Ni iki u Rwanda ruzungukira mu mu masezerano y’isoko rusange rya Afurika?

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 14 Mutarama 2021 saa 07:47
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Uretse Coronavirus, intangiriro z’uyu mwaka ku Mugabane wa Afurika zaranzwe no kwishimira itangizwa ku mugaragaro ry’amasezerano y’Isoko Rusange rya Afurika, African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA).

Ni amasezerano yasinyiwe i Kigali muri Werurwe 2018, mu Nama Idasanzwe y’Umuryango wa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe, yemezwa muri Mata umwaka wakurikiyeho nyuma y’uko ibihugu 22 byari bikenewe bimaze kuyemeza burundu.

Itangizwa ry’iri soko ryari ritegerejwe cyane, kuko ryitezweho kuvana igisebo ku Mugabane wa Afurika ukorana ubucuruzi n’indi migabane kurusha uko ukorana ubucuruzi hagati yawo.

Nk’ubu Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Bucuruzi n’Iterambere (UNCTAD) rivuga ko hagati y’umwaka wa 2015 na 2017, ubucuruzi hagati y’ibihugu bya Afurika bwari ku kigero cya 16.6% gusa, nyamara ubwa Afurika n’u Burayi bukaba ku kigero cya 60% mu gihe buri ku kigero cya 50% hagati ya Afurika na Aziya.

Iri soko rusange ni icyo rije gukemura, aho rigiye gukuraho imbogamizi zirimo imisoro, amategeko n’ibindi bitandukanye byatumaga ubucuruzi hagati ya Afurika bugenda biguru ntege.

Amasezerano ashyiraho iri soko avuga ko ibicuruzwa 90% bizakurirwaho imisoro mu gihe biri gucuruzwa hagati y’Umugabane wa Afurika kandi byahakorewe, intego igomba kuzaba yagezweho nibura mu mwaka wa 2034.

Icyo gihe, Afurika izaba ituwe na miliyari 1.8 z’abantu, bavuye kuri miliyari 1,3 bariho uyu munsi. Mu gihe rero Isoko rusange rya Afurika rizaba impamo, byitezwe ko rizazahura ubukungu bw’uyu mugabane ndetse rigatanga imirimo irenga miliyoni 100 hirya no hino.

Ni izihe nyungu u Rwanda ruzakura muri iri soko?

Muri rusange, mu gihe imisoro izaba imaze kugabanywa ku kigero cya 90%, byitezwe ko ibicuruzwa byo hirya no hino bizajya bitambuka imipaka mu buryo bwihuse kandi bidasoreshejwe.

Hari abahera kuri iyi ngingo bakibaza uzungukira muri iri soko, na cyane ko ingano y’ubukungu bw’ibihugu bya Afurika itandukanye cyane, ku buryo hari na bamwe mu mpuguke z’ubukungu bavuga ko iri soko rizungura ibihugu bikize, bisanzwe bifite inganda zikora ibintu byinshi.

Aba bavuga ko ibihugu nka Afurika y’Epfo na Misiri bisanzwe bikungahaye cyane ku nganda aribyo bizungukira muri iri soko kurusha ibihugu bikennye, byo bizakomeza kuba isoko ryoherezwamo ibyakorewe ahandi, bityo ntibizanagire ubushobozi bwo kwiyubakira inganda kuko ibyo bakazikoreye babibona hafi biturutse mu bindi bihugu.

Kubwa Teddy Kaberuka, impuguke mu bukungu, mu kiganiro na IGIHE, yavuze ko iri soko ridakwiye gutekerezwa gutyo, kuko rizoroshya ubucuruzi no ku Banyarwanda barangura, bazajya bakura ibicuruzwa hafi kandi kuri make, bikazatuma ibicuruzwa bihenduka muri rusange.

Yagize ati “ntidukwiye kureba isoko mu buryo bumwe, isoko si uguhangana ahubwo ni ukureba ibyo udafite ukabizana, ukanareba ibyo ufite ugashaka aho ubicuruza”.

Kaberuka yavuze ko u Rwanda ruzungukira muri iri soko muri rusange, bitewe n’uko rushobora kuzaba icyicaro cy’abashoramari bazashyira ibikorwa byabo mu Rwanda ariko bareba ku Isoko rya Afurika muri rusange.

