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Ihurizo ku bibazo by’ubushomeri byugarije urubyiruko

Yanditswe na Ntabareshya Jean de Dieu
Kuya 4 April 2022 saa 08:05
Yasuwe :

Iyo wicaranye n’umusore cyangwa umukobwa w’urubyiruko,byinshi mu byo muganira bigaruka ku maganya yo kwerekana ko bashobewe kubera ko nta kazi bafite bifuza muri Leta cyangwa mu bigo byigenga.

Ibi bigendana n’ukwifuza kwabo kwa buri munsi na cyane ko mu ntekerezo z’abakiri ku ntebe y’ishuri baba bumva ko nibasoza amasomo bazasanga akazi kabategereje nyamara ntibibe nk’uko babiteganya.

Imibare y’Ikigo cy’Igihugu y’Ibarurishamibare (NISR), igaragaza ko ikigero cy’ubushomeri muri Kanama 2021 cyari kuri 19,4%, kivuye kuri 23,5% muri Gicurasi na 17% muri Gashyantare uwo mwaka.

Ni imibare iri hejuru ariko bifite aho bihuriye n’ingaruka za Covid-19 cyane ko bimwe mu bikorwa byahungabanyijwe n’icyo cyorezo bikagira ingaruka ku bashomeri by’umwihariko urubyiruko rukunze kuba rudafite akazi.

Ibibazo by’ubushomeri mu rubyiruko mu gihe cya Covid-19 byariyongereye kuko bwageze kuri 21,7%, nyamara urubyiruko rufite hagati y’imyaka 16 na 30 ari rwo rugize umubare munini ungana na 43% w’abaturarwanda bose.

Guhagarika gukora mu bihe bya Covid-19 byatumye ubucuruzi n’ibindi bikorwa bihagarara birimo n’imishinga ikizamuka y’urubyiruko ari nayo ntandaro y’itumbagira ry’imibare y’abashomeri.

Si urwumwe gusa kuko uretse abanyarwanda, imibare igaragaza ko mu bihugu by’ibituranyi naho ubushomeri mu rubyiruko bugenda bwiyongera nubwo imibare isa naho iri hasi. Muri Uganda, imibare igaragaza ko urubyiruko rudafite akazi rungana na 13,3%, Kenya ikagira 17,6% mu gihe Tanzania ifite 13,47%.

Ubushakashatsi buri gukorwa ku bibazo byugarije urubyiruko

Kugeza ubu u Rwanda rwakoze iyo bwabaga kugira ngo ubushomeri n’ibindi bibazo byugarije urubyiruko biganyuke binyuze mu bikorwa bitandukanye bigamije kurufasha kwigobotora ubushomeri n’ikibazo cy’igishoro gike gikunze kururanga.

Bimwe mu bikorwa bitandukanye birimo gushyiraho urwego rw’abikorera bato rugamije kubateza imbere muri PSF, Gahunda y’igihugu yo guteza imbere urubyiruko yo mu 2015, gahunda y’iterambere rirambye y’imyaka irindwi (NST1), gahunda y’igihugu y’umurimo yo mu 2015 n’ibindi biruha umwihariko.

Ikigo gisesengura gahunda za Leta (IPAR), gifatanyije n’Umuryango nyafurika ukora ubushakashatsi ku miyoborere (PASGR), byatangiye ubushakashatsi buzamara imyaka itatu, bwiga ku bibazo urubyiruko rufite hamwe n’uburyo bikwiye gukemurwa mu bihugu birindwi bya Afurika birimo n’u Rwanda.

Ibyo bihugu ni Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sénégal na Uganda mu gushakira hamwe imibare ifatika ku bibazo byugarije urubyiruko.

Umuyobozi Nshingwabikorwa wa IPAR, Kayitesi Eugénie, yavuze ko hari uburyo bwo gufasha urubyiruko gutera imbere kandi ko hitezwe ibintu bishya bizava mu bushakashatsi buri gukorwa.

Ati “Ikintu gishya kizazanwa n’ubushakashatsi, ni uko ruzaba rwatubwiye ibyo rukeneye. Tuzabigeza ku bafata ibyemezo. Icyangombwa ni uko ibyemezo bifatwa bishingiye ku bibazo bihari, ba nyirabyo babyivugiye”.

Imibare igaragaza ko mu rubyiruko rwugarijwe n’ibibazo birimo ubushomeri, igishoro gike n’ibindi bitandukanye nibura 74% byarwo rutuye mu bice by’icyaro ari naho ubu bushakashatsi buzibanda.

Kayitesi yavuze ko Covid-19 yagize ingaruka nyinshi mu rubyiruko ariko hakenewe imibare ifatika kugira ngo izajye yifashishwa mu gufata ibyemezo.

Umuyobozi wa PASGR, Dr Anthony Mveyange, yavuze ko urubyiruko rusa naho rwasizwe inyuma n’ibihugu bimwe bigendanye n’uko usanga mu ngamba zifatwa hadashingirwa ku bigarara.

