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Impinduka zikomeye zakozwe mu burezi benshi bakiruhutsa; ahagikenewe umwotso

Yanditswe na Kanamugire Emmanuel
Kuya 26 Nzeri 2022 saa 01:02
Yasuwe :

Kuva mu myaka 28 ishize urwego rw’uburezi bw’u Rwanda rwakozwemo impinduka nyinshi zirimo izishingiye ku nteganyanyigisho zigenderwaho mu mashuri, indimi zikoreshwa mu myigire n’izindi byavugwaga ko zigamije guteza imbere uru rwego.

Nko mu myanzuro y’Inama y’Igihugu y’Umushyikirano yabaye mu 2017, harimo urebana n’uburezi wavugaga ko hagomba gukomeza gushyirwaho ingamba n’impinduka za ngombwa zigamije kuzamura ireme ry’uburezi mu byiciro byose.

Harimo kandi gusuzuma ingengabihe y’amashuri, kunoza imyigishirize y’indimi, kongera amashuri yigisha imyuga n’ubumenyingiro no kurwanya impamvu zituma abana bata ishuri.

Nyuma yaho hakozwe byinshi birimo kubaka ibyumba by’amashuri birenga ibihumbi 20 byubatswe mu 2020, mu rwego rwo kugabanya ubucucike n’ingendo abanyeshuri basabwaga gukora.

Habayeho n’amavugurura ku miterere y’udushami abanyeshuri bigamo, mu cyiciro cya kabiri cy’amashuri yisumbuye.

Nko mu nyigisho z’indimi hahozemo udushami dutatu, ariko ubu indimi zemewe mu Rwanda uko ari enye zahurijwe hamwe mu gashami kamwe kitwa ’Literature in English– French-Kinyarwanda-Kiswahili (LFK)’.

Mu tundi dushami twahozemo inyigisho z’amateka n’ubukungu na ho hari ibyahindutse, kuko nka HEG, HEL na LEG byavuyeho hakorwa akandi gashami karimo inyigisho za ’Psychology’

Mu dushami twa siyansi akitwaga BCG kigishaga Ibinyabuzima, Ubutabire n’Ubumenyi bw’Isi kavuyeho mu gihe muri TVET, hasigayemo udushami 30 ugereranyije na 34 twahozeho mbere. Ishami ry’ibaruramari ryakuwe mu mashami y’ imyuga n’ubumenyingiro (TVET) rishyirwa mu mashami y’ imbonezamwuga (professional combinations).

Ishami ry’Igiforomo na ryo riri mu yo abanyeshuri bahitamo. Umwaka ushize ari na bwo ryongeye kugarurwa, hatoranyijwe abatarenze 300 mu gihugu hose bihwanye n’imyanya yari ihari mu mashuri arindwi hirya no hino mu gihugu. Uretse muri Kigali, buri Ntara ifite rimwe cyangwa abiri.

Uretse ibyo, by’umwihariko muri uyu mwaka hakozwe impinduka zikomeye zakoze ku buzima bw’abarimu, ababyeyi n’abafatanyabikorwa ba leta mu by’uburezi ari na zo tugiye kugarukaho.

Itangira ry’umwaka w’amashuri ryasubijwe muri Nzeri

Uhereye mu 2005, hagiyeho gahunda yo gutangira umwaka w’amashuri muri Mutarama, iyi gahunda ikaba yarashyizwe mu bikorwa cyane cyane n’abiga kugeza mu cyiciro cy’ayisumbuye.

Iyi ngengabihe yatumaga abanyeshuri bakomeza amasomo no mu bihe by’impeshyi kuko ibiruhuko bisoza umwaka w’amashuri byari bisigaye biba mu mpera z’umwaka usanzwe, bitandukanye n’uko byari bimeze mbere, aho umwaka w’amashuri watangiraga muri Nzeri ugasozwa muri Kamena.

Ni ikintu cyagiraga ingaruka zikomeye mu myigire y’abanyeshuri ndetse hamwe byabaga bikomeye by’umwihariko ku bana b’abanyantege nke wasangaga bahunyiza, bava imyuna kubera ibicurane byabaga byatewe n’ubukana bw’impeshyi.