Yagize ati “umwihariko w’u Rwanda ni uko ari igihugu kimaze hafi imyaka 10 gishyiraho uburyo bwiza bwo korohereza abashoramari, bivuze ko iri soko rya Afurika ku Rwanda, ni umuyoboro mwiza wo kwakira ishoramari rigari”.

U Rwanda rumaze igihe rushyiraho ingamba zigamije korohereza abanyamahanga baza gushora imari yabo mu gihugu, ku buryo ruri ku mwanya wa kabiri muri Afurika kuri iyi ngingo, nk’uko byemezwa na Raporo ya Banki y’Isi izwi nka ‘Doing Business Report’.

Perezida Paul Kagame kandi na we yigeze kugaruka kuri iyi ngingo avuga ku nyungu u Rwanda ruzakura muri iri soko rusange, aho yagize ati “Ku ruhande rwacu, twakomeje kubaka ubushobozi butuma tubasha gukora ubucuruzi no kureshya ishoramari. Uko ni ko ku rutonde rwa Doing Business, Banki y’Isi yashyize u Rwanda mu bihugu biri ku isonga mu korohereza abashoramari. Mu mwaka ushize u Rwanda rwari ku mwanya wa kabiri muri Afurika […]. Ibyo byose rero tubikorera kureshya ishoramari no koroshya ubucuruzi burimo n’ubwambukiranya imipaka, kandi imibare yerekana ko isoko rusange rya Afurika, rizatuma ubucuruzi hagati y’ibihugu bya Afurika bwiyongera ku gipimo kirenga 50%. Ibyo rero birerekana ko ayo ari amahirwe akomeye u Rwanda n’ibindi bihugu bya Afurika twiteguye kubyaza umusaruro no gutangamo umusanzu”.

Ku bwa Dr. Bihira Canisius w’impuguke mu bukungu, yavuze ko abacuruzi b’Abanyarwanda bakwiye gukoresha aya mahirwe mashya bagakora ubucuruzi mu buryo bwagutse kandi bwa kinyamwuga.

Yagize ati “abacuruzi bacu bakwiye kurangwa no kugira udushya tuzatuma bahangana ku Isoko rigari rya Afurika, ndetse bakiga gukora ibigezweho. Mu bucuruzi bwajemo ihangana aho umuguzi afite amahirwe yo guhitamo mu bintu byinshi, bisaba ko wowe umucuruzaho uba ufite ibintu byiza kurusha abandi”.

Bihira kandi yavuze ko nta rwitwazo abacuruzi b’Abanyarwanda bakwiye kugira, kuko ubuyobozi bw’igihugu bwamaze kwerekana ko bufite ubushake bwa politiki bwo gushyigikira iri soko, dore ko u Rwanda ruri mu bihugu bya mbere byamaze kwemeza aya masezerano burundu.

Afurika iriteguye?

Si ubwa mbere Umugabane wa Afurika ugerageza gukora amasezerano y’ubucuruzi manini nk’aya, ariko ku zindi nshuro zabanje ntiyagiye ashyirwa mu bikorwa bitewe n’impamvu zirimo gukorera mu kwaha kw’amahanga, ubushake buke bwa politiki n’ibindi bitandukanye.

Teddy Kaberuka yavuze ko kuri iyi nshuro, Afurika ifite amahirwe menshi yo kwesa uyu muhigo, ariko ko bizagorana kandi bigasaba kwihangana.

Iyi mpuguke yavuze ko bitewe n’uburyo imiterere y’ubucuruzi mpuzamahanga isigaye imeze muri iyi minsi, ibihugu bya Afurika “nta yandi mahitamo bifite usibye gufatanya n’abandi kuko ari byo byagira impinduka bizana”.

Yavuze ko mu gihe bitagenda gutyo, “Umugabane wa Afurika waba uhisemo ubukene bw’akarande”.

Kaberuka yongeyeho ko uburyo Afurika yitwaraga ku ruhando mpuzamahanga byayibuzaga amahirwe, ati “kuri ubu uko ungana ni ko kugena ibyo ugenerwa mu masezerano. Ibihugu bya Afurika ntibyajyaga bihabwa umwanya wo kugena ibiciro ku bicuruzwa byabyo kuko bitari bifite ijwi rimwe, ariko ubu bishobora kuzajya bigira uruhare mu byemezo by’ubucuruzi mpuzamahanga kandi bigafatwa hitawe ku nyungu za Afurika”.

