Nta Jenoside yakorewe Abahutu, Itwikwa ry’umurambo wa Habyarimana, Operation Turquoise - Ikiganiro na Saint-Exupéry

Yanditswe na Karirima A. Ngarambe
Kuya 8 Werurwe 2021 saa 05:03
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Ku bakurikira itangazamakuru mpuzamahanga, bazi Patrick de Saint-Exupéry nk’umwe mu banyamakuru bakomeye, umugabo w’umuhanga, uzi gushishoza no gucukumbura, byanatumye mu mwuga we w’itangazamakuru yibanda ku gice cyaryo cy’ubucukumbuzi bwimbitse, akabikora neza ku buryo yubashywe.

Uretse itangazamakuru ryandika, Patrick de Saint-Exupéry akunze kugaragara yatumiwe mu bitangazamakuru birimo radio na televiziyo, aho akenshi aba avuga ku bitabo n’inkuru yanditse.

Imwe mu ngingo uyu mugabo akunze kugarukaho, harimo amateka ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, ariko by’umwihariko yanakoze ubucukumbuzi ku bivugwa ku bwicanyi ngo bwakorewe Abahutu b’impunzi mu 1994 zaganagana muri Zaire, aho yacukumbuye ashaka kumenya niba intambara yahabaye ari Jenoside nk’uko bamwe bakomeje kugenda babihwihwisa hirya no hino ku Isi.

Ibyo yakuye muri ubu bucukumbuzi yabikubiye mu gitabo aherutse gusohora yise ‘La Traversée’, ugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda bisobanuye ‘urugendo rurerure’.

Ni urugendo yahereye mu Rwanda, akambuka amashyamba ya Congo kugera i Kinshasa mu nzira ndende ashaka guhura n’impunzi z’Abahutu bahunze mu 1994 n’Abanye-Congo bahasanze.

Patrick de Saint-Exupéry yemeza ko “Igihe kizagera kuko ntabwo wabeshya igihe cyose, ubutabera ntakibwirukansa”.

Anavuga ko “Icyaha cya Jenoside n’icyo gutera ingabo mu bitugu abayikora ari icyaha kidasaza”, ndetse anibaza ku kibazo cyakomeje kugarukwaho cyane hirya no hino, niba “Haba harabayeho indi jenoside uretse Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi?”

Mu kiganiro cyamaze isaha, IGIHE yaganiriye birambuye na Patrick de Saint-Exupéry, ava imuzi ibikubiye muri iki gitabo yanditse cya paji 336. Muri iyi nkuru, harimo ibisubizo by’ibyo twaganiriye.

IGIHE: Kuki wanze kumva inama z’abantu barimo Abanye-Congo, Abanyarwanda, Abafaransa n’abandi bakubwiraga ko nujya mu bushakashatsi muri Congo bizakugwa nabi?

Patrick de Saint-Exupéry: Kuba umunyamakuru ni ugukora akazi gasaba kwihangana kuko kabamo imbogamizi n’inzitizi nyinshi, cyane [ko gasaba] kujya aho ibintu byabereye, kuko muhura n’abantu benshi mutazi kandi wenda ahantu hagoye, ariko kandi ni uko bimeze kandi ni ko kwemera no gukunda umwuga bigenda.

Ariko ikintu gikomeye kirimo, ni uko ariho uhurira n’ukuri ku bintu runaka, bigatuma abirirwa bavuga ibinyoma mubagaragariza ukuri. Ibi ni ryo tandukaniro kuko muganira n’abaturage mwahigereye. Ni ibintu bisaba gutinyuka cyane kuko muri aka kazi hakoreshwa umutimanama cyane.

Ibi rero by’uko hari abambuzaga [gukora ubushakashatsi] kandi hari ukuri nashakaga kubona ubwanjye muri iriya Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo nini cyane, ifite ishyamba rigari kandi usanga hari ibice bituwe n’abantu basa nk’ababa mu rutumvingoma, [sinabyitayeho]. [Muri Congo] harimo abeza n’ababi nk’uko hose ari ko bimeze.

IGIHE: Mu gitabo ‘La Traversée’ wahaye ijambo Abanye-Congo, batanga ubuhamya ku byo biboneye mu 1994 igihe impunzi z’Abanyarwanda baje babasanga mu gihugu cyabo.

