Imyaka 13 iruzuye: Ni iki u Rwanda rumaze kungukira muri EAC?

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 14 Nyakanga 2020 saa 07:00
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U Rwanda rumaze imyaka 13 rubaye byuzuye umunyamuryango w’Umuryango wa Afurika y’Iburasirazuba (EAC). Nk’igihugu kidakora ku nyanja, hari inyungu nyinshi rumaze kubona n’izindi ruhanze amaso mu muryango utuwe n’abaturage barenga miliyoni 177.

Tariki ya 1 Nyakanga 2007, u Rwanda n’u Burundi byemejwe nk’abanyamuryango bashya muri EAC biyongera kuri Uganda, Tanzania na Kenya. Mu 2016 Sudani y’Epfo na yo yinjiye muri uyu muryango ushyize imbere guhuza imipaka, guhuza isoko rusange, guhuza ifaranga no guhuza politiki.

Guhuza za gasutamo byatangijwe muri Mutarama 2010, muri Nyakanga ibihugu bigize EAC byemeranya ku Isoko Rusange, ndetse mu 2013 byemeranya ku gutangira kunoza gahunda y’ifaranga rimwe mu karere, gahunda yahawe imyaka 10 ngo ibe imaze gushyirwa mu bikorwa.

Ibi byatumye u Rwanda rwungukira cyane muri EAC binyuze mu koroshya urujya n’uruza rw’ibicuruzwa byo mu karere, abacuruzi bafite icyemezo cy’inkomoko bakuriweho amahoro bakwaga mbere kuri gasutamo, igiciro cy’ubwikorezi cyagabanutseho hejuru ya 40%, binyuze mu guhuza za gasutamo ku mihora ya ruguru no hagati.

Kumenyekanisha ibicuruzwa byari byarazonze abacuruzi nabyo byarorohejwe hagati y’ibihugu, ubukerarugendo burahuzwa, ishoramari ririyongera, ibihugu bimwe bihuza ikirere mu itumanaho, hanakorwa imishinga minini ihuriweho.

Inyungu mu bucuruzi

Amasezerano y’ibihugu bigize EAC afungura urujya n’uruza rw’ibicuruzwa, abantu, serivisi, imari n’uburenganzira bwo gushinga ibikorwa bibyara inyungu. Igihe ibicuruzwa byamaraga mu nzira kikaba cyaragabanutse kugera kuri kimwe cya kane.

Mbere ya 2010, EAC yihariraga kimwe cya gatatu cy’ibyo u Rwanda rwatumizaga mu mahanga. Mu 2008, ubucuruzi hagati muri EAC bwiyongereyeho 38% bugera kuri miliyoni $2 715 ugereranyije na 2007. Gutumiza hanze ibicuruzwa ariko bigakorwa hagati muri EAC byiyongereyeho 42% bigera kuri miliyoni $ 1 173 mu 2008 ugereranyije na $ 825 yo mu 2007.

Ibicuruzwa byoherezwa hanze ariko hagati y’ibihugu byo muri EAC byagize agaciro ka miliyoni $ 1,542 mu 2008 ugereranyije na miliyoni $ 1,149 mu mwaka wari wabanje.

Ubucuruzi bukomatanyije u Rwanda rwakoranye n’ibindi bihugu bya EAC mu 2008 bwiyongereyeho 27% kuko bwageze kuri miliyoni $338 buvuye kuri miliyoni $238 zabarwaga mu 2007. Gusa ibyo u Rwanda rwohereje muri ibyo bihugu bigize EAC byo nta cyahindutse kuko bwagumye kuri miliyoni $38 mu 2008.

Muri iki gihe ubucuruzi n’ibihugu bya EAC buhagaze neza kuko mu gihembwe cya mbere cya 2020, ibyo u Rwanda rwohereje muri EAC birukomokamo bingana na miliyoni 14.21$, aho ibyinshi bingana na 38.52 ku ijana byoherejwe muri Uganda bingana na miliyoni 5.47$, ikurikirwa na Sudan y’Epfo n’u Burundi.

Imibare y’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’ibarurishamibare yerekana ko ibyo u Rwanda rwohereje muri EAC birukomokamo mu mezi atatu ya mbere ya 2020 byiyongereyeho 176 ku ijana ugereranyije n’ibihembwe bine byose bya 2019.

Ibyo u Rwanda rwatumije muri EAC mu mezi atatu ya mbere ya 2020 bifite agaciro ka miliyoni 138.66$ bingana na 15.13 ku ijana by’ibyo rwatumije byose. Muri Kenya niho haturutse byinshi, hagakurikiraho Tanzania.