Kiliziya Gatolika nk’urwego rufite uruhare rukomeye mu burezi bw’u Rwanda, yakunze kuzamura ijwi isaba leta guhindura ingengabihe y’amashuri ku buryo umwaka wakongera kujya utangira muri Nzeri. Yavugaga ko byarushaho gufasha abanyeshuri mu myigire yabo.

Muri Kamena 2017, ubwo yitabiraga umuhango wo gusozwa ry’icyumweru cy’uburezi Gatolika wabereye muri Paruwasi ya Zaza, Umushumba wa Diyosezi ya Gikongoro, Hakizimana Célestin yatanze ubutumwa busaba ko ingengabihe y’amashuri yahindurwa.

Yagize ati "Nagira ngo ngire icyo nisabira umushyitsi Mukuru [uwari uhagarariye Minisitiri w’Uburezi], mu rwego rwo kunoza imikoranire myiza isanzwe iranga Leta na Kiliziya mu burezi. Ndahera ku ngengabihe y’umwaka w’amashuri; hashize igihe twifuza ko umwaka w’amashuri wajya utangira mu kwezi kwa cyenda, ukarangira mu kwezi kwa Gatandatu."

"Impamvu ni nyinshi ariko cyane cyane ni igihe cy’izuba n’ibura ry’amazi tuzi twese ko biremerera abana bacu baba ku mashuri mu kwezi kwa munani, hakiyongeraho na gahunda zinyuranye ziba ziri muri ayo mezi mu rwego rwa Kiliziya no mu buzima mbonezamubano, bibangamira cyane abarezi baba bagomba kuzitabira."

Ni icyifuzo benshi bagaragaje ko bashyigikiye, ndetse cyari mu mitima ya benshi ahubwo ko cyari cyaratinze gutangwa.

Hari uwagize ati "Nshimiye Kiiziya Gatolika y’u Rwanda icyifuzo yatanze nubwo yatinze kugitangaza nkurikije ijambo ifite. Ubirwanya ni utareba ngo anamenye ingaruka zo kwiga muri ibihe by’impeshyi."

Itangira ry'umwaka w'amashuri ryongeye gusubizwa muri Nzeri; ni imwe mu mpinduka zabaye mu burezi bw'u Rwanda muri uyu mwaka wa 2022

Muri Nzeri uyu mwaka ni bwo Minisiteri y’Uburezi yashyize ahagaragara ingengabihe y’umwaka w’amashuri wa 2022/2023, uzatangira ku wa 26 Nzeri [uyu munsi] ukazarangira muri Nyakanga 2023.

Igihembwe cya mbere kizarangira ku wa 23 Ukuboza 2022 mu gihe icya kabiri kizatangira ku wa 8 Mutarama 2023, kikazasozwa ku wa 31 Werurwe 2023. Igihembwe cya gatatu kizatangira ku wa 17 Mata kizasozwe ku wa 14 Nyakanga 2023.

Umubyeyi wo mu Mujyi wa Kigali waganiriye na IGIHE yavuze ko gutangira umwaka w’amashuri muri Nzeri bifasha umunyeshuri kwiga neza, bikagera igihe cy’impeshyi umwaka urangiye bityo ntagire aho ahurira n’izuba.

Izamurwa ry’umushahara wa mwarimu

Izamurwa ry’umushahara wa mwarimu ni ikindi cyemezo gikomeye cyafashwe muri uyu mwaka wa 2022.

Abarimu ubwabo ndetse n’abandi bakurikirana ibijyanye n’uburezi bari bamaze gucika uruhondogo bagaragaza ko imibereho ya mwalimu itatuma atanga umusaruro wifuzwa.

Ku bashaka kugaragariza leta ko umusaruro leta itegereje kuri mwalimu ubarirwa ku mashyi mu gihe ahembwa nabi, intero yari yari uko "nta wukama izo ataragiye", naho nyirubwite ati "numbeshya ko umpemba nzakubeshya ko nkora".

Ingaruka ntizatinze kugaragara bitewe n’uko abarezi bamwe babaga bameze nk’abokeje habiri, bashaka ibindi byakunganira umushahara muto wabo kugira ngo bucye kabiri.

