Impaka ku mbago z’ibifatwa nk’urukozasoni: Ni iyihe nyirantarengwa ku bakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga?

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 6 Kanama 2020 saa 03:25
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Muri iki gihe impaka ni nyinshi, hari benshi bari kwibaza niba igifatwa nk’urukozasoni mu buryo buhanwa n’amategeko ari ukwerekana ibitsina gusa ku karubanda, abandi bakibaza niba werekanye itako, ikibuno cyangwa amabere meza kandi manini ufite byo utabizira.

Niba ukoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga, nawe urabizi neza ko nta munota washira udakubitanye n’ifoto y’umusore wateruye icyuma, wirinze kubangamirwa n’imyambaro, ugaragaza umubyimba we wose!

Iyo uvuye kuri uwo, hepfo ukubitana n’inkumi nziza y’ikizungerezi, yambaye hafi ya ntabyo, yicaye yabumbuye amaguru, yitotobetse ka Vaseline umubiri wose, ku buryo bibaye bimwe byo gukirana bya kera rwose wagira ngo bamukubise ikimuri.

Ni ibintu ubu biri gutuma abantu bibaza byinshi, bakavuga bati aho ejo nibeshye nkabigenza ntya, sinajya kubona nkabona RIB irampamagaye nkazira ibyo nkesha umunezero cyangwa se ko nishimira ikibuno cyiza Imana yanyihereye tutaguze?

Kuri ubu buri wese isi ayifite mu biganza. Ntabwo bigisaba ko ugura itike ikugeza Florida mu rugo rw’umukinnyi wa filime w’icyamamare Dwayne Douglas Johnson (The Rock) cyangwa urwa Beyonce n’umugabo we Jay Z i Los Angeles ngo umenye uko baraye cyangwa biriwe. Bigusaba gusa kumama akajijo ku mbuga nkoranyambaga bakoresha.

Nk’uko mu buzima busanzwe abantu baganira, bagasabana, bakirekura, no ku mbuga nkoranyambaga byageze kuri urwo rwego. Umuntu afata konti ye runaka agategura ikiganiro ari mu gitanda cye ku Kicukiro, akaganiriza isi yose ayibwira uko yiriwe, ibyo yishimiye n’ibyo atishimiye, yifashishije uburyo bushya bufasha gusakaza amashusho kuri benshi ku mbuga nkoranyambaga nka Facebook Live, Instagram Live n’izindi.

Buri wese ‘Micro’ y’itangazamakuru iri mu ntoki ze, ntibikiri ngombwa kujya kuri radiyo, televiziyo cyangwa mu kinyamakuru gusaba ijambo, buri wese telefone ye imuha ububasha bwo gutangaza ibyo yifuza binyuze ku mbuga nkoranyambaga.

Imikoreshereze y’imbuga nkoranyambaga yoroheje uburyo bw’itumanaho hagati y’abatuye isi, biva kuri urwo rwego bigera ku kuba inzira yo gushakiraho amaramuko, haba mu nzira nziza cyangwa imbi, nk’uko no mu buzima busanzwe byari bisanzweho. Muri make imbuga nkoranyambaga zabaye igihugu mu kindi gifite ubuzima busa neza n’ubw’igihugu cyihariye.

Abakoresha neza izo mbuga babikiriramo cyane ndetse hari ababaye ibyamamare banatunze akayabo kubera uburyo bazikoresha. Kuri ubu havugwa abitwa ba ‘Influencers’, abavuga rikijyana ku mbuga nkoranyambaga.

Benshi babikiriyemo ndetse mu Rwanda kubera akamaro Leta imaze kubabonamo, baherutse kugirana ikiganiro n’umukuru w’igihugu bamubaza ibibazo bitandukanye bijyanye n’umunsi wo Kwibohora ku nshuro ya 26.