Uretse ubwiyongere bw’ubucuruzi, u Rwanda rwanungukiye mu igabanywa ry’ibiciro riteganywa n’amasezerano y’Isoko Rusange, agena ko nk’ikigo cyo mu Rwanda gishaka gutumiza mu bihugu bya EAC ibikoresho by’ibanze bikenerwa mu nganda, bitakwa imisoro.

Ibicuruzwa biba bidakozwe mu buryo burangiye biba bigifite ikigomba kongerwaho cyangwa bigahindurwamo ikindi kintu bisoreshwa 10%. Aha twavuga nk’isima iba igiye gukorwamo amakaro yubakishwa.

Ku bikoresho birangiye nk’umutobe w’imbuto, inkweto, matola n’ibindi bisoreshwa 25%. Ibi biciro kandi bikoreshwa no ku bacuruzi bakura ibicuruzwa byabo mu Rwanda.

Kugira ngo kandi ibicuruzwa byungukire muri aya masezerano ni uko biba bigaragaza icyemezo cy’uko byakorewe muri kimwe muri ibi bihugu byo muri EAC. Ibi bihugu kandi biheruka gushyira hamwe bizamura imisoro y’impu, hagamijwe guca intege abazohereza mu mahanga ngo zigume mu karere zikoreshwa muri gahunda yo guca caguwa.

Abacuruzi bakuraga ibicuruzwa ku cyambu cya Mombasa bashoboraga kumara igihe kinini hafi ukwezi mu nzira, ariko ubu bakoresha iminsi irindwi cyangwa umunani bakaba bageze mu Rwanda.

Abakuru b'ibihugu bya EAC ntibahwema guhura ngo baganire ku byateza imbere uyu muryango

Urujya n’uruza rw’abantu

Ibihugu bigize EAC byiyemeje gushyiraho isoko rimwe hagamijwe kwihutisha iterambere ry’abantu, byiyemeza kwemerera abantu kwisanzura mu ngendo muri ibi bihugu, kuhashaka akazi, kuhatura, kuhacururiza, kuhashyira ibikorwa n’ibindi.

Abanyarwanda by’umwihariko bamaze kubona umusaruro mu koroherezwa mu rujya n’uruza mu ngendo bakora mu karere, kuko ubu ibihugu by’u Rwanda, Uganda na Kenya byamaze gushyiraho uburyo bwo kwambuka imipaka hakoreshejwe ikarita y’indangamuntu.

Ibi byatumye boroherwa no kwambuka imipaka bityo umubare w’abanyarwanda bajya gutembera, gushaka akazi, gukora ubucuruzi n’ibindi muri ibi bihugu bya EAC uriyongera.

Umunyamabanga wungirije ushinzwe imiyoborere n’imari muri EAC, Bazivamo Christophe, avuga ko byatanze umusaruro mwinshi mu buhahirane bw’abatuye uyu muryango.

Ati “Mu rwego rw’ubukungu navuga ko abaturage bamaze kungukira byinshi mu muryango w’Afurika y’Iburasirazuba kuko babasha guhahirana ikindi abashaka guhahira muri Kenya cyangwa Uganda usanga biborohera kubera ko bakoresha indangamuntu, ikindi abatuye mu bihugu bigize uyu muryango, ufite urupapuro rw’inzira (Passport) ntasabwa viza”.

Gusa ariko ku bihugu bimwe mu bigize EAC amategeko abigenga ku binjira n’abasohoka atorohereza abaturage ba EAC, abavuye ahandi baracyagorwa no gukorera mu kindi gihugu.

Ibihugu bya EAC kandi byahuje viza y’ubukerarugendo. Iyi gahunda yatangijwe n’u Rwanda, Uganda na Kenya mu mpera za Gashyantare 2014 mu nama yabereye i Kampala muri Uganda, mu 2015 u Burundi na Tanzania byiyemeza kubyiyungaho.

Ibi byatumye abaturage boroherwa no gukora ubukerarugendo ku giciro gito cyane nk’icyumwenegihugu. Urugero ni aho mu kwezi gushize ibiciro byo gusura ingagi mu Rwanda byagabanyijwe bishyirwa ku madolari 200 ku Banyarwanda n’abaturage ba EAC na 500 ku banyamahanga batuye mu Rwanda.

Ibi birerekana ko hari aho umuturage wa EAC afatwa nk’umwenegihugu mu bihugu bigize uyu muryango. Kuva mu Ukuboza 2014, ntibikiri ngombwa ko abaturage ba EAC bishyura $100 yagurwaga viza izwi nka East Africa Tourist Visa (EATV), ubusanzwe imara iminsi 90 muri buri gihugu binjiyemo, kuko uyifatira mu gihugu kimwe ikaguhesha uburenganzira bwo kwinjira muri bitatu.

