Icyizere ku itsinda ricukumbura uruhare rw’u Bufaransa muri Jenoside cyajemo igihu

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri, Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 9 Mata 2020 saa 08:12
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Mu 1994 icuraburindi ryabundikiye u Rwanda, Abatutsi bicwa amanywa n’ijoro mu gihe cy’iminsi 100 kuva muri Mata abarenga miliyoni bamburwa ubuzima. Uruhare rw’u Bufaransa mu itegurwa n’ikorwa rya Jenoside, rugaragazwa kenshi nubwo imyaka 26 ishize iki gihugu kitarakura abantu mu rujijo.

Ikibazo cy’uruhare rw’u Bufaransa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, cyakunze gushegesha umubano wabwo n’u Rwanda, bitewe no kwima agaciro ibimenyetso simusiga by’ubufasha bwahaye leta yateguye ikanashyira mu bikorwa Jenoside.

Kuva mu 1975, u Bufaransa bwagiranye umubano mwiza na Leta ya Juve Juvénal Habyarimana, ibihugu byombi bigirana imikoranire itandukanye mu bya gisirikare n’ibindi. Iki gihugu cyatanze ubufasha bwinshi kuri iyi leta yateguraga jenoside buhera ku gutoza Interahamwe kugeza ku guhungisha abakoze jenoside banyuze muri Zone Turquoise.

U Bufaransa ntibwanyuzwe kuko bwakomeje gufasha leta yakoze Jenoside na nyuma y’uko ihagaritswe n’ingabo zari iza FPR-Inkotanyi.

U Bufaransa ntibwahwemye gutera utwatsi uruhare rwabwo muri Jenoside. Mu 2010 ubwo Perezida wariho icyo gihe Nicolas Sarkozy, yari mu Rwanda, nyuma yo gusura Urwibutso rwa Jenoside rwa Kigali ruri ku Gisozi, yemeye ko u Bufaransa bwakoze amakosa ya politiki mu Rwanda.

Sarkozy yavuze ko habayeho amakosa ariko ntiyasobanura birambuye ayo ari yo. Ku butegetsi bwa Perezida François Hollande, ibintu byasubiye irudubi ariko asimbuwe na Emmanuel Macron, haza icyizere ko u Bufaransa, bushobora gukuraho urujijo ku ruhare rwabwo muri Jenoside ndetse umubano mwiza ukongera kubakwa.

Icyizere cyiyongereye muri Gicurasi 2018, ubwo Perezida Kagame yagiriraga uruzinduko rw’akazi mu Bufaransa ku butumire bwa Macron.

Uru ruzinduko rwasojwe Perezida Macron yiyemeje gushyiraho Komisiyo yo gusuzuma inyandiko u Bufaransa bubitse zifitanye isano na Jenoside zo hagati y’umwaka wa 1990 na 1994, hagamijwe gusesengura uruhare n’ibikorwa by’u Bufaransa muri icyo gihe no gutanga umusanzu mu kurushaho kumva no gusobanukirwa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Izi nyandiko zirimo izirebana n’umutekano, izo za Minisiteri y’ingabo, Perezidansi n’izindi zigaragaza ibyemezo byagiye bifatwa n’u Bufaransa, byo kohereza abasirikare mu Rwanda, gutanga intwaro no gushyiraho za Operation zitandukanye.

-  Ibikorwa by’ibanze byakemanzwe

Komisiyo ya Macron igizwe n’abantu 15 barimo inzobere n’abashakashatsi mu mateka, amategeko n’ibindi, biteganyijwe ko mu 2021 ari bwo izatanga raporo ya nyuma. Gusa imbanziriza yayo yatanzwe ku wa 5 Mata 2020, ntivugwaho rumwe. Iyi raporo yakemanzwe kuba nta kintu gishya kiyirimo ahubwo harimo ibinyoma.

Umuryango Survie uharanira ko u Bufaransa bwemera uruhare rwabwo muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi n’ibindi bikorwa bibi bwagizemo uruhare, wabaye uwa mbere mu kugaragaza ko muri iyi mbanziriza ya raporo y’ibanze harimo ibintu bitari ukuri.

Bavuga ko guhera mu Ukwakira 1990 kugeza mu Ukuboza 1993, u Bufaransa bwohereje ingabo mu Rwanda mu cyiswe ‘’opération Noroît” bugamije gufasha Leta ya Habyarimana yari yugarijwe n’ibitero bya FPR Inkotanyi.

Izo mpuguke zivuga ko u Bufaransa ari nako bwashyiraga igitutu ku mpande zitavuga rumwe ngo zigane inzira y’amahoro ngo ari nabyo byaganishije ku masezerano ya Arusha yo guhera mu 1992 kugeza 1993.

