Ibitazasibangana mu mitwe y’Abanyarwanda ku bikorwa by’Abafaransa muri Jenoside na mbere yayo

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 8 Mata 2019 saa 10:04
Yasuwe :
0 0

Ku wa 5 Mata nibwo Perezida w’u Bufaransa, Emmanuel Macron, yateye intambwe ikomeye atangaza ishyirwaho rya komisiyo igizwe n’abahanga mu mateka n’abashakashatsi, izasesengura inyandiko icyo gihugu kibitse zigaragaza ibikorwa byacyo mu Rwanda hagati y’imyaka ya 1990-1994, ngo hashyirwe ahabona ukuri ku ruhare rwacyo muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Ikibazo cy’uruhare rw’u Bufaransa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi cyakunze guteza igitotsi mu mubano w’ibihugu byombi, aho butakunze guha agaciro ibirego by’u Rwanda rutahwemye kugaragaza uko bwafashije leta yateguye ikanashyira mu bikorwa Jenoside, ndetse rugakomoza no ku bayobozi b’u Bufaransa babigizemo uruhare.

Iki kibazo cyanditsweho kinavugwaho byinshi, ubu ikigezweho ni filime mbarankuru ‘Rwanda, chronique d’un génocide annoncé’ yakozwe na France 24, yaganirije benshi mu bagize uruhare muri politiki y’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda mu gihe cya Jenoside.

U Bufaransa bwabaye igihe kinini inshuti ya Perezida Juvenal Habyarimana, bikaba umwihariko kuri Perezida François Mitterrand.

Hagati ya 1990-1994, abanyarwanda bari barahejejwe mu mahanga n’ubutegetsi bubi, batangije urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu cyabo, ari narwo rugamba rwagejeje ku ihagarikwa rya Jenoside yari imaze guhitana miliyoni y’abatutsi.

Mbere y’icyo gihe ariko, u Bufaransa bwari bufite abasirikare mu Rwanda batozaga ingabo za leta, bubaha intwaro n’ibindi bikresho bakeneye mu bya gisirikare. Hagati ya 1990-1993, ubufatanye bwa leta ya Habyarimana n’Abafaransa, ahanini bwari bugamije kurwana ku butegetsi bwe bwari busumbirijwe n’ibitero by’Inkotanyi.

U Bufaransa bwamenye kare ko Jenoside itegurwa

Mu 1991, umwe mu basirikare bakuru b’u Bufaransa, Gen. Jean Varret wari ushinzwe ubutwererane mu bya gisirikare mu Rwanda, yamenye ibyo umugambi wa Jenoside wari ugeze kure utegurwa ndetse abimenyesha ubuyobozi be i Paris.

Varret aheruka gukomoza ku nama yagiranye n’Umuyobozi wa Gendarmerie, Colonel Pierre-Célestin Rwagafilita. Yamusabye intwaro ziremereye, undi amubaza impamvu kuko abajandarume batari bagenewe imbunda nini, ahubwo bari bakeneye ibyuka biryani mumaso.

Ati "Maze kubyanga, uyu muyobozi wa Gendarmerie yabwiye bagenzi be ati ‘mushobora kugenda, ndagumana na General gusa. Arabwira ati ‘ubu turi twenyine, hagati y’abasirikare tugomba kuvuga tweruye. Ndabasaba izi ntwaro kuko hamwe n’abasirikare dushaka gukemura ikibazo. Ikibazo cyo kiroroshye: Abatutsi ntabwo ari benshi, tuzabarimbura.’ Yarabimbwiye rwose, numva ndikanze."

Hejuru y’ibyo byose u Bufaransa bwakomeje gufasha leta yateguraga Jenoside, yirengagiza ibyo yabwirwaga byose.

Gukomeza gushyigikira ubu butegetsi bo ngo babibonaga nk’iturufu yo gukumira FPR inkotanyi no kurengera inyungu zabo mu kugumana igihugu gikoresha Igifaransa, mu gihe FPR yakoreshaga icyongereza ndetse ishyigikiwe n’igice gikoresha urwo rurimi.