Patrick de Saint-Exupéry: Uru rugendo naruhereye i Kigali, Congo nyinjiramo nciye i Goma nza kugenda ngera i Kinshasa. Impamvu rero ni uko nzi ko hari amateka bamwe mu bantu bavuga ko ari mu bice bibiri ariko atandukanye, hakaba amateka ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda mu 1994, hakaza n’andi mateka yo muri Congo, aya mateka yombi rero, ntawareba igice kimwe mwe ngo areke ikindi, afite aho ahurira.

Urugendo rwanjye rwari ukuyahuza ngo ndebe, numve ukuri, kuko ntabwo ari amateka yahubutse mu kirere ngo yikubite aho, byatumye nsubiramo amateka ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi n’intambara yo muri Congo, kuko muri ako karere habereye ibintu bikomeye, niyo mpamvu nahagurutse, rimwe nkagenda n’amaguru ubundi nkagendera kuri moto kugira ngo mpure kandi nganire n’abahatuye bampe ishusho nyakuru y’ayo mateka.

IGIHE: Ko wahigereye, abavuga ko habayeho jenoside yakorewe Abahutu bo mu Rwanda mu 1994, bakongera bati ‘habayeho na jenoside yakorewe Abahutu b’impunzi zahungiye muri Congo mu 1996, yewe na jenoside yakorewe Abanye-Congo’, wowe urabivugaho iki?

Patrick de Saint-Exupéry: Hakozwe Jenoside imwe rukumbi, Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 mu Rwanda, nta yindi yakozwe. Ntabwo ari ingingo yo kujyaho impaka, niyumviye abantu babibayemo, nibyo koko habayeho ubwicanyi muri Congo kandi birababaje cyane, habayeho intambara hicwa impunzi, ariko ntabwo hakozwe jenoside, ntaho bihuriye na jenoside.

Birababaje kubona hari ababivuga birengagije ukuri, ni ibintu nakwita ‘ubucucu’ bukabije. Sinabyemera, kuko iyo bavuze ngo habayeho jenoside ebyiri (double genocide) ni ugupfobya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, nta marangamutima mbishyiramo ni ugupfobya babigendereye, kuko Jenoside yabaye izuba riva, ariko iyo ‘double génocide’ ni ukuyobya abantu, ni ibintu bivugwa bitakozweho ubushakashatsi bwizewe, ni ibintu bahimba bagashyira aho.

Nibyo nababwiye tugitangira, nafashe icyemezo kigoye ariko njya guhura n’abantu turaganira nta buryarya, bambwira rwose nta guca inyuma. Muri urwo rugendo rw’akazi nta na rimwe nigeze mpura n’ibyabaye wenda bisa nka jenoside, bitavuze ko nta cyabaye muri Congo kuko muri iki gihugu, impunzi zahungaga nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 zari nyinshi cyane.

Muri zo harimo abantu bateguye bagashyira mu bikorwa jenoside, abicanyi banuka urwango bafashe bunyago abaturage. Harimo inzirakarengane n’abicanyi muri bo, harimo abicanyi babayobora bashakaga gukomeza umugambi wabo wo kwica Abatutsi n’utavuga rumwe nabo uwo ariwe wese, nguko ukuri.

Byagenze gute rero? Abo bicanyi baje gukurikiranwa n’ingabo z’u Rwanda zishyize hamwe n’iza Congo zashakaga guhirika ubutegetsi bwa Perezida Mubutu, habayeho rero intambara koko nyayo nk’izindi ntambara zose, habayeho abayiguyemo, ntimwibagirwe ko izo mpunzi zari zifite intwaro, zari zafite abayobozi barimo Abaminisitiri, bari bafite intwaro zose za gisirikare, bituma haba imirwano hagira abapfa.

Ibyo ntabwo ari ibyo kugibwaho impaka, hari yemwe n’abishwe n’indwara ndetse n’inzara bazira akarengane. Kuki baziraga ubusa? Kuko abicanyi b’Abahutu babakoresheje kugeza bapfuye urw’agashinyaguro kuko bari bafashweho umunyago, nguko ukuri, nibyo Abanye-Congo nagiye mpura nabo bambwiye mu nzira zose naciyemo.