Ibihugu bigize EAC kandi byashyizeho pasiporo imwe igomba gusimbura isanzwe ikoreshwa muri buri gihugu. Yitezweho kongera urujya n’uruza rw’abantu mu karere, ikaba intambwe yo kubahiriza amasezerano y’isoko rusange atanga uburenganzira bw’imigenderanire hagati y’abatuye ibihugu bya EAC.

Muri Kamena 2019, Urwego rw’abinjira n’abasohoka mu Rwanda rwatangiye gutanga pasiporo Nyarwanda y’ikoranabuhanga y’Umuryango wa Afurika y’Iburasirazuba.

Hari imishinga igihanzwe amaso

Ibihugu bya EAC bifite imishinga igihanzwe amaso irimo uwo guhuza ifaranga, uzafasha abaturage b’ibihugu bitatu bigize EAC guhahirana hakoreshejwe ifaranga rimwe.

EAC yihaye intego yo kuba mu 2024 izaba yageze ku ishyirwaho ry’ifaranga rimwe ndetse n’ukwishyira hamwe mu bya politiki mu 2025.

Umwaka ushize Guverineri wa Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda, John Rwangombwa yavuze ko hari intambwe igenda iterwa mu mikoranire ya banki nkuru z’ibihugu byo mu karere kugira ngo habeho ifaranga rimwe ndetse no guhuza imikorere.

Yavuze ko igiteganywa gukorwa mu kubaka iryo koreshwa ry’ifaranga rimwe ari uguhuza kwishyurana mu buryo bworoshye hagati y’ibihugu.

Mu yindi mishinga yitezweho kwihutisha ubukungu bw’akarere harimo iyubakwa ry’imihanda ya gariyamoshi, izabasha mu gutwara abantu n’ibintu ku buryo abatuye mu bihugu nk’u Rwanda batazongera kugira inzitizi zishingiye ku kuba igihugu kidakora ku nyanja.

Urugero ni ukubaka umuhanda wa gari ya moshi Isaka-Kigali. Hari kandi urugomero rw’amashanyarazi rwa Rusumo ruzatanga MW 80, ruhuriweho n’u Rwanda, Tanzania n’u Burundi.

Haracyari inenge

Umwarimu muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda wigisha ibijyanye na politiki mpuzamahanga, Dr Ismael Buchanan, avuga ko EAC imaze kugera kuri byinshi nubwo hari ibibazo byagiye biba hagati y’ibihugu bitararangira.

Atanga urugero ku mwuka mubi uri hagati y’u Rwanda na Uganda hakomeje gushaka umuti, amakimbirane mu bucuruzi hagati ya Uganda na Kenya, Tanzania na Kenya.

Avuga ko ku ntego ya EAC yo kwishyira ukizana hakirimo ikibazo cyo kureba inyungu zitari rusange, aho bamwe mu banyamuryango bashaka kwireba mu nyungu zabo z’igihugu cyangwa z’aho bakomoka.

Ku bijyanye n’icyerekezo kimwe, Buchanan ati “Umuvuduko niho hari ikibazo gikomeye ku buryo wavuga uti bidafashwe mu rwego rw’ibiganiro, kugira ngo hibutswe ingamba zari zafashwe, icyo kibazo cy’uko abatuye EAC baba umwe bakerekeza hamwe gishobora kuzamo agatotsi kuko buri wese niba atangira kureba ibye uko abishaka”.

Urugero ni ku byerekeye guhamagarana kuri telefone byemejwe ku ihuzwa ry’imirongo y’itumanaho [byatangiye gushyirwa mu bikorwa ku wa 1 Mutarama 2015], ariko ibihugu bimwe ntibyabyemeje.

Hari kandi umuhanda wa gari ya moshi Mombasa-Nairobi-Kampala-Kigali, hajemo impinduka bitewe n’ibishyizwe imbere na kimwe mu bihugu [Uganda].

Nubwo hari ibyakozwe mu guhuza imipaka, hari ibitaragerwaho nko kugira ngo umuntu ajye gutura aho ashaka muri kimwe mu bihugu bigize EAC ntibyoroshye, kimwe no kujya gushaka akazi muri kimwe muri ibyo bihugu nk’uko umuntu abyifuza na byo biragoye kandi amasezerano yarasinywe.

EAC kandi ikomeje gushegeshwa no gukererwa mu itangwa ry’imisanzu y’ibihugu biyigize kugira ngo ibikorwa by’inzego zirimo ubunyamabanga, Inteko Ishinga Amategeko (EALA) bigende neza.

EAC ifite imishinga myinshi abaturage bahanze amaso ngo ibahindurire ubuzima

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