Kuva kuri Kayibanda kugeza ku Ishyirahamwe Jambo: Gusigasira igihango cya Parmehutu n’Ababiligi

Yanditswe na Mushimire Olivier
Kuya 21 Kanama 2020 saa 02:28
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Nyuma y’icyemezo cyo gushyira umwe mu bahakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu itsinda ry’impuguke zizafasha Abadepite b’u Bubiligi kwiga ku mateka y’igihe cy’ubukoloni bw’u Bubiligi mu Rwanda, Repubulika ya Demokarasi ya Congo n’u Burundi, Ingabire Victoire yahamagariye Leta y’u Rwanda kwakirana yombi iki cyemezo kuri we afata nk’igihesha ishema Abanyarwanda.

Mu byigaragaza, Jambo (Ishyirahamwe rikorera mu Bubiligi rihakana rikanapfobya jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ryashinzwe n’abakomoka cyangwa abafitanye isano n’Abajenosideri bahekuye u Rwanda) hamwe na Ingabire Victoire ntibigeze batatira umurage wa Parmehutu wo gukomera amashyi abakoloni b’Ababiligi; na nyuma y’imyaka 60 baracyakomera amashyi Abakoloni, bagafata Ababiligi nk’inkoramutima zabo. Ku bw’ibyo, nta gushidikanya ko umurage n’ingengabitekerezo bya Parmehutu bigifite abambari.

Muri Mata 1963, Perezida Kayibanda Grégoire, yandikiye ibaruwa uwari Ambasaderi w’u Bubiligi mu Rwanda, Col. Guy Logiest (wanategetse u Rwanda mbere y’ubwigenge). Kayibanda yabwiye Col. Logiest ko kuza kwe mu Rwanda mu 1959 byongereye imbaraga umugambi wo kwibohora nyako kwa rubanda nyamwinshi, kandi bifasha ku buryo budasubirwaho kugera ku ntsinzi y’Abahutu.

Ubwo Col. Logiest yageraga mu Rwanda mu 1959 yasanze Parmehutu ari ishyaka rya politiki ridafite intego yo guharanira ubwigenge mbere na mbere, kubera ko ritari rifite icyerekezo gihuriza hamwe abatuye igihugu bose. Umurongo wa politiki wa Parmehutu icyo gihe wari:”Kwikiza ubukoloni bw’Abatutsi, ibijyanye no guharanira ubwigenge bizaza nyuma.”

Kayibanda yahamagariraga abo yitaga ‘Abanyarwanda by’ukuri’ guhora iteka baha icyubahiro kandi bashimira u Bubiligi, kubera igikorwa cy’indashyikirwa bwabagejejeho cyo kubakiza ubukoloni bw’Abatutsi.

Iki gihango cya Parmehutu n’Ababiligi cyashize imizi mu ntekerezo ya politiki yashyizwe imbere aho Abatutsi bafatwaga nk’abakoloni aho kuba Abanyarwanda. Urugero, ku munsi wo kurahira kw’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ya mbere na Guverinoma y’agateganyo nyuma y’amatora y’inzego z’ibanze yo mu Ukwakira 1960, Kayibanda yabwiye abaminisitiri ko “ari ngombwa gusigasira imikoranire, umubano n’ubucuti bafitanye n’abazungu bifuza kugira uruhare mu kwigenga nyako kw’Abanyarwanda.”

Muri iryo jambo, Kayibanda yivuye inyuma ashimira Guverinoma y’u Bubiligi kubera “igikorwa cy’ubuhanga kandi gikomeza cyatangijwe mu rugendo rwo kubohora abaturage bacu b’Abanyarwanda”. Icyo gihe kandi yasabye Abanyarwanda gukomeza kwemerera Ababiligi bakabafata akaboko, kugira ngo babereke inzira y’iterambere. Mu yandi magambo, abibwiraga ko babonye ubwigenge ku Batutsi, bari bishyize ku bwende bwabo mu maboko y’Ababiligi ngo babayobore.

Iyo myumvire yashimangiwe mu ijambo rya Kayibanda ku itariki ya 1 Nyakanga 1962 ku munsi u Rwanda rwaboneyeho ubwigenge; yareruye ashimira u Bubiligi “ku mbaraga zose bwakoresheje ngo bufashe kandi buyobore Igihugu cyacu kugeza ku bwigenge.”