IGIHE: Hashize igihe u Rwanda rwibasirwa na ’Human Right Watch’ na ’Reporters Sans Frontièrs’ n’abandi. Ni iki uvuga ku guceceka kwabo ku bijyanye n’uruhare bamwe mu bayobozi b’Abafaransa bafatanyije n’ubutegetsi bwa Perezida Habyarimana bagize muri Jenoside? Aha twavuga nk’amakuru atari yo yatanzwe n’uwahoze ari Perezida w’Ubufaransa, Francois Mitterrand, Hubert Védrine (wahoze ari Umunyamabanga mu Biro bya Perezida wa Repuburika muri Elysée), Dominique de Villepin, Amiral Lanxade, Général Quesnot n’abandi babaye aba mbere mu kuvuga ko habayeho jenoside ebyiri (double genocide) kandi bari bazi neza ko atari byo?

Patrick de Saint-Exupéry: Mu by’ukuri nanjye sinabibonera igisubizo, nanjye ndi Umufaransa, nzi igihugu cyanjye, nzi ko Abafaransa bandi batari kimwe n’abo umaze kuvuga. Abo ni agatsiko k’abantu bo mu buyobozi bwo hejuru muri politiki no mu gisirikare mu myaka ya za 1990 kugera muri za 2000, bakora hagati yabo mu bwihisho n’ubucucu.

Bakoze ibintu by’amahano birenze imyumvire ya muntu, barangije ntibabihagarika bakomeza ububi bw’ibyo batangiye nta kugisha umutima inama cyangwa ngo basubize amaso inyuma, biragenda bivamo ishyano ari ryo Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda, kandi iyo Jenoside yarashoboraga guhagarikwa. Bigera n’aho bifata abaturanyi muri Congo, si bo bonyine kuko bafatanyije n’Abanyarwanda. Ubu mu Bufaransa ni ibintu badashaka ko bivugwa.

Ariko ndemeza ko umunsi umwe, ku mbaraga n’igihe bizafata ariko ubutabera buzakora akazi kabwo, isaha n’umunsi bizagera, kuko ubutabera nta kintu kibwirunkansa kuko icyaha cya Jenoside ntigisaza.

Ariko ndemeza ko icyo gihe kizagera kuko ntabwo wabeshya igihe cyose.

Patrick de Saint-Exupéry, umwanditsi w'ibitabo akaba n'umunyamakuru ukomeye ku Isi / Foto: Francesca Mantovani

IGIHE: Ni iki uvuga kuri ‘Opération Turquoise’ aho ingabo z’Abafaransa mu 1994, bashatse gukumira Ingabo za FPR zahagaritse Jenoside, kugira ngo bacire inzira yo guhungira muri Congo, interahamwe n’abasirikare bari bamaze gukora jenoside?

Patrick de Saint-Exupéry: Ntabwo bitangaje, ni ibintu bizwi hashize imyaka irenga 20 bizwi. Nigeze kubivuga muri ‘Le Figaro’ [kimwe mu binyamakuru bikomeye mu Bufaransa], État Major y’Ubufaransa niyo yateguye ‘Opération Turquoise’ kugira ngo abari bamaze gukora jenoside babone inzira. Hari n’ibindi bibi bakoze, icyo ni kimwe muri byo kigaragara. Baravugaga ngo ni ‘opération humanitaire’(ibikorwa by’ubutabazi) nonese ko byari ‘iby’ubutabazi’ nyine kuki badafungura ububiko bw’impapuro (archives) zigaragaza ibyakozwe muri iyo operation?

Ikindi gitangaje, kohereza abasirikare 2 500 batojwe byo mu rwego ruhanitse mu bikorwa bigamije by’ubugiraneza, kandi bafite ibikoresho byari bigezweho muri icyo gihe, nari ntarabibona ku bandi basirikare.

Muri abo basirikare baje muri ibyo bikorwa by’ubutabazi, habayemo intwari zibajije ibibazo, impamvu bari aho, kuko ntibumvaga amabwiriza barimo bahabwa aho ahuriye n’ibyo babonaga bababwira gukora. Harimo bamwe ubu batanga ubuhamya nka Lieutenant-Colonel Guillaume Ancel, Adjudant-chef Thierry Prungaud na Lieutenant-Colonel Rémy Duval, alias Diego n’abandi, abo aho kubashima bavuga ko bahesheje isura mbi Ubufaransa, ko bagambaniye igihugu mbese, kandi ahubwo ari bo babaye intwari, baragenda babashyira mu kato.

IGIHE: Wanditse ko mbere yo gutangira urugendo rurerure rwabyaye iki gitabo “La Traversée” wabanje kuza i Kigali ukabonana na Général James Kabarebe, yakugiriye iyihe nama ?

