Kuki u Rwanda rwaje mu myanya y’inyuma mu kubaka ubushobozi bw’umuntu?

Yanditswe na Evariste Nsengimana
Kuya 25 Mutarama 2020 saa 10:12
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Mu 2001 nibwo u Rwanda rwashyize imbaraga mu kongera umubare w’abagana ishuri. Icyo gihe abiga mu mashuri abanza biyongereyeho 34%, bituma n’umubare w’abajya mu mashuri yisumbuye wiyongera hahita hashyirwaho amashuri y’uburezi bw’ibanze bw’imyaka icyenda na 12.

Ubwo bwiyongere ariko ntabwo bwazamukanye n’ireme ry’uburezi haba mu buryo abanyeshuri bigishwa n’ibyigishwa mu mashuri bagezemo.

Icyegeranyo Banki y’Isi iheruka gusohora kigaragaza ubushobozi n’umusaruro umwana wavutse uyu munsi azaba afite nagira imyaka 18 (Human Capital Index 2018) hashingiwe ku buvuzi n’uburezi biri mu gihugu cye, gishyira u Rwanda ku mwanya wa 142 mu bihugu 157.

Ibisobanuro bitangwa n’impuguke kuri iki cyegeranyo ntibijya kure y’ireme ry’uburezi, by’umwihariko aho mu mashuri yo mu Rwanda bimaze iminsi bigaragara ko rikiri ku rwego rwo hasi ndetse ko hakenewe ingamba zihamye kugira ngo umunyeshuri wo mu Rwanda ajye arangiza icyiciro cy’amashuri yigaga afite ubumenyi bujyanye na cyo.

Tariki ya 23 Nzeri 2019, ubwo yasuraga ibigo bitandukanye muri Gicumbi, Umuyobozi Mukuru wa REB, Dr Ndayambaje Irénée yatangajwe n’uburyo yageze ku kigo cy’amashuri abanza cya Nyande, yinjira mu ishuri ryo mu mwaka wa Gatanu, ahaye umunyeshuri ngo amwandikire indamukanyo y’Icyongereza ‘Good Morning Sir’, abyandika mu Kinyarwanda.

Ubwo yari mu nama Komisiyo ishinzwe Uburezi Gatolika mu Nama y’Abepisikopi yateguye igamije gusuzuma icyerekezo n’ingamba z’uburezi mu gushyigikira ireme ryabwo mu Rwanda, Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ishami rishinzwe Politiki n’Igenamigambi muri Minisiteri y’Uburezi, Baguma Rose, yavuze ko biterwa ahanini n’ubwitabire buri hasi bw’abana bashyirwa mu mashuri y’inshuke n’abatiga ngo barangize.

Ati “Icya mbere ni imyaka abana bamara biga. Ni ukuvuga ngo niba mvutse uyu munsi nkageza ku myaka 18 nzaba nize amashuri angahe? Icyo kintu cyadushyize hasi cyane ariko cyane cyane mu mashuri y’incuke kuko abana benshi ntabwo bayiga, usanga ahita agenda agatangira amashuri abanza.”

Amashuri y’incuke nicyo cyiciro cyihariye, gitegura umwana gutangira amashuri abanza ari ku rwego rumufasha kumva neza ibiyigishirizwamo. Umwana utayize uretse gusigara inyuma mu bumenyi, binagabanya ingano y’imyaka yagombaga kuzaba yize kugira ngo bijyanye n’ibipimo by’icyegeranyo cya Banki y’Isi.

Gahunda ya Guverinoma iteganya ko nibura umubare w’abanyeshuri banyura mu mashuri y’incuke wiyongera bakava kuri 24% by’abana bari hagati y’imyaka itatu n’itandatu, bakagera kuri 45% mu myaka irindwi iri imbere.

Guta ishuri

Gusa ku rundi ruhande usanga umubare w’abana bata ishuri ukomeza kugenda uzamuka na wo ugira ingaruka zikomeye mu gutuma u Rwanda ruza mu myanya y’inyuma y’iki cyegeranyo.

Baguma ati “Ariko nanone na ba bana bata amashuri nabo [bari mu bituma tuza inyuma]. Ni ukuvuga ngo niba nize amashuri abanza, umwaka wa mbere, uwa kabiri nkagera mu wa kane nkacikiriza amashuri, ni ukuvuga ngo nize imyaka ine mu buzima bwanjye mu gihe bareba nko mu bindi bihugu bagasanga umwana amaze imyaka irenga 10 yiga.”