Yakomeje ahamya ko “muri rusange, ibyagezweho mu myaka 40 y’ubutegetsi bw’Ababiligi ari indashyikirwa, kandi ibisekuru by’ahazaza bizahora bishimira u Bubiligi”. Mu gusoza ijambo rye, Kayibanda yamenyesheje u Bubiligi buzahora ari inshuti ya mbere y’u Rwanda y’ibihe byose, kubera umusanzu wabwo mu gushyigikira impinduramatarwa yo mu 1959 [yaranzwe n’ubwicanyi, gutwikira no kumenesha Abatutsi].

Impinduramatwara na Jenoside

Amacakubiri ashingiye ku murage w’icyiswe impinduramatwara yo mu 1959 yongeye kwamamazwa mbere, muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi na nyuma yayo. Muri Mata 1994, ubwo Jenoside yari irimo gukorwa, Igihugu gitemba imivu y’amaraso, Shingiro Mbonyumutwa wari mu Ishyaka MDR-Hutu Power, akaba umuhungu w’umwe mu bashinze Ishyaka Parmehutu, ndetse akaba ari na Se wa bamwe mu bashinze Ishyirahamwe Jambo, yatanze ubutumwa kuri radiyo bushishikariza kwica Abatutsi.

Mu mvugo itaziguye, yashishikarije Interahamwe zari kuri za bariyeri “kwihagararaho” agira ati “ngaho nimutekereza bariya Batutsi baturutse hanze nibatangira kwihorera ku Bahutu babahejeje mu mahanga mu myaka 30 ishize [kuva mu 1959]; ndababwiza ukuri, ikibazo cy’Abahutu mu Rwanda kizahita gikemuka vuba cyane; ni ugutsembatsemba, bagatsembatsemba, bagatsembatsemba ...kugeza basigaye bonyine muri iki gihugu. Mureke rero ntihagire n’umwe ucika intege.”

Ubwo guverinoma yasize ikoze Jenoside yari igeze mu cyahoze ari Zaïre mu 1994, yashyizeho umurongo mushya wo guhuriza Abanyarwanda hamwe hagendewe ku ngengabitekerezo y’icyiswe impinduramatwara yo mu 1959.

Nk’uko bigaragara mu nyandiko y’Ubuyobozi bukuru bw’ingabo zakoze Jenoside yabereye i Goma muri Nzeri 1994, hemejwe ko impunzi z’Abanyarwanda zikangurirwa kandi zikabibwamo ingengabitekerezo y’impinduramatwara yo mu 1959.

Icyo gihe abahezanguni batangiye ubukangurambaga bwabaye nk’umusingi w’ibikorwa bisigasira ihakana n’ipfobya bya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi byimakazwa n’Ishyirahamwe Jambo ry’abakomoka ku bajenosideri n’abandi bagikomeye ku murage w’icyiswe “revolisiyo yo mu 1959”.

Undi mwanzuro w’inama yo muri Nzeri 1994 y’ubuyobozi bw’igisirikare cyakoze jenoside, ni ugushaka abantu bashya bo kujya ku ruhembe kuvugira “badafite icyasha, kandi bizewe mu maso y’abafatanyabikorwa.” Abari bitabiriye iyo nama bashishikarijwe kugirana ibiganiro n’inshuti zabo, kugira ngo zibagaragaze abo bifuza ko baba nk’abahuza n’abavugizi mu mwanya wa Guverinoma y’Abatabazi yashyize mu bikorwa umugambi wa Jenoside.

Iyi guverinoma yiyitaga iyo mu buhungiro, yagiranye ibiganiro n’inshuti zabo mu muryango mpuzamahanga, nabo ubwabo bagize uruhare ruziguye cyangwa rutaziguye muri Jenoside, zibagira inama yo gushinga umuryango uvugira impunzi z’Abanyarwanda mu mwanya wa guverinoma. Ubwo nibwo buryo rukumbi bashoboraga guhabwamo ubufasha mu bya dipolomasi, cyane cyane ko iyo guverinoma yari yarabaye ruvumwa ku rwego mpuzamahanga.

Ibi kandi byari butume izi nshuti zabo zibafasha mu buryo bweruye mu kugerageza gusubirana ubutegetsi no kurangiza umugambi batari bararangije ko gutsemba uwitwa Umututsi wese mu Rwanda.

Hashingiwe ku nama Guverinoma yiyitaga iyo mu buhungiro n’igisirikare cyayo byagiriwe n’inshuti z’inkoramutima zababaye hafi kuva mu 1959, nibwo hashinzwe Umutwe witwaga “RDR” muri Mata 1995, ushingirwa i Mugunga mu nkambi nkuru y’igisirikare cya Guverinoma y’Abajenosideri; intego y’ibanze ya RDR yari “gutuma hamenyekana ukuri ku makuba yagwiririye Abanyarwanda.” Nyuma y’imyaka mike, Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza, yagizwe Perezida wa RDR.