Impuguke zishingira ku itangazo ryasohowe n’Ibiro bya François Mitterrand wayoboraga u Bufaransa muri Kamena 1994, ubwo Leta ye yashinjwaga kuzambya ibintu mu Rwanda. Mitterrand yavuze ko ‘bagerageje kwitwararika, ko nta ruhande na rumwe bari bashyigikiye mu buryo bugaragara’.

Muri iryo tangazo ibiro bya François Mitterrand, byavuze ko byafashaga igisirikare cya Habyarimana mu guca intege FPR kugira ngo igane inzira y’ibiganro ari nako bashyira igitutu kuri Habyarimana ngo yemere amasezerano ya Arusha.

Kuri Habyarimana ngo bamushyizeho igitutu ngo yemere gushyiraho Minisitiri w’Intebe utavuga rumwe na Leta muri Mata 1992.

Survie isanga mu kugaragaza aya mateka impuguke zararumye zihuha ndetse zikagoreka ukuri kuko zitavuze uburyo u Bufaransa, bwakomeje kugumisha ingabo zabwo mu Rwanda no gufasha igisirikare cya Habyarimana butanga intwaro kandi byari bitandukanye n’amasezerano ya N’Sele yasinywe muri Werurwe 1991 n’aya mbere ya Arusha yasinywe muri Nyakanga 1992.

Ikindi Survie ivuga, ni uburyo impuguke zitavuga uko u Bufaransa bwanze guha agaciro iyicwa ry’Abatutsi guhera mu Ukwakira 1990, kandi byaragaragaraga ko hari umugambi wo kubarimbura.

Impuguke kandi zivuga ku buryo guhera tariki 8 Mata kugeza ku wa 14 Mata, u Bufaransa bwatangije igikorwa cyiswe “opération Amaryllis” cyo guhungisha Abafaransa n’abandi Banyaburayi bari mu Rwanda, ari nako bahungisha Abanyarwanda barimo Abahutu n’Abatutsi bari hafi y’ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana.

Survie ivuga ko ibyo bihabanye n’ukuri kuko Raporo y’abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko mu Bufaransa, yasohotse mu 1998, ivuga ko mu guhungisha Abanyarwanda, Abahutu ari bo bitabwagaho cyane.

Iyi komisiyo igaruka kuri opération Turquoise, yari igamije gutabara ubuzima bw’abantu ndetse ko u Bufaransa ‘ari cyo gihugu cyonyine cy’i Burayi cyatabaye’. Survie ivuga ko izo mpuguke ntacyo zivuga ku bufasha ingabo zari muri Opération Turquoise zahaye Leta yakoraga Jenoside n’ibitero zagabye ku Ngabo za FPR.

Abagize Komisiyo kandi bagaruka ku nyito ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, bavuga ko mu kazi kabategereje harimo guhosha imvururu z’ibitekerezo ku nyito nyayo ya Jenoside, ngo kuko bamwe bavuga ko habaye Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi abandi bakavuga ko hari n’iyakorewe Abahutu.

Ngo uko kutamenya ukuri bituma abayobozi b’u Bufaransa babura uruhande bahagararamo ku gushyigikira Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi cyangwa iyakorewe Abahutu.

Survie ivuga ko ikibabaje, baterura ngo bagaragaze ko abahakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bari mu butegetsi barimo n’agatsiko k’abahoze mu buyobozi bwashyigikiye Leta ya Habyarimana barimo Alain Juppé na Dominique de Villepin bayoboye Minisiteri y’ububanyi n’amahanga, Général Christian Quesnot wari ushinzwe iby’umutekano mu biro bya Mitterand n’abandi batifuza ko amabi bakoze avugwa.

Umwe mu bashinze Survie, Patrice Garesio, yavuze ko inyandiko y’ibanze impuguke zigize Komisiyo yashyizweho na Macron, iteye impugenge ku buryo na raporo rusange izasohoka umwaka utaha nta cyizere itanga.

Yagize ati “Twari tubizi ko nta Komisiyo n’imwe, cyane cyane iyashyizweho na Perezidansi y’u Bufaransa ishobora gutanga ukuri nyako. Twari dufite amatsiko yo kubona raporo yabo muri Mata 2021 ngo tugire icyo tuyivugaho ariko birababaje ko mu nyandiko y’ibanze, bagaragaza ko uruhare rw’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda rwari rwiza, rukwiriye.”

-  Komisiyo ishaka gufata impu zombi

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, umunyamategeko uba mu Bufaransa, Maître Richard Gisagara, yavuze ko ibyasohowe n’impuguke zigize Komisiyo yashyizweho na Perezida Macron, bisa n’ibigamije gushimisha impande zombi, ari abavuga ko u Bufaransa, bwagize uruhare muri Jenoside n’ababihakana.

Ati “Komisiyo ishaka gufata impu zombi. Kugera kuri uyu munota nta wamenya aho ishaka kugana, urabona imeze nk’aho ishaka gushimisha impande zombi ari abavuga ko u Bufaransa bwagize uruhare muri Jenoside, ari abashaka kuvuga ko u Bufaransa nta ruhare bwaba bwaragize muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Kumenya rero aho izagana nyuma yaho ndabona ntacyo umuntu yabivugaho. Ni ugutegereza ifirimbi ya nyuma.”

