Kubakira ubushobozi SACCO no guhuza ibikorwa byazo mu ikoranabuhanga, uburyo bwazifasha kunoza imikorere

Yanditswe na Nsekanabo Emma
Kuya 29 Kanama 2019 saa 03:59
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Guhera mu mwaka ushize, Ikigo cya Access to Finance Rwanda (AFR) cyatangiye igikorwa cyo guhindura amakoperative yo kuzigama no kugurizanya y’abahinzi b’icyayi (SACCOs) mo ibigo by’imari bifite udushya, imikorere myiza kandi byunguka, kugira ngo bigire uruhare mu gufasha abaturage bakennye kurusha abandi baba mu cyaro mu Rwanda.

Ikigo cya AFR cyateganyije amafaranga azakoreshwa mu kongerera ubushobozi Koperative eshanu zo kuzigama no kugurizanya z’abahinzi b’icyayi mu gihe cy’imyaka ibiri. Izo koperative ni CSTCR, AMIZERO, GATARE, PFUNDA na TRASO.

Koperative yo kuzigama no kugurizanya y’abahinzi b’icyayi ya CSTCR ikorera mu ruhererekane rw’imisozi y’Akarere ka Rulindo mu Majyaruguru y’u Rwanda, ni imwe muri izo Koperative zo kuzigama no kugurizanya (SACCOs) eshanu zizafashwa na AFR mu gushyigikira igikorwa cyo kuzongerera ubushobozi no kunoza uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga mu rwego rw’imikorere yazo nk’amabanki.

Ikigamijwe na AFR ni ugufasha ayo makoperative yo kuzigama no kugurizanya (SACCOs) guha serivisi z’imari abakiliya bazo; cyane cyane abanyarwanda bakennye, by’umwihariko abahinzi n’abasoromyi b’icyayi.

Ikigo cya AFR gitanga ubufasha mu by’ubukungu kuri za SACCO kugira ngo zinoze imikorere yazo mu gutanga serivisi z’imari.

Ariko mbere na mbere AFR yasanze izo koperative zikwiye kongererwa ubushobozi mu rwego rw’imiyoborere myiza, imicungire y‘inguzanyo, imicungire y’abakozi, kongera serivisi z’imari no guteza imbere imenyekanishabikorwa. AFR yatangiye gufasha CSTCR muri izo nzego zose kuva mu mwaka wa 2018 kugeza ubu.

Ikigo cya AFR kandi cyafashije koperative ya CSTCR gushyiraho uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga muri serivisi z’ingenzi zitangwa n’ayo ma Koperative harimo kubakira ubushobozi abagize Inama y’Ubutegetsi ya SACCO, abacungamutungo ndetse n’abandi bakozi.

Birakwiye ko koperative za SACCO zigira abagize inama y’Ubutegetsi ndetse n’abakozi muri rusange bafite ubushobozi bwo kuziteza imbere no kunoza imitangire ya serivise ku bakiriya bazo.

Mu rwego rwo gusigasira ibyagezweho ndetse n’iterambere ry’izindi koperative za SACCO, AFR yashatse inzobere mpuzamahanga mu bijyanye n’imari kugira ngo ihugure ndetse ikorane n’izindi nzobere zo mu gihugu mu bijyanye no kugenzura imikorere y’inzego, kwitwararika, imiyoborere myiza, gushyiraho serivisi zigomba gutangwa kimwe no gushyiraho ingamba zikwiye.

Ni muri urwo rwego inzobere mpuzamahanga yashatse izindi inzobere enye zo mu Rwanda. Ikigenderewe muri ubu buryo bw’imikorere ni ukugira ngo hazifashishwe ubushobozi buboneka mu karere no kugabanya guhora hitabazwa inzobere mpuzamahanga igihe cyose abatanga serivisi z’imari bakeneye ubufasha.

Kubakira ubushobozi SACCO bitanga umusaruro

Madamu Agnes Mukandayisenga, Umucungamutungo wa SACCO, avuga ko kubakirwa ubushobozi mu nzego zinyuranye nk’icungamutungo n’imiyoborere myiza, byahaye SACCO icyerekezo hagashyirwaho urwego rugamije kongera umusaruro ndetse n’inyungu.