Nubwo imbuga nkoranyambaga ari nk’igihugu mu kindi, zigira amategeko azigenga bitewe n’igihugu uzikoresha arimo ku buryo uzikoresheje nabi ashobora kwisanga mu gihome ndetse akaba yanaramba mu buroko kurusha igisambo cyatoboye inzu mu mudugudu.

Byarabaye muri Mata uyu mwaka ubwo Urwego rw’Igihugu Rushinzwe Ubugenzacyaha (RIB) rwatangazaga ko rwafashe bamwe mu biyitaga abanyamakuru bakorera kuri YouTube, bakekwaho gushukisha abaturage amafaranga ngo batangaze ibinyoma.

Mu Ukwakira 2018 hari abantu batatu bakoreraga umuyoboro wa YouTube witwa Iwacu TV bafashwe bashinjwa kugambirira guteza imvururu muri rubanda no gukwirakwiza impuha zigamije kwangisha Leta mu bihugu by’amahanga, iki cyaha ubwacyo gitera ubwoba ucyumvise wese.

Hari abashobora kugwa mu ruzi barwita ikiziba...

Nta cyumweru kirashira RIB nanone itaye muri yombi abakobwa bane bakekwaho gushyira ahagaragara amashusho bagaragariza imbaga imyanya yabo y’ibanga hakoreshejwe telefoni.

Ibyo ni ibyerekana ko cya gihugu gishya cy’imbuga nkoranyambaga kitigenga, hari ibyo umuntu ashobora kuhakorera bikamukoraho.

Icyakora ku wa Gatanu tariki 31 Nyakanga ubwo RIB yerekanaga abakobwa bane bafashwe kubera ibyo banyujije ku mbuga nkoranyambaga zabo, ntabwo byavuzweho rumwe.

Hari abagaragaje ko batandukiriye umuco aho kuba amategeko y’igihugu, abandi bavuga ko bahohotewe kuko bazize ibyo bagaragaje kandi ariko babyumva, ntawe babangamiye nk’uko babyemererwa n’Itegeko Nshinga.

Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda ryo mu 2003 nk’uko ryavuguruwe kugeza ubu, mu ngingo ya 38 ryemera ko ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru, ubwo kugaragaza ibitekerezo n’ubwo guhabwa amakuru bwemewe kandi bwubahirizwa na Leta.

Icyakora igika cya kabiri muri iyo ngingo kivuga ko ubwisanzure bwo kugaragaza ibitekerezo n’ubwo guhabwa amakuru butagomba kubangamira ituze rusange rya rubanda n’imyifatire mbonezabupfura, ukurengera urubyiruko n’abana, n’uburenganzira bw’umwenegihugu bwo kugira icyubahiro n’agaciro, ubwo kutagira uwivanga mu mibereho ye bwite n’iy’umuryango we.

Abo bakobwa baganira n’itangazamakuru, bavuze ko batari bazi ko ibyo bakoze bihanwa n’amategeko.

Impuguke mu mategeko mpuzamahanga Nyiringabo Laurent yabwiye IGIHE ko Itegeko Nshinga ry’u Rwanda rivuga ko ‘Ntawe ushobora kwitwaza ko atazi itegeko iyo ryatangajwe mu buryo buteganywa n’amategeko.”

Ari Leta, ari abakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga, ni nde urengera?

Kenshi ibikorwa n’urubyiruko rwo mu Rwanda ku mbuga nkoranyambaga si umwihariko, kuko n’urubyiruko rwo mu bihugu byo hirya no hino ku isi narwo nta tandukaniro, yaba urukomoka mu bihugu bikennye cyangwa se urwo mu bihugu bikize, imyitwarire ku mbuga nkoranyambaga usanga yenda gusa, yaba mu mvugo zikoreshwa cyangwa se no mu bikorwa.

Ntabwo ari igitangaza kubona inkumi cyangwa umusore w’icyamamare runaka muri Amerika ajya kuri Instagram Live yambaye ubusa, cyangwa agashyira amafoto hanze agaragaza ubwambure.