Patrick de Saint-Exupéry: Nta nama n’imwe yangiriye (araseka) cyakora ntiyigeze ambuza kujyayo cyangwa ngo abingiremo inama, oya, nagiye kumureba ngo ambwire uko urugamba rwagenze hariya, uko rwateguwe n’u Rwanda rufatanyije na Congo. Kenshi usanga abantu bavuga ibyo batazi kandi hari abantu nka Gen. Kabarebe ufite ubunararibonye bakamucaho, jyewe rero ntibyari gushoboka ko njya muri Congo ntabonye Gen. Kabarebe.

Yanyeretse uterere yibuka neza, ambwira ati ‘aha n’aha na hariya’, kuko Congo ni ngari cyane, hari nk’ahantu nashakaga ku ikarita nahabuze ariko Gen. Kabarebe akahanyereka nta kantu na kamwe yibagiwe ku rugamba rwahabereye, abisobanura neza cyane.

Incamake y’Igitabo La Traversée’ cya Patrick de Saint-Exupéry

Mu gitabo cya Patrick de Saint-Exupéry, yagarutse ku zindi ngingo zirimo ukuntu yaje kubonana n’abamubwiye uko umurambo wa Perezida Juvenal Habyarimana wavanywe i Kigali ukagezwa muri Congo.

Yanavuze kandi ku kuntu yabonanye na bamwe mu mpunzi zatahutse mu Rwanda ziturutse Tingi-Tingi, zamusobanuriye ko zakekaga ko nizigera i Rwanda zizasanga imiryango yabo yarishwe, ariko zigasanga yose iri mu mutekano.

Urugendo yakoze rwavuye Kigali rwerekeza Kibeho, rukomereza i Goma, Walikale, Osso, Lubutu, Kisangani, Ubundu, Mbandaka, Tingi-Tingi na Kinshasa.

Aha hose rero yahahuriye n’abantu bamuhaye ubuhamya bw’uko ibintu byari byifashe mu 1994 impunzi zihunga, ziri mu nkambi. Yahuye kandi n’Abanyarwanda babaye mu nkambi bamubwiye ko batigeze bicwa n’ingabo z’Inkotanyi, ahubwo ko abari barabajyanye ari bo babicaga, ubundi bakajya bicwa n’inzara cyangwa umunaniro.

Yagarutse kandi ku nkuru y’inzira ndende igoye impunzi zanyuzemo zaragizwe ingwate n’interahamwe, abasirikare, n’abayobozi bahamagariye kwica abatutsi. Mu bahungaga rero harimo impunzi zitishe, ariko hakabamo n’izari zivuye i Rwanda zimaze kwica Abatutsi. Mu gitabo ‘La Traversée’ harimo ubuhamya bwerekana uko bamwe bigambaga uko bishe Abatutsi bo mu karere k’iwabo.

Nyuma yaho, yanyuze ahantu hose yabonanye n’Abanye-Congo batandukanye, ababaza niba barabonye jenoside ya kabiri yakorerwaga ku mpunzi zari zarahahungiye, baramushwishuriza bararahira, bamwe bati `abantu barapfuye ariko ntabwo bishwe n’ingabo z’u Rwanda’, banamusobanuriye ko izo ngabo zari zifatanyije n’iza Kabila zirwanya Mobutu, ntawe zarwanyaga uretse ufite intwaro.

Abanye-Congo bamwe babwiye Patrick de Saint-Exupéry ko impunzi zimwe zari zifite intwaro, bikumvikana ko iyo ufite intwaro uba utakitwa impunzi.

Muri iki gitabo, akomeza yerekana neza ukuntu impunzi nyinshi zashiriye mu ruzi rwa Congo (Fleuve Congo), bamwe babasha kwambuka bagera muri Congo Brazzaville, abandi barahashirira. Avuga ko hari igice kimwe cy’impunzi cyazimiriye muri za Masisi n’ahandi mu mashyamba yo muri Congo, abenshi bakaba baragiye mu mutwe w’iterabwoba wa FDLR, cyane ko Abanyarwanda bamwe batigeze bataha.

Umuryango w’Abibumbye (LONI) wari waratanze imibare y’ibarura ry’impunzi z’Abahutu zahungishijwe ku gahato n’abari barateguye Jenoside bakanayikora. Ibarura ryavugaga ko bari ku mubare wa miriyoni imwe n’abantu magana abiri (1 200 000). Abagarutse mu Rwanda kuva mu 1997 bakaba barenze miriyoni imwe y’abantu (1 000 000).