Me Gisagara avuga ko ibyinshi biri muri iyo nyandiko nta gishya kirimo, ko ahubwo icyari cyitezwe ari ukugaragaza ibimenyetso biganisha ku kwerekana ko u Bufaransa, bwagize uruhare muri Jenoside cyangwa ntarwo bwagize.

Ati “Kuvuga ko Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yabaye byo ntabwo ari bishyashya, usibye bamwe ba ruharwa nta n’umwe ugitinyuka kuvuga ibinyuranye n’ibyo ariko kugira ngo bazarenge iyo ntambwe bavuge ko u Bufaransa bwagize uruhare muri ibi n’ibi, kuri uyu munota sinabyemeza nkurikije ibyo bavuga muri iyi raporo. Ntabwo namenya ngo biraduha icyizere cy’uko ubutaha bazavugisha ukuri.”

Vincent Duclert, ukuriye iyi komisiyo ni umushakashatsi akaba yarigeze no kuyobora CESPRA (CNRS-EHESS), umwarimu muri EHESS n’umugenzuri mukuru w’uburezi

-  Komisiyo ntiyavuzweho rumwe kuva mbere

Ubwo hatangazwaga amazina y’abagize iyi komisiyo umwaka ushize, benshi bakomeje kugaragaza impungenge z’umusaruro izatanga ndetse ntibarye indimi ku kuvuga ko ‘urwishe ya nka rukiyirimo’.

Umushakashatsi Christian Ingrao, wanasabye ko iyi komisiyo yahurirwamo n’impuguke zo mu bihugu bibiri [u Rwanda n’u Bufaransa] yanenze ko nta nzobere n’imwe y’Umunyarwanda irimo.

Yabwiye RFI ati “Aba bantu barazwi mu byo bakoramo, gusa ikibazo gisigara ku kuba ari komisiyo izakora kuri Jenoside yabaye mu Rwanda no ku ruhare rw’ikindi gihugu ariko ntihitabwe ku nzobere zo mu gihugu byabereyemo. Ntabwo byumvikana gushyiraho komisiyo imeze gutya nta muntu uvuga ururimi rw’aho byabereye”.

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Umwanditsi w’ibitabo byakunze akenshi kwibanda ku ruhare rwa Leta y’u Bufaransa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, Yolande Mukagasana, yakemanze iyi komisiyo kubera ko nta Munyarwanda n’umwe uyigaragaramo.

Yavuze ko bitumvikana uburyo Perezida Macron yashyizeho itsinda ritagaragaramo Umunyarwanda, mu gihe hari abanyarwanda bazi amateka yabo kurusha abo bari muri iryo tsinda.

Ati “Biriya Macron yakoze se birabatangaza? Iyo mubona se iryo tsinda ritarimo Abanyarwanda twe nta barimu b’amateka dufite mu gihugu? Ba Mugesera Antoine ntibazi amateka? Kubera iki bashaka ko amateka yacu tutayagiramo uruhare? Nta muntu uzagukorera amateka yawe ngo agukorere ibikwiye, igihe cyose uzaba utamuri iruhande.”

Ubwo yabazwaga niba abona iri tsinda ntacyo rizageza ku Banyarwanda, Mukagasana yagize ati “Njye rwose kwizera ko hari umusaruro uzavamo birangoye kubera ko nzi intambara narwanye n’Abafaransa nkaba maze imyaka 25 n’uyu munsi nkirwana.”

Nyuma ya raporo y’ibanze y’iyi komisiyo, byatumye hibazwa niba izasubiza ibibazo birimo; Ni inyandiko ibihumbi amagana angahe zibitse? Ni ubuhe butumwa bwahererekanywaga hagati ya Kigali na Paris muri Mata 1994? Inyandiko za serivisi z’ibanga zivuga iki? Ni iki kiri mu biganiro bya Perezidansi y’u Rwanda, iy’u Bufaransa na Minisiteri y’ingabo?.

Abandi bagize iyi komisiyo

Julie D’Andurain, umwarimu w’amateka muri Kaminuza ya Metz, inzobere mu mateka y’igisirikare mu kinyejana cya 18 ni umwe mu bagize iyi komisiyo
Thomas Hochmann, umwarimu w’amategeko muri Kaminuza ya Reims
Raymond H. Kevorkian, umuyobozi w’ubushakashatsi w’icyubahiro muri Kaminuza ya Paris 8
Françoise Thebaud, umwarimu w’icyubahiro mu mateka yo mu kinyejana cya 18, muri Kaminuza ya Avignon
Christian Vigouroux, umwe mu bayoboye agashami k’Akanama ka Leta (Conseil d’État), yahoze ari umwarimu w’amategeko ya Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne na Versailles-Saint-Quentin

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