Abananiwe kwihangana burundu bahitagamo kwerura bakajya mu bindi, ari na byo byatumaga abagera ku bihumbi 10 buri mwaka batera umugongo umwuga w’uburezi.

Ku rundi ruhande, ni ko abanyeshuri bataga ishuri umusubizo ndetse abatari bacye bakagenda batwaye inda [abangavu], ku buryo ahazaza h’uburezi hasaga n’aharimo igihu.

Ubwo yatangazaga iby’izamurwa ry’umushahara wa mwalimu imbere y’abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko, ku wa 1 Kanama 2022, Minisitiri w’Intebe, Dr Edouard Ngirente yavuze ko bizateza imbere imibereho ya mwarimu n’ireme ry’uburezi, kandi hari icyizere ko bizatuma abavaga muri uyu mwuga bagabanuka.

Abarimu bo mu mashuri abanza bafite impamyabumenyi y’amashuri yisumbuye, A2, bongerewe 88% by’umushahara abo kuri urwo rwego batangiriraho, ni ukuvuga inyongera ya 50.849 Frw

Abarimu bahemberwa ku mpamyabumenyi y’icyiciro cya mbere cya Kaminuza, A1, bagera ku 12.214 n’abagera ku 17.547 bahemberwa impamyabumenyi y’icyiciro cya kabiri cya Kaminuza, A0, bongerewe ku gipimo cya 40%.

Hongerewe kandi umushahara w’abayobozi b’amashuri, abayobozi bungirije n’abandi bakozi bo mu bigo by’amashuri ya Leta n’afatanya na Leta ku bw’amasezerano.

Minisitiri w'Intebe, Dr Edouard Ngirente yavuze ko hamwe n'izamurwa ry'umushahara wa mwarimu hari icyizere ko agiye gukora akazi ke umutima uri hamwe

Uburyo bwo kubara amanota y’abakoze ibizamini bya leta

Impinduka zagiye zikorwa mu burezi ntizasize ibijyanye no kubara cyangwa kugereranya amanota y’abakoze ibizamini bya leta bisoza amashuri abanza n’ibyiciro bitandukanye by’ayisumbuye.

Mbere na nyuma gato y’umwaka wa 1995, amanota y’abakoze ibizamini bya Leta yabarwaga hakoreshejwe ijanisha, ariko byagiye bihinduka agashyirwa mu byiciro, aho buri cyiciro cyahuzwaga n’inyuguti bijyanye.

By’umwihariko, gukoresha impuzandengo y’ikigereranyo cy’amanota byatangiye mu 2008 ni byo bikigenderwaho nubwo hari impinduka zakozwe muri uyu mwaka.

Izo mpinduka zigenwa n’amabwiriza ya Minisitiri w’Uburezi yo ku wa 26 Nyakanga 2022 agenga imikoreshereze y’ibizamini bya leta bisoza amashuri abanza, icyiciro rusange cy’amashuri yisumbuye, icya kabiri cy’ayisumbuye mu nyigisho rusange, amashuri y’imyuga n’ubumenyingiro ndetse n’ay’imbonezamwuga.

Hagendewe ku biteganywa n’aya mabwiriza, amanota yose ku barangije amashuri abanza, icyiciro rusange n’icyiciro cy’ayisumbuye, azajya abarwa mu byiciro birindwi, kuva ku cy’indashyikirwa kugeza ku watsinzwe.

Umuyobozi w’Ikigo Gishinzwe Ibizamini n’Ubugenzuzi bw’Amashuri (NESA), Dr Bahati Bernard, yavuze ko yavuze ko imiterere y’integanyanyigisho u Rwanda rugenderaho ari yo igena uburyo amanota abarwa.

Iyo nteganyanyigisho ni ishingiye ku bushobozi bw’umunyeshuri, yasimbuye ishingiye ku bumenyi, ikaba ari yo mpamvu amanota atabarwa hakoreshejwe ijanisha.

