’iyi raporo hagarutswe ku buryo Komisiyo yayikoze yagiyeho itavugwaho rumwe ku buryo hari na bamwe bayivuyemo.

Urugero ni Julie d’Andurain wari washyizwemo ariko akaza kunengwa ko asanzwe ari umuntu upfobya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi maze ku wa 28 Kanama 2020 akaza kwikuramo.

Undi wavuye mu itsinda ry’abashakashatsi ni Annette Wieviorka, wari washyizwemo ku ikubitiro ariko ku wa 13 Nzeri 2019 akaza gutangaza ko izi nshingano ziremereye.

Ikindi iyi raporo inengwa ni uko nta bashakashatsi bo mu Karere k’Ibiyaga Bigari bari bayirimo, ngo ibikorwa byose bishingire ku bunararibonye bafite ku mateka yo mu karere.

Robinet yavuze kandi ko iyi raporo yahuje amasaka n’amasakaramentu ikagerageza kwerekana ko ukuboko k’u Bufaransa muri Politiki y’u Rwanda gushingiye ku ijambo Perezida Mitterrand yavugiye i La Baule mu 1990.

Iryo jambo ryasabaga ibihugu birimo u Rwanda, u Burundi na Congo kwimakaza Politiki bifatiye ku bikorwa by’Abanyaburayi bo mu Burasirazuba. Ni ryo ryabaye imbarutso y’ishingwa ry’amashyaka menshi mu Rwanda.

Kuri we, agaragaza ko Politiki y’u Bufaransa icyo gihe itari ifite icyo itwaye intagondwa zari ku butegetsi mu Rwanda.

Usibye ibijyanye n’ishingwa rya Komisiyo, Robinet asanga kandi Raporo Duclert yaraciye hejuru ibijyanye n’amasezerano ya Arusha, agashimangira ko byari bikwiye ko iyajya imuzi.

Kuri we, ngo byari bikwiye ko abashakashatsi basoma inyandiko zo mu Rwanda zikabafasha kubona andi makuru, ati “byashoboraga gutuma bishoboka gusobanura isano iri hagati ya dipolomasi y’u Bufaransa n’abashyigikiranaga nayo”.

Prof Vincent Duclert ubwo yashyikirizaga Perezida Emmanuel Macron iyi raporo

Ingingo zifite agaciro gakomeye ntizitaweho

Raporo Duclert yanenzwe ko yaciye hejuru ingingo zijyanye n’uruhare rw’ingabo z’u Bufaransa zari mu Rwanda ku bijyanye n’uko zarwanyije FPR Inkotanyi.

Hari raporo nyinshi n’inyandiko zagiye hanze zigaragaza ko ingabo z’u Bufaransa zari mu Rwanda, zari zirajwe ishinga no gukingira ikibaba leta ya Habyarimana ahubwo zikarwanya FPR Inkotanyi yahagaritse Jenoside.

Hatangwa ingero ku mbunda nini izo ngabo zari zifite zifashishijwe mu kurwanya FPR mu bice bya Byumba, ku myitozo yahawe Interahamwe n’Ingabo za FAR n’ibindi.

Robinet asobanura ko Raporo ya Komisiyo Duclert nta bushakashatsi bwimbitse yigeze ikora kuri iyi ngingo.

Ubwo FPR yatangiraga urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu, bivugwa ko mu bufasha Mitterrand yahaye Habyarimana harimo n’ubwatanzwe hagamijwe guca intege ingabo za FPR Inkotanyi.

Uruhare rw’u Bufaransa mu ihanurwa ry’indege ya Habyarimana rwarengejwe ingohe

Mu mugoroba w’itariki 6 Mata 1994 ahagana saa mbili n’igice, Perezida Habyarimana Juvénal wari kumwe n’abantu 11 bavanye mu rugendo i Dar es Salaam muri Tanzaniya bahuye n’isanganya ikomeye ubwo indege yari ibatwaye yaraswagaho ibisasu bibiri byo mu bwoko bwa missile, mu guhanuka igwa mu busitani bw’urugo rwe i Kanombe hafi y’ikibuga cy’indege, ntihagira urokoka.

Kugeza n’ubu, urujijo ruracyari rwose. Raporo ya Komisiyo Duclert isobanura ko ihanurwa ry’iyo ndege ryagizwemo uruhare n’agatsiko k’intagondwa za “Hutu Power” zari mu butegetsi bwo hejuru, mu gisirikare no muri Jandarumori.

Uyu munyamategeko asanga iyi raporo itagaragaza isano y’u Bufaransa n’iki gikorwa, dore ko bwahise butangira gucyura abaturage babwo cyo kimwe n’umuryango wa Habyarimana.

Robinet agaragaza ko Raporo ya Komisiyo Duclert, idasobanura byimbitse iby’urugendo rwa Paul Baril mu Rwanda. Ikindi kandi ni uko nta kintu kinini gisobanurwa kuri “Opération insecticide” yari irimo uyu mugabo mu Rwanda.

Baril muri Kamena 1994, yahamagaje abanyamakuru i Paris mu Bufaransa abereka ibintu yavugaga ko ari agasanduku k’umukara bakuye ahaguye indege ya Habyarimana. Gusa nyuma byaje kugaragara ko icyo yerekanye ari agakoresho k’ikoranabuhanga, gacomekwaho iminara.

Robinet akomeza asobanura ko ibikubiye muri Raporo ya Komisiyo bishaka gusobanura ko ubwicanyi bwabaye mu Rwanda hagati ya 1990 na 1994, bwabaga butari bufite ishingiro mu mboni z’abayobozi b’u Bufaransa bari bariho icyo gihe.

Raporo ya Komisiyo Duclert hari aho yibaza iti “U Bufaransa bwaba bwaragize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi? Aha turashaka kuvuga ubushake bwo kwiyunga ku bikorwa bya Jenoside, nta kintu na kimwe mu nyandiko twasuzumye zari mu bubiko kibigaragaza”.

Abashakashatsi kandi bagaragaza ko uruhare rw’u Bufaransa muri Jenoside, rushingiye ku myitwarire ya politiki yabwo idahwitse yo gukomeza “kwica ijisho” mu gushyigikira ubutegetsi buronda ubwoko, bwamunzwe na ruswa kandi bwimakaje ubugizi bwa nabi”.

Iti “Abayobozi bumvaga ko Perezida Habyarimana ashobora kugeza igihugu kuri demokarasi n’amahoro.”

Nyuma kandi yo kubona ko amacakubiri ari gukaza umurego mu Rwanda, raporo igaragaza ko nta “politiki n’imwe u Bufaransa bwigeze bushyiraho igamije gufasha mu kurwanya ubuhezanguni bw’Abahutu no kurwanya irondamoko igihugu cyari cyarimakaje”.

Raporo inenga abayobozi b’u Bufaransa bari barangajwe imbere na Perezida Mitterrand ku bwo kwimakaza politiki yagaragazaga Habyarimana “nk’umuhutu” uhanganye n’ “umwanzi” w’ingabo ziturutse muri Uganda.

Bashingiye kuri iyi ngingo, Komisiyo Duclert yagize iti “Ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje uruhare rukomeye kandi ndengakamere”.

François Robinet yanenze nyinshi mu ngendo zivugwa muri Raporo ya Komisiyo Duclert

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