Nyiringabo yavuze ko imbuga nkoranyambaga zidasimbura igihugu n’amategeko akigenga kandi ko buri gihugu kigira ibyo cyemera n’ibyo kitemera.

Yagize ati “Mu gihugu ntabwo uzitwaza ngo ntabwo nzi itegeko, n’ubyitwaza rizaguhana. Urubyiruko rukwiriye kumenya amategeko no kumenya ko ibintu bagiye gukora ari ibintu bibi. Abo hanze ni abo hanze, wenda amategeko yabo ntabihana ariko ayacu arabihana.”

Umunyamakuru akaba n’umunyamategeko, Robert Mugabe we asanga Leta hari aho ikabya kurengera, cyane cyane ku byaha bifite aho bihuriye n’umuco n’ikinyabupfura.

Yagarutse ku itegeko ryakurikijwe hatabwa muri yombi bariya bakobwa bashinjwa gushyira ahagaragara amashusho, bereka imbaga ibitsina byabo.

Itegeko ryerekeye gukumira no guhana ibyaha bikoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga, mu ngingo ya 34 havuga ko gushyira ahagaragara amashusho yerekeranye n’imikoreshereze y’ibitsina hakoreshejwe mudasobwa cyangwa urusobe rwa mudasobwa, iyo umuntu abihamijwe n’urukiko, ahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’imyaka itatu ariko kitarenze imyaka itanu, n’ihazabu y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda atari munsi ya miliyoni imwe ariko atarenze miliyoni eshatu.

Irindi tegeko rikunze kugonga abakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga, ni ingingo ya 38 mu gitabo cy’amategeko ahana ibyaha mu Rwanda, ivuga ko uhamijwe icyaha cyo gutangaza amakuru y’urukozasoni hakoreshejwe uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga ahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’amezi atandatu ariko kitarenze imyaka ibiri n’ihazabu y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda atari munsi ya miliyoni imwe, ariko atarenze miliyoni ebyiri.

Robert Mugabe avuga ko ubusanzwe ibintu nk’ibyo bireba umuco n’ikinyabupfura bitakabaye biri mu byaha bihanwa n’amategeko, kuko bibuza abantu kwisanzura.

Ati “Nituvuga ngo umuntu yakoze ibintu biteye isoni, mu rukiko biragusaba ko unzanira abo byateye isoni kuko mu rukiko ntabwo hakora kugenekereza. Ntabwo ari ukuvuga ko niba ari urwego rwa Leta rwagize isoni, icyo ari icyaha.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Umukobwa ufite imyaka irenze 18 wahisemo gushyira ubwambure bwe hariya, mu buryo bw’ikinyabupfura si byiza ariko amategeko ntabwo akwiriye kugenga ikinyabupfura. Iby’ikinyabupfura ni iby’abanyamadini n’uburere bw’umuco. Amategeko niba aje kugenzura ikinyabupfura n’imyitwarire y’umuco, icyo ni ikibazo gikomeye cyane.”

Mugabe yavuze ko kuri we ibijyanye n’ubwambure ku mbuga nkoranyambaga bikwiriye kurebwa nk’uko mu buzima busanzwe ibijyanye n’imyambarire bifatwa, aho ntawe ufatwa kuko yambaye uko abandi badashaka.

Nyiringabo Laurent we yavuze ko mu gihe itegeko rihari, rigomba kubahirizwa. Nubwo ibyakozwe n’abakobwa baherutse gufatwa ari imibiri yabo bakoreshaga, ngo ntibivanaho ko hari itegeko ribibuza.

Ati “Benshi baba bavuga ngo ibi n’ibi biri ku mubiri wanjye ntacyo bintwaye. Kubera icyo kintu cyo kuvuga ngo uyu ni umubiri wanjye ndawukoresha icyo nshaka, ngo ninerekana amashusho yanjye nta kibazo, ariko wagakwiriye kumenya ko hari itegeko ribihana.”