Dr. Bihira we avuga ko aya masezerano afite amahirwe menshi yo gushyirwa mu bikorwa bitewe n’impinduka zimaze kuba ku Mugabane wa Afurika mu myaka 40 ishize.

Ati “abayobozi bariho abenshi ni bashya kandi bato, bafite icyerekezo cyo guteza imbere Umugabane. Bitandukanye na kirya gihe aho abenshi babaga barashyizweho n‘abakoloni bakanabategeka ibyo bakora. Kuri iyi nshuro iki ni icyifuzo cyazanywe n’abayobozi ba Afurika kandi bazagishyigira”.

Uruhuri rw’imbogamizi

N’ubwo isinywa ry’amasezerano ubwaryo ryari intambwe nziza iganisha ku gishyiraho isoko rusange, haracyari uruhuri rw’ibibazo bigikeneye kwitabwaho bya hafi kugira ngo bitazaba imbarutso yo gusubiza inyuma ibimaze kugerwaho.

Bimwe muri ibyo bibazo harimo iyubahirizwa ry’amasezerano binyuze mu mucyo, ingingo ishobora kuzagorana bitewe n’uko Raporo y’umuryango Urwanya Akarengane ku Isi, Transparency International, ikigaragaza ko ibihugu bya Afurika bikigenda biguru ntege mu kurandura ruswa.

Ruswa no kudakorera mu mucyo ni imbogamizi ikomeye kuri aya masezerano kuko ateganya ko ibicuruzwa byavanywe hanze y’Umugabane wa Afurika bizajya bisoreshwa nk’uko bisanzwe. Gusa mu gihe nk’igihugu cyavanye ibicuruzwa hanze ariko kikabyongerera agaciro, kizajya gisoreshwa umusoro w’igicuruzwa havuyeho ijanisha ry’agaciro kongeweho.

Nk’urugero, kuvana imodoka hanze bisanzwe bisorerwa 100%, ariko noneho mu gihe igihugu cyazanye ibice by’imodoka, hanyuma kikayongerera agaciro ku kigero cya 60%, kizajya kiyishyuraho umusoro ungana na 40% by’ibyavuye hanze.

Imbogamizi iri muri iyi ngingo ni uko ibihugu bya Afurika bikirangwamo ruswa iri hejuru bishobora kutazajya bikoresha ukuri maze bigatuma ibicuruzwa byaturutse hanze y’Umugabane na byo bitishyurirwa umusoro.

Kaberuka avuga ko iki ari ikibazo gikomeye ariko gishobora kuvugutirwa umuti. Yagize ati “bagomba gushyiraho uburyo bwa nyabwo bwo gukurikirana ibyo bintu kuko bishobora guteza igihombo n’amakimbirane. Ubu twateye imbere mu ikoranabuhanga, hakwiye kujyaho uburyo butuma bikorwa neza nk’uko bimeze ku mpapuro z’inzira”.

Mu gihe isoko rimaze gutangizwa, Kaberuka avuga ko hakwiye gukurikiraho ihuzwa ry’amasezerano n’amategeko ya buri gihugu, ibyo bikajyana no guhuza imipaka, kubaka ibikorwaremezo bishoboza ingendo gukorwa ndetse no gushyiraho uburyo bwo gukemura amakimbirane ashobora kuvuga hagati y’ibihugu byasinye aya masezerano.

Abahanga mu by’ubukungu bavuze ko mu gihe Isi yose yihugiyeho ihanganye n’ingaruka za Coronavirus, iri soko ari igisubizo cyiza ku Mugabane cyo kwishakamo ibisubizo byo guhangana n’ingaruka z’iki cyorezo.

Mu gihe byitezwe ko abaturage ba Afurika bazaba barenga miliyari enye mu mwaka wa 2100, ibihugu bya Afurika bikeneye gusiganwa n’igihe mu kuzamura ubukungu byabyo kuko bitagenze gutyo, uyu Mugabane wazahura n’ikibazo cyo kugira abaturage benshi badakora bityo Umugabane ukuzuramo akaduruvayo.

Isoko Rusangge rya Afurika rizaabanya umusoro ku bicuruzwa ku kigero cya 90%
Perezida Kagame ni umwe mu batangije aya masezerano ku mugaragaro

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