Ibintu bitanu wamenya nyuma y’itangazwa ry’urukingo rwa mbere rwa Covid-19

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 10 Ugushyingo 2020 saa 02:09
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Kuri uyu wa Mbere nibwo ibigo Pfizer na BioNTech bikora imiti, byatangaje ko igerageza ryakozwe ku rukingo byakoze ryerekanye ko rushobora kurinda umuntu kwandura COVID-19 ku kigero cya 90 ku ijana, nubwo imibare ya nyuma y’igerageza itaratangazwa.

Ni igikorwa cyabaye nk’ikimenyetso cyo kwiruhutsa kuri benshi kubera ingaruka Coronavirus ikomeje kugira ku buzima bw’abantu n’ubukungu.

Ni icyorezo kimaze guhitana abantu basaga miliyoni 1.25, ndetse cyahagaritse ubuzima muri rusange kuko ubu mu bihugu byinshi abaturage bari muri guma mu rugo, icyemezo gikomeje gushyira benshi mu bukene.

Iyi ntambwe yagezweho ite?

Ubushakashatsi bw’urukingo buhera ku cyiciro cya mbere cyo muri laboratwari, icyiciro cya kabiri cy’igerageza ku bantu bake n’icya gatatu cy’igerageza ku bantu benshi, ari naryo rimaze iminsi ku rukingo rwa BNT162b2.

Ibigo Pfizer Inc cyo muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika na BioNTech cyo mu Budage, byatangaje ko icyiciro cya gatatu cy’igerageza cyatangiye ku wa 27 Nyakanga, gikorerwa ku bantu 43,538 bo mu bihugu birimo Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, u Budage, Brésil, Argentine, Afurika y’Epfo na Turikiya.

Abantu 38.955 muri bo bahawe urukingo rwa kabiri kugeza ku wa 8 Ugushyingo 2020, kuko uru rukingo bikekwa ko rwakora neza rutanzwe inshuro ebyiri ku muntu.

Mu bantu bakorerwagaho igerageza, abantu 94 baje kwandura COVID-19 ku nshuro ya mbere. Abagera ku icyenda bari mu bahawe urukingo inshuro ebyiri, biganisha ku gipimo cyo kurinda kwandura Coronavirus byemejwe ko ari 90% cyagaragaye ku bantu batigeze bayandura mbere yo guhabwa urukingo.

Imibare igaragaza ko mu igenzura basanze ubwirinzi bwarageze kuri 90% ku bantu batewe uru rukingo inshuro ebyiri, bagaterwa urwa kabiri nyuma y’iminsi irindwi bahawe urwa mbere. Ubwirinzi bwagezweho nyuma y’iminsi 28 hatanzwe urukingo.

Pfizer yatangaje ko izakomeza igerageza kugeza igihe abantu banduriyemo COVID-19 bazagera ku 164, umubare ikigo gishinzwe Ibiribwa n’Imiti muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika cyemeje ko baba bahagije kugira ngo hamenyekanye uko urukingo rukora.

Ni ubushakashatsi ariko butaratangazwa muri kimwe mu binyamakuru bitangaza ubushakashatsi mu by’ubuzima.

Abasesenguzi bagaragaza ko hari ibigikeneye gusesengurwa kugira ngo hamenyekane niba urukingo rushobora kurinda ibibazo bikomeye bihobora kuba ku muntu, igihe kurinda umuntu bishobora kumara n’uburyo rushobora gukora mu bantu bageze mu za bukuru.

Uru rukingo rukora rute?

Ubundi inkingo nk’iz’iseru cyangwa ibicurane, umuntu ashyirwa mu mubiri igice cya virus gifite intege nke cyangwa cyapfuye, bidashobora kumutera uburwayi. Akamaro kabyo biba ari ugutuma umubiri ukamenya ko hari ikintu cyawuteye, ukubaka ubudahangarwa bwo guhangana nacyo.

Ni ukuvuga ko igihe umubiri uzahura na virus nzima cyangwa bagiteri bitera indwara bimeze nka bya bindi byinjiye mu mubiri, abasirikare umubiri wubatse bazahita bayirwanya kuko atari ubwa mbere bazaba bayibonye.