Gen. Varret avuga ko abasirikare bakuru bamwe bavugaga ko bagomba gukomeza gufasha butegetsi bw’u Rwanda buyobowe n’abahutu, kurwanya abatutsi.

Ati “Abatutsi bari FPR cyangwa se ubwoko bw’abatutsi simbizi, ariko akenshi bagereranyaga abatutsi na FPR nk’umwanzi.”

“Ndatekereza ko politiki y’u Bufaransa muri icyo gihe kwari ugufasha abahutu, bufunga amaso ku ngingo y’uko hashoboraga kuba ubwicanyi.”

Uyu jenerali yaje gutereranwa na bagenzi be, mu 1993 yegura ku mirimo ye.

U Bufaransa bwakomeje ubufatanye mu bya gisirikare n’ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana, aho mu nyandiko yandikiwe Perezida w’u Bufaransa, François Mitterrand ku wa 8 Ukwakira 1990 binyuze ku munyamabanga Mukuru w’ibiro bye, Ubuyobozi bukuru bw’ingabo buyobobowe na Amiral Laxande bwemeje ko hari intwaro zahawe u Rwanda.

Nyuma y’ihanurwa ry’indege ya Habyarimana ku wa 6 Mata 1994 bikozwe n’agatsiko k’intagondwa z’abahutu nk’uko raporo zinyuranye zabigaragaje ko batari bishimiye amasezerano yari amaze gusinya yemeraga isaranganywa ry’ubutegetsi, abagize guverinoma y’inzibacyuho bahise bahurira muri Ambasade y’u Bufaransa.

Umwanditsi n’umunyamateka Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau yagize ati “u Bufaransa bukomeza umugambi wabwo wo gushyigikira guverinoma y’Abahutu, idasahaka kubona ko ari abahezanguni barangajwe imbere na Hutu Power, biyemeje gukora ubwicanyi.”

Zone Turqouise yazanye ibyayo

Muri Jenoside hagati, ku wa 22 Kamena mu 1994, Umuryango w’Abibumbye ubisabwe n’u Bufaransa, wafashe umwanzuro wemerera u Bufaransa kohereza ingabo zabwo mu Rwanda mu cyiswe “Operation Turquoise”, yitirirwaga ibikorwa by’ubutabazi.

Hoherejwe mu Rwanda na Zaire indege z’intambara zirenga 30 abasirikare 2500 n’ibindi bikoresho bihambaye ku buryo iyo baba bazanywe n’ubutabazi koko bitari bubananire.

General Jean-Claude Lafourcade wari uyoboye ingabo z’u Bufaransa muri icyo gice, avuga ko baje bafite ibikoreshjo bikomeye kubera ko Amerika yari iherutse gupfusha abasirikare bayo muri Somalia, ku buryo bo bari kubasha kwirengera bibaye ngombwa.

Muri icyo gihe kandi Ingabo zari iza FPR Inkotanyi zari zikajije umurego mu bitero byo guhanganga na Guverinoma yateguye Jenoside ari nako bayihagarika.

Nyuma byaje kujya ahabona ko Ingabo z’Abafaransa zinjiye mu Rwanda zifite umugambi wo kurwana na FPR Inkotanyi, kandi byarabaye ariko baratsindwa.

Lt Col Guillaume Ancel wari ukuriye abasirikare bakoresha indege, avuga ko hari umunsi bahawe amabwiriza yo kugaba ibitero by’indege kuri FPR hafi y’ishyamba rya Nyungwe.

Ati “Twahawe amabwiriza, badusaba kujya ku rundi ruhande rw’ishyamba rya Nyungwe gutega igico ingabo za FPR nizihagera. Batumenyesheje ko abasirikare bari imbere yacu bari hagati ya 1000-1500 bizwi ko batojwe neza, ari abarwanyi bakomeye, kandi twe twari 150. Kajugujugu zarahagurutse, bivuze ko twagiye tugiye kurwana, nyuma baza kutubwira ko hagiye gushyirwaho igice cy’ubutabazi, ni ubwa mbere twari twumvise iby’ubwo butumwa.”