Mu 2015 Minisiteri y’Uburezi ibinyujije muri REB, yahinduye integanyanyigisho ishingiye ku bumenyi bw’umunyeshuri yagenderwagaho (Knowledge Based Curriculum: KBC) isimbuzwa igamije guha abanyeshuri ubushobozi (Competence Based Curriculum: CBC) uhereye mu cyiciro cy’incuke ukageza mu cy’ayisumbuye.

Dr Bahati ati "Mu nteganyanyigisho ishingiye ku bushobozi bw’umunyeshuri, isuzuma ntabwo rimureba nk’umuntu ku giti cye, ubushobozi bwe tuburebera mu itsinda ry’abanyeshuri. Hakoreshejwe ijanisha mu kubara amanota waba ugiye hanze y’ibiteganywa n’integanyanyigisho."

Gusibiza abanyeshuri n’imitangirwe y’amafaranga y’ishuri

Mbere gato yo kwinjira mu mwaka wa 2022, inzego nkuru zishinzwe uburezi zafashe icyemezo cyo gusibiza abanyeshuri batsinzwe ibizamini bya leta.

Icyemezo cyo gusibiza abataratsinze neza cyafashwe hashingiwe ku mwanzuro wa 10 w’umwiherero w’abayobozi bakuru b’igihugu mu 2020, urebana no ‘guhagarika umuco wo kwimura abanyeshuri batatsinze (automatic promotion) hagamijwe kwimakaza ireme ry’uburezi’.

Byatumye abasaga ibihimbi 60 bo mu mashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye icyiciro cya mbere basibizwa mu 2021 dore ko n’ikibazo cy’ubucucike mu byumba by’amashuri kigenda kibonerwa umuti kubera ko hari ibishya birenga ibihumbi 20 biheruka kubakwa hirya no hino mu gihugu.

Ibyo gusibiza abatsinzwe n’iby’ubusumbane mu mitangirwe y’amafaranga y’ishuri na byo biherutse guhabwa umurongo biri mu byari byarahogoje abatari bacye.

Iminsi 12 mbere y’uko umwaka w’amashuri wa 2022/2023 ni bwo Minisiteri y’Uburezi yashyizeho amabwiriza agena iby’itangwa ry’amafaranga y’ishuri mu bigo bya leta n’ibifatanya na yo ku bw’amasezerano.

Muri aya mabwiriza, umunyeshuri wo mu ncuke n’amashuri abanza asabwa gutanga amafaranga 975 Frw y’umusanzu wo kunganira gahunda yo gufatira ifunguro ku ishuri naho leta ikamutangira 8775 Frw ku gihembwe.

Ku munyeshuri wiga ataha mu mashuri yisumbuye, uruhare rw’umubyeyi ntirugomba kurenga ibihumbi 19.500 Frw ku gihembwe naho ku wiga acumbikiwe uwo musanzu ntugomba kurenga ibihumbi 85 by’amafaranga y’u Rwanda ku gihembwe.

Mu gihe bibaye ngombwa kandi byemejwe n’inteko rusange y’ababyeyi bahagarariye abandi, ibindi byakenerwa n’ishuri ntibigomba kurenza 7000 Frw ku gihembwe.

Iki cyemezo cyakiriwe neza n’ababyeyi bari barambiwe gusabwa n’ibigo bibarerera gutanga amafaranga y’umurengera rimwe na rimwe hagakoreshwa igisa n’uburiganya binyuze mu gusaba ibitagombye gusabwa umubyeyi.

Biri mu byo Minisiteri y’Uburezi yashingiyeho ifata ibyo byemezo nk’uko byatangajwe na Minisitiri Dr Uwamariya Valentine.

Ati "Ngira ngo mwabonye ko hari aho basabaga umusanzu wo kugura imodoka, umusanzu w’inyubako, umusanzu w’iterambere ry’ikigo; ibyo byose rero byakorwaga ku bushake bw’ikigo rimwe na rimwe bakavuga ko byemejwe n’inama y’ababyeyi ariko ugasanga byakozwe na komite z’ababyeyi zifatanyije n’ikigo."