Uburyo uru rukingo rwa Pfizer rwakozwemo kimwe n’urwa Moderna rukiri gutunganywa, rurimo akaremangingo kazwi nka Messenger RNA cyangwa mRNA. Urwo rukingo ruha amakuru umubiri ku miterere ya virus, ukiyubakamo ibiyigize, ukaniremamo ubushobozi bwo kuyirwanya.

Inkingo za Covid-19 zishingiye kuri mRNA zituma ingirabuzimafatizo z’umuntu zirema ubushobozi bwo gutahura ya virusi ubwawo ndetse ukubaka ubushobozi bwo kuyirwanya.

Ni bande biteguye kurugura?

Mu rwego rwo gucunguza uburyo umwete, ibi bigo byatangiye kurukora na mbere y’uko hemeza ko rutanga umusaruro ku rwego rwo hejuru.

Biteganywa ko umunsi uru rukingo ruzaba rwemewe, ibi bigo byombi bizabasha gukora inkingo miliyoni 50 muri uyu mwaka wa 2020, zishobora guhabwa abantu zikazagera kuri miliyari 1.3 mu 2021.

Pfizer na BioNTech byamaze guhabwa amasezerano ya miliyari $1.95 na Guverinoma ya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, yogutanga inkingo miliyoni 100 muri uyu mwaka.

Izo nganda kandi zamaze kwemeranya n’ibihugu birimo ibigize Umuryango w’Ubumwe bw’u Burayi, u Bwongereza, Canada n’u Buyapani.

Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Buzima, OMS, ryatangaje ko ibyavuye mu igerageza bishimishije, ariko ko hakiri icyuho cya miliyari 4.5$ mu ngengo y’imari ikenewe, ku buryo bishobora kudindiza igezwa ryarwo mu bihugu bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere.

Impuguke zanagaragaje ko hashobora kubaho imbogamizi mu kurukwirakwiza, by’umwihariko mu bihugu bikennye, ahatari uburyo buhamye, kuko bisaba ko rubikwa mu bukonje bwo hejuru kugira ngo rubashe gutanga umusaruro.

Izindi nkingo zigeze he?

Kugeza ubu bibarwa ko hirya no hino ku Isi hari inkingo nibura 47 ziri mu igerageza hirya no hino ku Isi, harimo enye ziri mu cyiciro cya gatatu, z’inganda za Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca na Johnson & Johnson.

Uruganda rwa gatanu rukora imiti, Novavax, rwo ruheruka gutangaza ko ruzatangira isuzuma rya nyuma mu mpera z’uku kwezi.

Pfizer yabimburiye izindi nganda mu gutangaza ko urukingo rwabo rukora, bashingiye ku impimo by’ibanze mu igerageza, ryerekanye ko rukora kuri 90%.

Inkuru yakiriwe ite?

Ubwo inkuru y’urukingo yasakaraga, abashoramari bahise batangira gusohora amafaranga yabo bayashora mu mabanki, ibigo by’indege n’ibindi bigo byahungabanyijwe na Coronavirus, ubwo abantu benshi bagendaga bagumishwa mu ngo, ingendo zigakumirwa n’abakozi benshi bagahagarikwa.

Nk’imigabane ya Pfizer kuri uyu wa Mbere yahise izamukaho 9 ku ijana ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane rya New York, mu gihe iya BioNTech muri Amerika yazamutseho 18 ku ijana.

Ni ikimenyetso cy’uburyo byakiriwe nk’inkuru nziza. No mu Bwongereza, imigabane y’ibigo bikora ingendo yazamutse, aho nko mu kigo International Airlines Group kibarizwamo British Airways yazamutseho 25%.

Imibagane ya EasyJet yo yazamutseho 34%, mu gihe iy’uruganda Rolls-Royce rukora moteri z’indege yo yazamutseho 45%.

Urukingo rwa Covid-19 ruhanzwe amaso na benshi (ifoto ya Reuters)

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