Umwe mu bari abasirikare b’u Bufaransa uri mu kiruhuko cy’izabukuru ariko wari woherejwe muri Zaire nk’umupilote wa gisirikare, avuga ko bahawe ubu butumwa nubwo yanze gutanga ubuhamya imbere ya za Camera.

Ati “Ku wa 30 Kamena 1994 ku mugoroba ku birindiro bya gisirikare i Kisangani muri Zaire, abasirikare bahawe amabwiriza aturutse i Goma ahari icyicaro gikuru cya Operation Turquoise, bwo kwitegura ibitero byo gutera ingabo mu bitugu ingabo zo ku butaka.”

Umujyanama wa Perezida Kagame, Gen. James Kabarebe, aheruka kubwira urubyiruko mu biganiro bigamije kubigisha amateka y’u Rwanda, ko kimwe n’ahandi abafaransa bagendaga bagira ibirindiro, ari nabwo buryo bajemo mu Rwanda.

Ati “Bafashe ingabo zabo zabaga muri Centrafrique, bazongera ibikoresho n’ubushobozi, indege, za burende, ibibunda birasa kure, bazana n’ingabo ziri tayali kurwana. Baraje muri 90 baza i Kigali gufasha Habyarimana, bafashaga mu myitozo ya Ex Far, batoza n’interahamwe, bagiye ku mabariyeri mwarabibonye.”

“Barwanye na FPR guhera muri 90 baza guhunga baragenda, bagaruka mu 1992 turwanira muri Gicumbi mu yahoze ari Byumba, basubirayo, bagaruka noneho mu gihe cya Jenoside, baza biteguye, bashyira ibirindiro muri Congo kugira ngo baze gufasha Ex-Far gukomeza gukora Jenoside.”

Yavuze ko ubwo abafaransa bari bacyisuganya FPR yatsindaga Ex-Far igakomeza guhunga, ku buryo Zone Turquoise yari igamije gufasha abakoze Jenoside.

Gen. Kabarebe ati “Bibagoye rero na APR yagendaga ihagarika Jenoside, iba yageze i Butare. Bakubitanaho babona ko iyo ntambara batari buyishobore, bariruka basubira Congo. FPR nayo kudashaka kujya muntambara cyane n’abafaransa, nyakubahwa perezida wa repubulika aravuga ati nimubareke muhagararire aho ngaho.”

“Aho bafashwe ni muri Karongi ku rutare rwa Ndaba. Ahi niho barwanye iminota 30 na kampani yacu (company-itsinda ry’abasirikare bari hagati ya 80-150), irabazenguruka ibambura imbunda zabo. Iyo umusirikare wabafashe aza kuba ari umuntu udasobanukiwe, aba yaranabishe akabamara. Ariko yatanze raporo ko abafashe, abambuye imbunda, bamubwira kuzibasubiza barazibasubiza, bafata imirindi bariruka basubira ku Kibuye.”

Abafaransa batereranye abatutsi mu Bisesero

Ubwo abasirikare b’Abafaransa bageraga mu Rwanda, bakiriwe neza na benshi babafataga nk’abagiye kubacungura, ariko amateka agaragaza ko ibyabaye ari ibindi bindi. Basanze abatutsi bicwa ariko ntacyo babikozeho, bakomeje kwigendera.

Eric Nzabihimana warokokeye mu Bisesero, mu buhamya yatanze mu 2017 yavuze ko Abafaransa babatereranye kandi bari bafite ubushobozi bwo kubarokora.

Ati “Ku wa 27 Kamena 1994 ni bwo twabonaga Abafaransa baje, navuye mu ishyamba njya kuvugana na bo kuko nari naragize amahirwe yo kwiga ndi umwarimu. Twabasobanuriye ibirimo kutubaho ariko ntibadutega amatwi, baratubwira ngo dukomeze twihishe nk’uko twihishaga ngo nyuma y’iminsi itatu bazagaruka baje kudutabara. Twarabahendahenze baratunanira kandi ibyangombwa byose bari babifite kudutabara bari kubishobora icyo gihe.”