Iki kinyoma cy’uko mu Rwanda no muri Congo yabaye jenocide yakorewe Abahutu, cyazamuwe cyane na Hubert Védrine n’abandi bafatanyije ingengabitekerezo yo guhakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bakoresheje imvugo yo guhimba indi yakorewe Abahutu.

Bemeza ko ingabo z’Inkotanyi bita iz’Abatutsi zageze mu Rwanda zigasanga imiryango yazo yarashize, noneho zigakurikirana Abahutu b’impunzi muri Congo zikajya kubica zihorera. Niko rero gusakaza ikinyoma kivuga ko umubare w’impunzi z’Abahutu zishwe n’ingabo z’Inkotanyi uri hagati ya miriyoni na miriyoni enye z’abantu (1 000 000-4 000 000). Mbega iyicwa ry’impunzi i Tingi-Tingi, ni ikinyoma cyahimbwe n’agatsiko k’abayobozi b’Abafaransa bashakaga gupfundikirana uruhare Leta bakoreraga ya Mitterrand yagize muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Impuzi zavuye Tingi-Tingi ubwazo zivugira ko nta mirwano yahabereye, nta bwicanyi bwahabereye, ahubwo ko bari mu kaga batewe n’ababagejeje iyo mu ishyamba rya Congo.

Ivu ry’umurambo wa Habyarimana ryaroshywe mu ruzi rwa Congo

Mu gitabo ‘La Traversée’, Patrick de Saint-Exupéry agaruka ku nkuru itangaje y’uburyo umugore wa Perezida Habyarimana, Agatha Kanziga, yahungishijwe n’Abafaransa agata umurambo w’umugabo we.

Amakuru avuga nyuma y’uko indege yari ivanye Habyarimana mu masezerano ya Arusha irashwe n’agatsiko k’abahezanguni batari bishimiye iby’ayo masezerano, umurambo wa Habyarimana wahise ugwa muri icyo gitero, wavanywe muri ‘Chapelle’ iri mu rugo rwe ukajyanwa kubikwa mu kigo cya gisirikare i Kanombe.

Uwo murambo waje kwimurwa, ujyanwa ahahoze hitwa Gisenyi (Rubavu y’ubu) ubikwa mu cyumba gikonjesha cy’uruganda rwa Bralirwa.

Mu gihe rero impunzi zambukaga zijya i Goma, ibyegera bya Habyarimana byaciye muri Bralirwa birawambukana. Uyu murambo waje kujyanwa i Gbadolite kwa Mubutu wari ufitanye umubano ukomeyena Perezida Habyarimana.

Mobutu ni we wakoresheje imihango yo guherekeza inshuti ye Habyarimana yitaga murumuna we, hari Agatha Kanziga waje avuye muri Kenya n’izindi nkoramutima zabo. Mu gihe ubutegetsi bwa Mobutu bwendaga kugera ku ndunduro, yasabye ko bataburura umurambo wa Habyarimana ni bwo yawohereje i Kinshasa. Uyu murambo waje gutwikirwa mu nzu yitwaga ‘Utexco’ yakorerwagamo imyenda, ubu iyo nzu ikaba ari icyicaro cya Ambasade y’u Bufaransa i Kinshasa.

Umaze gutwikwa, ivu ryanyanyagijwe mu ruzi wa Congo, maze bukeye bwaho Mobutu arahunga ntiyagaruka.

Patrick de Saint-Exupéry afite ubunararibonye mu itangazamakuru kuko yatsindiye igihembo cya mbere afite imyaka 19 gusa. Yanahawe kandi ibihembo byitwa prix Albert Londres, prix Bayeux des correspondants de guerre, ndetse aza no gushinga anayobora imyaka icumi ikinyamakuru La revue XXI.

Uretse igitabo cye giherutse “La Traversée’, yanditse ibindi bitabo birimo ‘L’inavouable : La France au Rwanda, 2004, Complice de l’inavouable : la France au Rwanda, 2009 na La fantaisie des Dieux, Rwanda 1994, mars 2014.

La Traversée, igitabo cyanditswe na Patrick de Saint-Exupéry
Patrick de Saint-Exupéry yagiranye ikiganiro kirambuye na Karirima Ngarambe, Umunyamakuru wa IGIHE ku Mugabane w'Uburayi
Inzira zanyuzemo impunzi zisohoka mu Rwanda zigana muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo
Opération Turquoise yakoreragamo ingabo z'Ubufaransa

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