Ati “Duhereye ku bufasha n’inama twahawe na AFR, twateguye uburyo ndetse n’urwego rw’imikorere kugira ngo tubashe kwiteza imbere. Ubu tuzi neza ibyo dushaka kugeraho kandi twashyizeho umurongo w’iterambere rya SACCO yacu; ibyo tukaba tutarabashaga kubikora tutarabona ubu bufasha.”

Akamaro ko kuvugurura serivisi z’imari

AFR yagize uruhare rugaragara mu kuvugurura no gushyiraho serivisi z’imari nshya zitahabwaga abakiriya.

Hagamijwe guha abakiriya serivisi zinoze no gukurura abandi bakiriya, AFR ndetse n’abakozi ba CSTCR bavuguruye kandi bashyiraho serivisi shya esheshatu mu rwego rwo gukemura ibibazo bijyanye n’imari, ku ba kiriya bari bitezweho gukoresha amakoperative yo kuzigama no kugurizanya.

Konti ya Nkungukire (Konti ibikuzwaho mu gihe cyagenwe): Iyi serivisi ifasha umukiriya kubitsa umubare w’amafaranga runaka ashaka uhereye ku mafaranga 50.000 Frw, noneho amafaranga abikijwe SACCO ikayungukira amafaranga 6% ku mwaka.

Mu rwego rwo gushishikariza abanyamuryango ba SACCO kuzigamira ibihe bizaza no kongera ubwizigame bw’igihe kirekire, abanyamuryango babikuje amafaranga bazigamye mbere y’igihe bemenyeranyijweho na SACCO, bakatwa 10% ry’ayo babikuje.

Konti ya Mbikira (Ubwizigame bw’igihe kirekire): Iyi serivisi ituma umukiriya ashobora kubitsa umubare uwo ari wo wose w’amafaranga ashaka kugeza igihe agereje ku mubare w’amafaranga y’u Rwanda asabwa, byibura 50.000 Frw, noneho akabasha kujya ahabwa inyungu inga na 6% buri mwaka.

Inguzanyo Yihuse: Iyi ni serivisi isanzwe itangwa ariko AFR ifatanyije n’abakozi ba SACCO bashyizeho uburyo bw’imikorere butuma hagabanuka igihe cyo kubona inguzanyo. Ubu, umukiriya ashobora kubona inguzanyo mu gihe cy’iminsi ibiri aho kuba icyumweru.

Hinga Ahagutse (inguzanyo y’ubuhinzi): Izina ry’iyi serivisi risaba ko umuntu akora cyane bitewe n’igisobanuro cyayo. Mu rurimi rw’Ikinyarwanda ugenekereje irasobanura ngo “agura ubuhinzi bwawe”.

Mu buryo bw’ imenyekanishabikorwa, byoroheye SACCO kwamamaza bene iyi serivisi kuko ihamagarira abakiriya bakeneye iyi serivisi gukora cyane.

Inguzanyo ya Curuza (inguzanyo y’ubucuruzi): Iyi nguzanyo igenewe guhabwa ba rwiyemezamirimo n’abacuruzi bo mu karere SACCO ikoreramo.

Inguzanyo ya Wige Nawe (Inguzanyo y’uburezi): Nyuma yo kubona ko bamwe mu basoromyi b’icyayi bataye ishuli bakiri bato, AFR yafatanyije na COOPEC TRASO gushyiraho inguzanyo y’uburezi, hagamijwe gushishikariza urubyiruko rusoroma icyayi gusubira mu ishuri.

Iyi serivisi igamije kandi gushishikariza ababyeyi bakora mu mirima y’icyayi kwitabira gahunda yo kuzigamira uburezi bw’abana babo.

Ibimenyetso bigaragaza ko iyo hashyizweho serivisi shya n’izisanzwe zigatunganywa ndetse n’abakozi bagahugurwa, SACCO ikora neza kurushaho kandi igatanga ibyo abaturage baba bayitegerejeho..

Ikoreswha ry’ ikoranabuhanga muri SACCO byatumye zirushaho gukora neza

Kuva kera, CSTCR kimwe n’izindi SACCO nyinshi mu Rwanda zagiye zihangana n’ikibazo cyo gukoresha amafishi n’udutabo; ibyo bigatera ibibazo bitandukanye bikanagira ingaruka ku mitangire ya serivisi z’imari ndetse n’ibikorwa byazo.

Kuva mu mwaka ushize, AFR yongereye inkunga igenera CSTCR kugira ngo ibashe gushyiraho no gukoresha ikoranabuhanga rigezweho rikoreshwa na za banki ririmo na mallete zigendanwa.