Ati “Urubyiruko ntabwo rurahabwa amahirwe yo kugira uruhare mu byemezo bifatwa, kandi ibyo bikenewe kongerwamo imbaraga mu gushakira hamwe igisubizo. Ni byo u Rwanda rwatangiye gushyira urubyiruko muri gahunda ariko ibi bikwiye kuba no ku bindi bihugu bya Afurika cyane ko rugize hafi 60% by’abaturage bose ba Afurika.”

Ubumenyingiro bukwiye gushyirwamo imbaraga nk'igisubizo kirambye

Amaherezo azaba ayahe?

Umuyobozi ushinzwe kubakira urubyiruko ubushobozi muri Minisiteri y’Urubyiruko n’Umuco, Tetero Solange, yavuze ko kugira ngo urubyiruko rubashe kwigobotora ibibazo birwugarije bisaba gukoresha imbaraga nyinshi na cyane ko bimwe mu bibabangamiye birusaba guhindura imyumvire.

Ati “Urubyiruko rukeneye nibura ibintu bitatu birimo amafaranga kubera ko iyo umuntu ayafite biramworohera kugira icyo akora. Kubona amafaranga rero bishobora kunyura mu kubatera inkunga, koroherezwa kubona inguzanyo no guhabwa akazi. Ikindi gikomeye urubyiruko rukeneye ni ubumenyi mu bintu bitandukanye kuko akenshi usanga hari abahabwa amafaranga nk’inkunga ariko ntabashe kuyakoresha neza.”

Yavuze ko kandi urubyiruko rukeneye gukomeza guherekezwa mu kubagira inama mu buryo buhamye ku buryo n’urubyiruko rwiyandarika rushobora guhindura intekerezo.

Guverinoma ifite gahunda zigamije guteza imbere urubyiruko no kurwubakira ubushobozi binyuze mu kuzamura imishinga yarwo iciriritse ndetse n’imishinga ifite udushya mu ikoranabuhanga.

Ibi bishimangirwa na gahunda zigamije zirimo Hanga Pitch Fest, amarushanwa y’imishinga y’ikoranabuhanga mu rubyiruko agamije kurufasha kwiteza imbere, gushyirirwaho ibigega nka BDF bigamije gufasha urubyiruko n’ibindi bikorwa binyuranye bitanga icyizere ku rubyiruko.

Umuyobozi w’Urwego rw’Igihugu rushinzwe imyuga n’ubumenyingiro (RTB), Paul Umukunzi, aheruka gutangaza ko hakenewe guhuza ibyigishwa uyu munsi n’ibikenewe ku isoko ry’umurimo haba mu Rwanda no ku ruhando mpuzamahanga.

Ati “Iyo urebye uko ikoranabuhanga rigenda rihinduka, ukareba inganda uko zigenda zihindura ubuzima bw’abantu, ukareba ikoranabuhanga riza mu buzima bwacu umunsi ku wundi, niho ureba ngo umwana w’Umunyarwanda urimo kwiga uyu munsi icyo akwiye kuba yiga n’iki. Kugira ngo azibone ku isoko ry’umurimo ry’ejo hazaza akwiye kwitegura gute, ubwo nibwo butumwa turimo gutanga”.

Yongeyeho “Turashaka kugaragaza ngo ahazaza h’umurimo hahagaze gute, abana bacu bakwiye kuba bitegura gute, ariko iyo urebye usanga haba hano mu Rwanda no ku Isi, byose bizingiye kuri TVET. Icyo tugamije rero muri ubu bukangurambaga ni uko inzego zose zifite aho zihuriye n’uburezi tubasobanurira TVET y’uyu munsi, n’aho ihuriye n’isoko ry’umurimo ry’ejo hazaza”.

Muri gahunda ya Guverinoma y’imyaka irindwi biteganyijwe ko nibura urubyiruko rwiga mu mashuri y’imyuga n’ubumenyingiro ruzaba rugeze kuri 60% by’abanyeshuri mu 2024 nubwo bisaba imbaraga zidasanzwe.

Ubusanzwe Amashuri ya TVET ari mu byiciro bitatu birimo TSS, ni icyiciro cy’amashuri yisumbuye yigisha Tekiniki, cyakira abarangije icyiciro rusange cy’amashuri yisumbuye bashaka kwiga amasomo ajyanye na tekiniki, abategura kwinjira ku isoko ry’umurimo cyangwa bagakomeza muri Kaminuza.

Icyiciro cya kabiri kigizwe na VTS (Vocational Training Schools). Ni amahugurwa y’igihe gito ahabwa abatarabashije kwiga ngo barenge icyiciro rusange cy’amashuri yisumbuye biturutse ku mpamvu zitandukanye. Amasomo bigishwa mu gihe cy’umwaka umwe abafasha kunguka ubumenyi bw’ibanze ku mirimo itandukanye.

Hari n’icyiciro cya gatatu cya VTC (Vocational Training Centers) gitanga amasomo atangirwa mu nganda aho abantu biga mu gihe gito akazi kameze nk’agakorerwa muri izo nganda baba bigiramo. Abigamo bashobora kuba batazi no gusoma muri gahunda yo kubafasha kugira umwuga runaka bamenya.

Ibikorwa birimo guhanga imirimo no gushyigikira urubyiruko bikomeje kwibandwaho mu guhashya ubushomeri mu rubyiruko

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