Jambo yateruye ikivi cya Parmehutu

Muri ya gahunda yo gushaka mu buryo burambye abantu bashya, badafite icyasha kandi bafitiwe icyizere n’abafatanyabikorwa, kugira ngo babungabunge umurage w’icyiswe impinduramatwara yo mu 1959, ni bwo hashinzwe Ishyirahamwe Jambo ryiyita ko rihagarariye “Diaspora y’Abahutu”, kugira ngo rikomeze umugambi wo “kwibohora nyako kw’Abanyarwanda kwatangijwe na Parmehutu.”

Mu 2016 Jambo yakwirakwije inkuru yahamagariraga ‘Diaspora y’Abahutu” guhamya “Ubuhutu” [Hutu identity] kandi bagaterwa ishema nabwo. Muri iyo nyandiko yari ishingiye ku biganiro uwayanditse yagiranye n’abagize Jambo ndetse n’abiyita ko bagize “Diaspora y’Abahutu” baba mu Bubiligi; uwanditse iyo nkuru yavuze ko “Abagize Diaspora y’Abahutu” bamubwiye ko bashinze “ihuriro ritavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi.”

Ku bijyanye na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, iyi nyandiko yavugaga ko “Diaspora y’Abahutu” itemera inyito ya “Jenoside” kugeza igihe guverinoma y’Abatutsi iriho ubu izemerera ko habaye jenoside ebyiri: iyo mu Rwanda n’iyo muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo.

Abahanga bavuga ko iyo amataka yibagiranye ashobora kwisubiramo; uyu munsi, nyuma y’imyaka 60 kuva Kayibanda na Parmehutu bashimiye u Bubiligi kubera umusanzu wabwo mu cyiswe intsinzi y’Abahutu mu 1959 n’imyaka yakurikiyeho, Madamu Victoire Umuhoza Ingabire n’Ishyirahamwe Jambo, nabo bateye ikirenge mu cyabo bashimira byimazeyo Inteko Ishinga Amategeko y’u Bubiligi kuba yaratoranyije umwe mu bagize Jambo, akaba no mu cyiswe “Diaspora y’Abahutu” mu Bubiligi, kugira ngo afashe gucukumbura amateka atavugwaho rumwe y’u Bubiligi mu gihe cy’ubukoloni.

Biroroshye kwiyumvisha mu guhitamo impuguke zizafasha gucukumbura amateka y’u Bubiligi mu gihe cy’ubukoloni, niba intego igamijwe ari uko icyo gikorwa kizagera ku mwanzuro ushimangira ko “umusaruro w’imyaka 40 y’ubutegetsi bw’u Bubiligi mu Rwanda ari nta makemwa”, impuguke yagombaga kuva mu bakanguriwe indangagaciro za “revolisiyo yo mu 1959” bafitanye igihango n’u Bubiligi, kugira ngo bakomeze ikivi cya Parmehutu cyo guhora bashimira u Bubiligi.

Ishyirahamwe Jambo, ryashibutse kuri “Hutu Power” ya Shingiro Mbonyumutwa kandi rikorera mu murongo wa RDR yahoze iyoborwa na Ingabire Victoire, rikomeye ku murage w’icyiswe “impinduramatwara yo mu 1959”, nta gitangaza kubona rikomera amashyi icyemezo cy’Umutwe w’Abadepite w’u Bubiligi cyo gukorana n’iyo “mpuguke”, ndetse binubahirije wa murage wa Parmehutu wo gushimira u Bubiligi iteka ryose.

Ku ruhande rw’u Bubiligi, igihango cya politiki bwagiranye na Parmehutu kuri bwo byari bifite inyungu, kuko muri ibyo bihe hari inkubiri ya politiki yo kwirukana abakoloni ku mugabane wa Afurika. Icya kabiri, u Bubligi bwabonye ko bushobora gusigasira inyungu zabwo binyuze mu gushimangira umubano n’abakanguriwe “revolusiyo yo mu 1959”, bagifite imyumvire yo “kwikiza ubukoloni bw’Abatutsi”. Ku ruhande rw’u Bubiligi, byari kuba ari ubugambanyi kutagororera abiyemeje kusa ikivi cya Parmehutu.

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