Mukandayisenga yagize ati “Gukoresha amafishi n’udutabo rimwe na rimwe byateraga ubwoba abakozi ba za SACCO ndetse n’abakiriya. Gukoresha amafishi n’udutabo byararushyaga kandi bigatwara umwanya ku bakozi, ariko cyane cyane bikawutwara abakiriya kubera ko serivisi zatangagwa nabi kandi zigatinda."

Mu gukora amaraporo, abakozi ba SACCO bandikaga buri kintu bakoresheje urupapuro rwa porogaramu ya Microsoft Excel kandi raporo igakorwa mu gihe kingana n’iminsi 30. Hifashishijwe uburyo bushya bw’ikoranabuhanga mpuzamahanga bukoreshwa mu ma banki muri rusange, raporo zinyuranye z’ibikorwa bya banki zishobora gukorwa umunsi umwe gusa.

Yakomeje ati "Gukoresha ikoranabuhanga bifite ikinyuranyo kigaragara mu mikorere yacu ya buri munsi cyane cyane mu bijyanye no kunoza serivisi zihabwa abatugana. Muri iki gihe, abakiliya bacu bahabwa serivisi zihuse kandi zinoze. Urugero, gusaba inguzanyo byafataga icyumweru cyose ariko ubu bifata umunsi umwe gusa; ibisabwa byose bipfa kuba byuzuye."

Byagaragaye kandi ko abakozi ba SACCO batanga umusaruro usumbyeho kubera ko bagira umwanya uhagije wo gutekereza ku ngamba ndetse n’imikorere, ku imenyeshabikorwa rya serivisi z’imari zitangwa no ku ishyirwaho rya serivisi nshya; ibyo byose bifasha kongera inyungu SACCO ikura mu bikorwa byayo.

Iterambere nizamuka ry’inyungu

Gukorana na CSTCR mu kongera ubushobozi no gukoresha ikoranabuhanga mu bikorwa bya SACCO, byagiye byongera inyungu mu buryo bugaragara za SACCO.

Muri Kamena 2019, inyungu ya SACCO yavuye kuri miliyoni 22 Frw ( asaga $22.000) igera kuri miliyoni 47 Frw (asaga $51,540); ibyo bisobanuyeko inyungu mbumbe yiyongereye ku kigero cya 135%.

SACCO yabashije kandi gutangiza ubundi bucuruzi bushya na Commercial Bank of Africa (CBA) hifashishijwe uburyo bwa MOBICASH; akaba ari uburyo bushya bwo kwishyura bugendanwa.

Iyi mikoranire mishya y’ubucuruzi ituma SACCO ikusanya ikanaha abakiriya bayo ubwishingizi mu kwivuza (mutuelle de santé). SACCO ihabwa komisiyo na Commercial Bank of Africa nk’igihembo cy’iyo serivisi.

Umubare w’amafaranga y’inguzanyo yahabwaga abakene warazamutse uva kuri miliyoni 188 Frw ($206,140) ugera kuri miliyoni 366 Frw ($401,315 ); izo nguzanyo zikaba zingana na 95% by’inguzanyo zose zatanzwe mu mwaka kugeza muri Kamena 2019. Ikigero cy’inguzanyo zitishyurwa neza cyazamutseho gusa kuva kuri 1% kugera kuri 2.5% bitewe n’umubare munini w’abakiliya bafashe inguzanyo.

Amafaranga y’ubwizigame bw’abakiriya muri SACCO yazamutse ku kigero cya 36% ava kuri miliyoni 208 Frw ($228,070 ) agera kuri miliyoni 284 Frw ($311,400 ); ibi bikaba byaratewe n’umubare w’abakiriya ba SACCO wiyongereye ukava ku 8825 ukagera kuri 10580.

Mu rwego rwo gusigasira ibyagezweho ndetse n’iterambere ry’ibikorwa byayo mu rwego rw’imari, AFR izakomeza kugenzura no gutanga amakuru ku byagezweho kimwe n’amasomo yungutse biturutse kuri ibyo bikorwa.

AFR ifite intego yo gukomeza guteza imbere serivisi z’imari zunguka, zikora neza kandi zidaheza ndetse n’uko ubucuruzi bwa serivisi z’imari bwabasha kugera ku bantu benshi babyifuza mu Rwanda, cyane cyane abakennye kurusha abandi.

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