Yavuze ko abantu bakwiriye no kujya babanza gusoma amabwiriza imbuga nkoranyambaga zibaha mbere yo kuzifungura, kuko menshi aba arimo ibifite aho bihuriye n’ibibujijwe mu mategeko y’ibihugu byabo.

Ni ryari byemezwa ko ibyo umuntu yakoze birimo urukozasoni?

Nyuma y’inkuru y’abo bakobwa bafashwe, hari andi majwi yazamutse yumvikanisha ko barenganye kubera ko hari abandi bagiye bashyira hanze ubwambure bwabo mu Rwanda ariko ntibakurikiranwe.

Nyiringabo yabwiye IGIHE ko kuba hari abadafatwa biterwa n’ibyo bakoze no kuba hari ingingo zidasobanutse mu mategeko. Nk’ingingo ya 38 mu gitabo cy’amategeko ahana ibyaha mu Rwanda, ivuga ku cyaha cyo gutangaza amakuru y’urukozasoni, Nyiringabo avuga ko idasobanura ibikorwa byitwa urukozasoni ibyo aribyo.

Yavuze ko iyo ngingo ikwiriye kuvugururwa kuko iteza urujijo, ikanatuma haba ukwigengesera mu gihe hari uwashyize hanze ibyo rubanda rwita urukozasoni.

Ati “Ibiterasoni ntabwo bisobanurwa ibyo aribyo mu itegeko, hagombye kuba hasobanuye ngo ibiterasoni ni ibi n’ibi. Bituma rero nk’uriya mwana wifashe ifoto akayishyira hanze (atagaragaje igitsina) ashobora kukubwira ati ntabwo njye nakoze ibiterasoni, ntiwapfa kumuhana mu gihe mu itegeko bidasobanuwe.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Ariko nka bariya bagaragaje igitsina cyabo hazakurikizwa ririya tegeko rya mudasobwa kubera ko riravuga ngo umuntu washyize hanze amashusho y’imikoreshereze y’igitsina. Kubera ko igitsina cyagaragaye bizahita byitwa ko ari imikoreshereze y’igitsina.

Umunyamakuru Anitha Pendo ukunze gukoresha cyane imbuga nkoranyambaga, yagiriye inama urubyiruko yo kujya rubanza gushishoza ku byo rushyira ku mbuga nkoranyambaga.

Yavuze ko ubusanzwe imikoreshereze y’izo mbuga ituruka ku kinyabupfura n’uburere uzikoresha asanganywe.

Ati “Buri muntu wese bisaba indangagaciro cyangwa se uburyo yumvamo ibintu, urwego rw’ikinyabupfura cye, imitekerereze ye uburere afite. Ibyo byose ni ibintu bifite icyo bivuze. Ubwo abica amategeko bazajya bahura n’izo ngaruka waba ubizi cyangwa utabizi.”

Kubera ubwiyongere bw’abakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga n’uruhare ziri kugira mu mibereho ya buri munsi y’abantu, hari ibihugu nka Turikiya, u Bushinwa n’ibindi byagiye bishyiraho amategeko yihariye azigenga, unyuranyije n’icyo ayo mategeko avuga agahanwa.

Ibyo biza byiyongera ku mabwiriza akakaye ahabwa ibigo bifite mu nshingano imbuga nkoranyambaga, aho bisabwa gushyiraho uburyo bwo gusiba cyangwa kubuza amakuru ahabanye n’amategeko igihugu kigenderaho. Ikigo kitabikoze gishobora gucibwa amande.

Urubyiruko muri iki gihe rusigaye rwaratwawe n'imbuga nkoranyambaga, gusa benshi ntibasobanukiwe ibyo bashobora kuzikoreraho bihabanye n'amategeko/ Ifoto yashushanyijwe na Kalima Alain

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