Mu minsi itatu yakurikiyeho kugeza ku wa 30 Kamena uhereye igihe Abafaransa bahatirimukiye, haje ibitero biteye ubwoba bica abatutsi barenga 4000 muri 6000.

Ibi binahamywa na Patrick de Saint Exupery wari umunyamakuru wa Le Figaro mu Rwanda, wajyanye n’Abafaransa mu Bisesero icyo gihe.

Abafaransa kandi bakomeje gukorana n’abajenosideri, aho Nyirimbuga Emmanuel wemeye ko yakoze Jenoside agakatirwa gufungwa imyaka irindwi akarangiza igihano, yavuze ko yakoranye n’Abafaransa kandi bazi ko yakoze Jenoside, ati “badukoresheje mu gucukura indaki zabo, bakaduhemba za biscuit (ibisuguti) bakaduha n’ariya mazi yo mu mapipiri.”

Jean-Claude Lafourcade we avuga ko atari gusiga abasirikare mu Bisesero kandi ari “bake bafite intwaro zidahagije, mu gihe babaga biteguye ibitero bya FPR Inkotanyi.”

Abafaransa bahungishije abajenosideri

Nyuma aba bafaransa bashyizeho inkambi mu gice cy’amajyepfo y’uburengerazuba bw’u Rwanda, yanabaye icyuho cy’ubutegetsi bwakoze Jenoside, bubasha guhunga.

Ku wa 15 Nyakanga 1994, abenshi muri Guverinoa yakoze Jenoside binjiye muri icyo gice cyagenzurwaga n’Abafaransa bahunga FPR yari imaze kubakoma mu nkokora. Bakomezanyije amakamyo ya gisirikare n’imbunda za rutura banabigeza muri Zaire.

Mu butumwa bwahise butangwa i Paris, Ambasaderi w’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda yasabye ko hatangwa itegeko ngo batabwe muri yombi.

Ati “Tuzi ko ubuyobozi bufite uruhare rukomeye muri Jenoside. Nta yandi mahitamo dufite, uko byaba bikomeye kose, uretse kubata muri yombi.”

Gen. Lafourcade wari uyoboye ingabo muri Operation Turqouise ngo yabajije icyo gukora kuko mu nshingano zabo hatarimo guta muri yombi.

Ibiro Ntaramakuru Reuters ku wa 6 Nyakanga 1994 byaje gusohora inkuru yavugaga ko “Paris yiteguye guta muri yombi abagize guverinoma y’agateganyo” bari bamaze kugira uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, bageze mu gice cyagenzurwaga n’Abafaransa.

Nyamara inyandiko iriho iyo nkuru yabonywe iriho n’umukono wa Hubert Védrine wari Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Élysée, igaragaza ko uwo mwanzuro utigeze ufatwa, ko Perezida Mitterand yabisomye ariko mu mukono we, Védrine ati “Ntabwo ari byo byavuzwe kwa Minisitiri w’Intebe.”

Ibyo byari bivuze ko u Bufaransa budashyigikiye ifatwa ry’abari bagize Guverinoma yakoze Jenoside. Abari abasirikare bakuru b’u Bufaransa bavuga ko iki gihugu kitari gihagarariye urwego rushinzwe iyubahirizwa ry’amategeko mu bijyanye n’ubutabera, ahubwo “bari mu bikorwa by’ubutabasi.”

Muri Kamena 2017 muri Revue XXI, umunyamakuru Patrick de Saint-Exupéry yashyize hanze ubuhamya bw’abinjiye mu nyandiko zagizwe ibanga, zihamya ko u Bufaransa bwahaye intwaro ingabo n’Interahamwe zakoze Jenoside kugeza no muri iki gihe zari mu mayira zihungira muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, yanditswe na Védrine.

Rafaelle Maison, umwarimu w’amategeko mpuzamahanga akaba n’umwanditsi w’igitabo, Pouvoir et Jenoside, we avuga ko hari hakenewe umutimanama kubera ko muri icyo gihe buri wese yari amaze kumenya ko iyo Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho ariyo yari inyuma ya Jenoside, bityo ko u Bufaransa ahubwo bwagombaga kubata muri yombi.