Minisitiri w'Uburezi, Dr Uwamariya Valentine yavuze ko amabwiriza agenga imitangire y'amafaranga y'ishuri yashyizweho hagamijwe guca ubusumbane n'imigirire irimo gusaba umusanzu utari ukwiriye gutangwa n'ababyeyi

Ireme ry’uburezi mu mashuri ya leta

Iyo bigeze ku bijyanye n’ireme ry’uburezi mu mashuri ya leta, abantu bavuga byinshi. Icyakora kugira ngo rigerweho ni urugendo rusabwamo umusanzu w’uruhererekane.

Inzego zishinzwe uburezi zivuga ko impinduka zinyuranye zigenda zikorwa icyo ziba zigamije ari ukunoza iryo reme ry’uburezi.

Nubwo amashuri ya leta ari yo yigwamo na benshi, ayigenga ni yo afitiwe icyizere mu by’ireme ry’imyigishirize.

Ababiteramo urwenya bagaragaza ko abifite barimo n’abafata ibyemezo bigamije guteza imbere uburezi mu mashuri ya leta batayarereramo byumvikana ko hakenewe imbaraga nyinshi ngo icyo cyizere cyubakwe.

Ukwivuguruza mu gushyira abarimu mu myanya

Mu kiganiro Frère Mfurayase Jean, uherutse kugirwa Umuyobozi wa Lycée de Kigali yagiranye na IGIHE, yavuze ko mu bigomba kunozwa mu mashuri ya leta harimo ibijyanye no gushyira abarimu mu myanya.

Ati "Turashimira uburyo bashyiraho abarimu ariko kugeza uyu munsi iyo urebye hari amashuri adafite abarimu, byaba byiza bishyizwemo imbaraga nibura umwaka ukajya utangira amashuri yose afite abarimu."

Frère Mfurayase ntiyemeranya no kuba abarimu bize uburezi babifitiye impamyabumenyi basabwa gukora ikizamini iyo bashaka akazi kuko harimo ibisa no kwivuguruza.

Ati "Ukabona nko mu mashuri abanza bagiye gushyiramo abarimu, ugasanga umunyeshuri wize uburezi leta yahaye impamyabushobozi n’ubundi urakomeza kumuha ikizamini kandi burya uburyo bwo gutsinda ikizamini biterwa n’umwuka umuntu yakoreyemo."

"Tuvuge ko ari umunyeshuri udaheruka kwiga, ufite ibindi bibazo byihariye, nkabibona nko kwivuguruza kuko kuguha dipolome ni ‘ndakwemereye ko ushoboye noneho ejo nkongera ngakemanga ko ushoboye nkaguha ikizamini’. Wenda ni uburyo bw’ibigenderwaho mu guhitamo kubera ko baba ari benshi, ariko numva umunyeshuri wize nka TTC yagombye kugira ‘priority’ tukamufata nk’umuntu ushoboye, tukareba uburyo bwo gutoranya tugendeye wenda ku manota yagize ariko badakoreshejwe ibizamini bitandukanye."

Mu byatuma ireme ry’uburezi rigerwaho kandi harimo uko kohereza abarimu aho bigisha bikorwa. Yavuze ko umwarimu koherezwa hafi y’aho atuye.

Ati "Hari nk’uw’i Kigali bohereza nk’i Gatsibo yifitiye ishuri ryigenga yigishamo akanga kurivamo kuko ntacyo yasagura".

Avuga kandi ko ihahiro rya mwarimu ryigeze kuvugwa riramutse rishyizweho ryafasha mwarimu guhaha atekanye n’abana be bakiga neza.

Hagati aho ariko ubwo Minisitiri w’Intebe yatangazaga ibijyanye n’izamurwa ry’umushahara wa marimu yavuze ko iby’iguriro rusange ridashoboka.
Mu byakongerwamo imbaraga kandi harimo kuringaniza amashuri mu kijyanye n’imfashanyigisho ahabwa no kuyagezamo ibikorwaremezo by’ibanze kuko kugeza ubu hari amashuri adafite umuriro kandi akeneye isomo ry’ikoranabuhanga.

Frère Mfurayase Jean, uherutse kugirwa Umuyobozi wa Lycée de Kigali, yagaragaje ko hakiri ibikwiye gushyirwamo imbaraga kugira ngo ireme ry'uburezi rigerweho

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