Raporo Minisiteri y’Uburezi iheruka gutangaza, igaragaza ko mu mwaka w’amashuri wa 2017/18, abanyeshuri baretse kwiga mu mashuri abanza bageze kuri 6.7% bavuye kuri 5.6% mu 2016/17 mu gihe mu 2015/16 bari kuri 5.7%.

Mu mashuri abanza iyi raporo igaragaza ko abahungu ari bo baza imbere mu guta amashuri ugereranyije na bagenzi babo b’abakobwa naho mu yisumbuye abakobwa bakaza imbere.

Mu mwaka wa 2017/18 abahungu bataye ishuri bari 7% abakobwa ari 6.3%, mu 2016/17 abahungu bari 5.9% abakobwa ari 5.3% mu gihe mu mwaka wawubanjirije abahungu bari 6% abakobwa ari 5.4%.

Iyo raporo igaragaza ko mu mashuri yisumbuye abayavuyemo mu mwaka w’amashuri wa 2017/18 bageze kuri 5.8% bavuye kuri 4.4% mu 2016/17 mu gihe mu 2015/16 bari kuri 4.5%.

Bitandukanye no mu mashuri abanza, mu yisumbuye ho bigaragara ko abakobwa ari bo bava mu ishuri cyane kurusha abahungu.

Mu mwaka wa 2017/18, abakobwa bavuye mu ishuri bari 6.1% abahungu ari 5.5%, mu 2016/17 abakobwa bari 4.7% abahungu ari 4% mu gihe mu 2015/16 abakobwa bari 4.8% abahungu ari 4.1% gusa.

Ubusanzwe umunyeshuri aba agomba gutangira kwiga amashuri y’incuke hakiri kare, akayigamo imyaka itatu mbere y’uko akomereza mu y’abanza akayamaramo imyaka itandatu n’ayisumbuye.

Ati “Urumva kugira ngo umuntu agire imyaka 18 aba afite imyaka runaka amaze yiga. Ikindi ni ukureba ngo niyo waba umaze iyo myaka yose wiga, icyo uvanye mu ishuri ni iki? ubwo nyine hazamo rya reme ry’imyigire n’imyigishirize.”

Aho niho bahera bavugaa ngo umwana ugeze mu mwaka runaka agomba kuba azi ibi n’ibi bitewe n’ibyo abari ku rwego rwe bigishwa.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na Save the Children mu 2011, bwagaragaje ko 13% by’abana biga mu wa Kane w’amashuri abanza baba badafite ubushobozi bwo gusoma neza Ikinyarwanda cyigishwa mu mwaka wa kabiri no mu wa Gatatu, mu gihe abandi 13% badashobora gusoma neza amagambo 15 mu munota umwe.

Baguma ati “Aho niho hari ikibazo cyane. Mu mikoranire n’abafatanyabikorwa harimo kurebwa cyane icyo abana biga. Biga bate? Bigishwa na nde, ubumenyi afite ni ubuhe, abutanga gute?.”

Uyu muyobozi yavuze kandi ko ku bufatanye n’abafatanyabikorwa Leta ikomeje gushyira imbaraga mu kongera umubare w’ibyumbaa by’amashuri guhera ku y’incuke no guharanira ko umwana utangiye ishuri arikomeza n’uwaritaye akarigarurwamo.

Ku bijyanye no kongera umubare w’amashuri y’incuke, Umushumba wa Diyosezi Gatolika ya Butare, akaba na Perezida w’Inama y’Abepiskopi mu Rwanda, Mgr Philippe Rukamba, avuga ko Kiliziya izakomeza gushyira imbaraga mu kongera ibyumba by’amashuri cyane cyane ay’incuke, aho nibura buri Paruwasi igomba kugira nibura arenze rimwe.

Imibare ya Minisiteri y’Uburezi igaragaza ko abanyarwanda 23% bari hagati y’imyaka 13 na 18 ari bo bize mu mashuri yisumbuye hagati ya 2013 na 2017, mu gihe abize Kaminuza ari 3 %.

Umuyobozi Mukuru w'Ishami ry'Igenamigambi muri Minisiteri y'Uburezi, Baguma Rose ari gutanga ikiganiro
Umushumba wa Diyosezi Gatolika ya Butare, akaba na Perezida w’Inama y’Abepiskopi mu Rwanda, Mgr Philippe Rukamba avuga ko Kiliziya itazahwema kongera amashuri

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