Ati “Ntabwo numva ikibazo gihari mu mategeko kubera ko ibihugu byose bigize Umuryango w’Abibumbye byari bihuriye ku masezerano yo kurwanya jenoside yo mu 1948 asaba ibihugu byose kurwanya ibyaha bya jenoside. Muri make u Bufaransa bwagombaga gukora ibishoboka byose mu kurengera abasivili no mu guhana abagize uruhare mu byaha bya jenoside binyuze mu gufata ababigizemo uruhare.”

Hejuru y’ibyo, abasirikare bari muri Operation Turqouise bagize uruhare mu guhungisha abagize Guverinoma yateguye Jenoside ndetse ikayishyira mu bikorwa. Abo barimo abari abasirikare bakuru, abayobozi bakomeye barimo n’abaminisitiri muri Guverinoma.

Igisirikare nacyo ntikibihisha byose, kuko Ikinyamakuru Kepi Blanc muro icyo gihe cyanditse ko “U Buyobozi bukuru bw’ingabo bwateguye ihungishwa ry’abari bagize Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho berekeza muri Zaire. Ku wa 17 Nyakanga, Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yerekeje muri Zaire.”

Hanakomeje kwibazwa impamvu mu guhunga, abasirikare batatandukanyijwe n’impunzi muri Congo kandi ubusanzwe mu mategeko mpuzamahanga bitahabo, ndetse impunzi zigumishwa muri metero nke uvuye mu Rwanda kandi baragombaga kujya kure.

Abahanga bamwe bavuga ko ibyo bikorwa byatumye imyitozo ya gisirikare ikomereza muri RDC kuko Mobutu yari inshuti ya Habyarimana n’Abafaransa babaha rugari ngo bazagaruke gutera u Rwanda, ari nabyo byagejeje ku ivuka ry’imitwe irimo FDLR n’intambara ya Congo.

Alain hamwe n’umugore we Daphrose Gauthier bahamya ko u Bufaransa bwagize uruhare mu gukingira ikibaba abajenosideri, ndetse ngo bamaze guhungira muri Zaire, bamwe bagiye bubahungishiriza mu bindi bihugu.

Alain ati “Bamaze kwambuka umupaka, bamwe muri bo bajyanwe n’indege za gisirikare z’abafarasa muri Cenyrafrique nk’urugero, bajya mu bindi bihugu nka Togo, Cameroon, aho nta muntu uzashobora kubabona. Uwari su-perefe wa Gisagara, ubwo yari mu rukiko yiyemereye ko yavuye muri Congo mu ndege y’abafaransa, ajya muri Centrafrique, yarabyivugiye. Navuga ko atari we wenyine wafashijwe muri ubwo buryo bw’ingendo.”

Urukiko mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda rwakoreraga i Arusha, ICTR, rwafunze imiryango rumaze gucira imanza abari bakomeye muri Guverinoma yakoze Jenoside, barimo Jean Kambanda wari Minisitiri w’Intebe, Pauline Nyiramasuhuko wari Minisitiri w’umuryango, abari abakuru mu ngabo n’abandi.

Gusa kugeza ubu hari bamwe mu bakekwaho uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bari mu Bufaransa ndetse nta n’icyo bishisha, nka Agathe Kanziga Habyarimana, umugore wa Perezida Habyarimana na Colonel Laurent Serubuga wari umugaba wungirije w’ingabo z’u Rwanda mu gihe cya Jenoside.

Abandi ni nka Dr Sosthène Munyemana, Laurent Bucyibaruta, Dr Eugène Rwamucyo, Marcel Bivugabagabo, Pierre Tegera, Dr Charles Twagira, Hyacinthe Rafiki Nsengiyumva, Claude Muhayimana na Félicien Baligira.

U Bufaransa bwabaye igihe kinini inshuti ya Perezida Juvenal Habyarimana, bikaba umwihariko kuri Perezida François Mitterrand
Gen Jean Varret avuga ko yamenyesheje u Bufaransa ko hari ibimenyetso bya Jenoside ariko ntibihabwe agaciro
Gen Lafourcade ni we wayoboraga Operation Turqouise

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza