Intandaro y’inzara idasanzwe n’ubukene bwazonze u Rwanda mu 1990

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 3 Mutarama 2019 saa 08:42
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Mu 1990, hari abaturage basanze burugumesitiri mu biro bamufungiramo, bamuziza kuba bamubonye mu itangizwa ry’umushinga bafataga nk’uje kubakina ku mubyimba bo bari kwicwa n’inzara.

USAID ntigaragaza neza aho ibi byabereye n’uwo mushinga w’iterambere uko witwaga, gusa ivuga ko abo baturage hari nubwo batangiriye imodoka y’uwo burugumesitiri bayitega ibiti ubwo yari agiye gusura uwo mushinga babonaga nk’ugamije gukiza abayobozi n’abanyamahanga mu gihe bo bicira isazi mu jisho.

Imyaka ya 1989 kugeza mu 1994 u Rwanda rwari aharindimuka. Inzara yacaga ibintu kuva ku muto kugera ku mukuru.

Raporo ya Loni kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi (Rwanda Preventable Genocide) ivuga ko nyuma ya 1985 ‘inkuta zari zubatse u Rwanda zari zatangiye gusaduka’.

Umwaka wa 1989 waje ari rurangiza. Ibiciro ku rwego mpuzamahanga byaragabanyutse ku bicuruzwa nk’ikawa n’icyayi ari nabyo ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwari bushingiyeho.

Ubusanzwe ibihugu nka Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika nibyo byaguraga icyayi n’ikawa nyinshi mu bihugu bikennye nk’u Rwanda.

Uwo mwaka abacuruzi bakomeye b’ikawa muri Amerika batangiye gushyira igitutu kuri Leta yabo ngo iteshe agaciro amasezerano yagiranye n’ibihugu bihinga ikawa.

Ibiciro by’ikawa byaramanutse ku kigero 50 %. Ni umusonga wageze muri buri rugo rw’umunyarwanda icyo gihe kuko benshi mu baturage bari barakanguriwe guhinga ikawa.

Ubukungu bw’igihugu bwaramanutse ku buryo bugaragara. Umusaruro mbumbe w’umunyarwanda ku mwaka mu 1989 wari amadolari 413 ariko mu mwaka wakurikiyeho wabaye amadolari 386, mu mwaka wa 1991 uba amadolari 276.

Amafaranga Leta yinjiza nayo yatangiye kugabanyuka cyane. Nko mu 1985 u Rwanda rwoherezaga hanze ikawa ya miliyoni 144 z’amadolari ariko mu 1993 rwoherezaga iya miliyoni 30.

Amapfa mu Majyepfo, amasambu atangira kuba iyanga

Umwaka wa 1990, uretse kugabanyuka kw’ibiciro by’ikawa no kwiyongera kw’ibiciro ku masoko, haje gukubitiraho n’amapfa yibasiye ibice byo mu Majyepfo.

Hari isesengura ryagaragaje ko 50% by’abanyarwanda icyo gihe bari mu bukene bukabije, nta bushobozi bwo kubona icyo barya bafite, 40 % bari abakene naho 9 % bari bifashije mu gihe abakire bari 1 %.

Amagana y’abantu yishwe n’inzara icyo gihe, abandi bahinduka ibyihebe n’abajura.

Raporo ya USAID yo mu 1993, yashyize u Rwanda ku mwanya wa gatatu mu bihugu bikennye cyane ku Isi. Icyo gihe 86 % by’abaturage bari munsi y’umurongo w’ubukene.

Uko ubukene bwakazaga umurego, ubwiyongere bw’abaturage nabwo bwarushagaho, biza guteza ikibazo cy’ubutaka buke dore ko benshi mu banyarwanda bari batunzwe n’amasambu.

Icyo gihe nibura umwe mu baturage bane mu cyaro nta butaka yari afite.

Nta butaka, urubyiruko rushaka kurongora ntibyari gushoboka rudafite aho gutura, guhinga yewe nta n’akazi.

Umwanditsi, akaba umushakashatsi mu bya politiki, Dr Kimonyo Jean Paul, umwaka ushize yabwiye IGIHE ko u Rwanda rwasaga n’urwajegeye mu mpande zose.

Ati “Abantu bari bashonje, bakennye. Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yari igeze ahantu bitagendaga, ibiciro by’ikawa byari byaragabanyutse. Umubare w’abaturage wariyongereye cyane abantu batangira kubura amasambu. Leta ntabwo yashakaga ko abantu bajya mu mijyi, yashakaga ko bajya kure mu byaro. Urebye sosiyete nyarwanda yari ijegeye.”

Urugamba rw’Inkotanyi rwambitse ubusa Leta

Leta ya Habyarimana nubwo ibintu byari byatangiye kumera nabi, yari igifitiwe icyizere n’amahanga ndetse inkunga zitangiye kwiyongera ngo harebwe niba ubukungu bwasubira ku murongo.

Tariki 1 Ukwakira 1990, ingabo za FPR Inkotanyi zongereye uburibwe ubwo zatangizaga intambara yo kubohora igihugu.

U Rwanda rwari rwinjiye mu ntambara ebyiri, iy’ubukene n’iy’amasasu kandi nta cyizere cyo kuzitsinda zombi.

Amafaranga Leta yari ifite amenshi yajyanywe mu gisirikare, izindi gahunda z’iterambere zisa n’izihagaze.

Mu 1990, umubare w’abasirikare wavuye ku 5000 ugera ku bihumbi 40. Nyuma y’umwaka umwe, ingengo y’imari y’igisirikare yari igize 51 % by’ingengo y’imari y’igihugu.

Amafaranga yakoreshejwe n’igisirikare yavuye kuri miliyari 3 Frw mu 1989 agera kuri miliyari 8 mu 1990 na miliyari 13 mu 1991.

Imibare ya BNR igaragaza ko hagati ya 1990-1994, u Rwanda rwakoresheje amadolari 83 056 115 ku gisirikare cyonyine.

Raporo yo mu 1995 yiswe ‘Réhabilitation des Capacités de Gestion de l’économie’ ivuga ko hari n’ibindi bikoresho nk’amashoka n’imihoro byagiye bigurwa byitirirwa ko bije gufasha abaturage mu iterambere nyamara bigahabwa Interahamwe.

U Rwanda rwahawe ingoboka, iruhuhura kurushaho

Ibintu bimaze gukomera, Leta ya Habyarimana yavuye ku izima yemera inguzanyo z’ingoboka (ASAPs) za Banki y’Isi n’ Ikigega mpuzamahanga cy’Imari (IMF) ubusanzwe zihabwa ibihugu bifite ubukungu bugeze aharindimuka.

Izo ngoboka akenshi ziza ziherekejwe n’amabwiriza akakaye ameze nk’amananiza ku gihugu cyayihawe.

Amwe mu mabwiriza ku ikubitiro u Rwanda rwahawe, ifaranga ry’u Rwanda ryamanuriwe agaciro kugira ngo abaturage benshi babashe kugira ubushobozi bwo guhaha, abakozi bamwe barirukanwa, imishahara iragabanywa, igihugu gitegekwa aho gushyira amafaranga n’aho atagomba kujya.

Ibintu aho kujya mu buryo, byarushijeho kuba bibi. Ibiciro byariyongereye cyane birenga ubushobozi bwa benshi mu banyarwanda, uburezi, ubuvuzi n’ibindi nabyo birushaho guhenda.

Ikibazo cyakomereye u Rwanda, Banki y’Isi na IMF ntabwo bari bitaye ku kuba igihugu kiri mu ntambara nibura ngo bacyorohereza mu mabwiriza bagiha, cyangwa bakigenere amafaranga ahagije y’intambara.

Ibyo byatumaga Leta ifata amafaranga yagenewe ibikorwa by’iterambere rwihishwa, akajya ashorwa mu gisirikare.

Mu gusesengura ubukungu bw’u Rwanda, IMF na Banki y’Isi byavugaga ko nta kindi kigomba kurebwaho kitari impamvu ijyanye n’ubukungu, ni ukuvuga ko intambara batayibonaga nk’ikiri gutuma ubukungu busubira inyuma.

Mu 1993, Guverinoma yagabanyije imishahara y’abakozi, inasezerera abakozi 11 129 ngo bakoraga ibidakenewe cyane ibigiriwemo inama n’ibyo bigo.

Amafaranga yajyaga mu mishinga idakenewe cyane nayo yarahagaritswe ndetse n’abakozi badakenewe mu mishinga imwe n’imwe barahagarikwa.

Iyi myanzuro yose yari yahawe Leta ngo yari kuyifasha kuzigama nibura miliyari y’amafaranga, yagombaga kwifashishwa n’igisirikare.

Ubukene n’inzara byenyegeje Jenoside

Ku Isi hose, urubyiruko rwinshi rudafite icyo rukora ruba igisasu gikomeye ku gihugu. Mu 1990 hadutse inkubiri y’amashyaka menshi maze ubukangurambaga burakorwa urubyiruko rwari rwarazambijwe n’ubukene rurayoboka, rwinshi rubibwamo ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside.

Muri Mata 1994, urwo rubyiruko nirwo rwifashishijwe mu gushyira mu bikorwa umugambi wa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Kimonyo Jean Paul avuga ko nko mu bice bya Butare, abenshi bishoye muri Jenoside kubera ubukene.

Ati “Icyatumye abantu bemera kwinjira mu bwicanyi ni inyungu babibonagamo. Bamwe ntibihutiye kwinjira muri Jenoside, ariko ukabona abaturanyi batangiye kurya inka, batangiye gusahura no gufata amasambu, kenshi abantu bato bahitaga bavuga bati twe dutegereje iki?”

Mu 1995, u Rwanda rwari rufite amadeni yo hanze agera kuri miliyari imwe y’amadolari yafashwe hagati ya 1990 na 1994.

Abanyarwanda benshi mu 1990 bari barazahajwe n'inzara n'ubukene
Abaturage muri Nzeli 1990 bategereje guhabwa ibiribwa
Ifoto yafashwe mu 1990, umunyarwanda aroba indagara mu kiyaga
Ifoto yafashwe tariki 15 Kamena 1990, abanyarwanda bicaye hejuru y'ikiyaga bategereje kureba ko hari icyo baramura
Ifoto yo muri Nzeli 1990 igaragaza abagore bapakira ibishyimbo mu gihe inzara yacaga ibintu
Ingabo za Zaire mu Ukuboza 1990 i Gabiro ziza gufasha ingabo z'u Rwanda guhashya Inkotanyi
Nibura 50 % by'abanyarwanda bari munsi y'umurongo w'ubukene mu 1990
Mu duce tumwe amapfa yarateye yiyongera ku bukungu bwari buhagaze nabi
Muri Nzeli 1990, abaturage bahagaze bategereje ibiribwa byatangwaga na Leta
Mu 1990 inzara yabaye nyinshi biba ngombwa ko Leta igoboka abaturage

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