Ibikorwa ntampaka bya Leta ya Habyarimana mu itegurwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

Yanditswe na Dr Bizimana Jean Damascène
Kuya 15 Gashyantare 2020 saa 10:24
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Mu minsi 100 gusa mu 1994, u Rwanda rwacuze imiborogo abana barwo barenga miliyoni baricwa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Ibikorwa bitandukanye byayibanjirije, binyomoza abayipfobya n’abayihakana bavuga ko yatewe n’ihanurwa ry’indege ya Habyarimana.

Mu gihe abanyarwanda n’inshuti zabo bitegura kwibuka ku nshuro ya 26 Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo kurwanya Jenoside ikomeje kubagezaho bimwe mu bikorwa byaranze umugambi w’itegurwa n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryayo.

Kuri iyi nshuro, CNLG yagaragaje ibikorwa byabaye ku matariki ya 16-22, 1991-1994, bishimangira uko kwica abatutsi byari mu mushinga wa Leta ya Habyarimana.

Leta y’u Rwanda yateguraga intambara mu gihe ibiganiro by’amahoro byari birimbanije Arusha

Mu gihe ibiganiro by’Amahoro byasaga n’aho bigenda neza, Leta y’u Rwanda yo yiteguraga intambara. Ni muri urwo rwego tariki ya 19 Gashyantare 1992, Perezida Habyarimana yagiye mu Misiri asaba ko u Rwanda rwagurayo intwaro kandi arabyemererwa.

Muri Werurwe 1992, Minisiteri y’ingabo yaguze mu Misiri intwaro zifite agaciro ka miliyoni esheshatu z’amadolari. Muri izo ntwaro harimo imbunda, ibisasu byo mu bwoko bwa ‘roquettes’ na za grenades zahawe abaturage.

Ibi birerekana ko n’ubwo Habyarimana yajyaga mu biganiro by’amahoro atari afite gahunda yo kubahiriza ibyari kuyavamo, ko ahubwo yiteguraga gukomeza intambara no gukomeza gutegura Jenoside. Ni nabyo yivugiye muri mitingi yakoreye mu Ruhengeri ku wa 17/11/1992 atangariza abarwanashyaka ba MRND ko atemera ibiva mu mishyikirano y’amahoro, abyita ko ari ibipapuro, ko amahoro atava mu bipapuro.

Yongeyeho ko kuri we igihe nikigera azakora ku Nterahamwe ze, yazambitse, maze bakamanuka mu giturage. Nta kindi yavugaga uretse guha interahamwe ze uburenganzira bwo kujya hose mu gihugu kurimbura Abatutsi no kwica Abahutu bari mu mashyaka atarashakaga gukora Jenoside.

CDR yakwije ibinyoma bihimba ubwicanyi butabayeho bwitirirwa FPR bigamije ubukangurambaga bwa Jenoside

Ku itariki ya 19 Gashyantare 1993, ishyaka rya CDR ryasohoye itangazo ryuzuyemo ibinyoma, ritanga imibare ryavugaga ko ari iy’Abahutu bishwe na FPR, 800 mu Mujyi wa Ruhengeri, 200 muri Komini Kidaho, 600 muri Komine Nkumba, 500 muri Komini Kinigi na 800 muri Komini Nyarutovu.

CDR ikomeza ibeshyako muri Komini imwe ya Byumba yitwaga Kinyami naho ngo hishwe abandi 800. CDR imaze gutanga iyo mibare idafite ishingiro, yasoje isaba abahutu bose bo mu mashyaka yose ko bagomba guhaguruka bakirwanaho, byabugaga kwica Abatutsi.

Aha biragaragara ko CDR yatanze iyi mibare mihimbano mu rwego rwo guhamagarira Abaturage kwanga FPR, n’Abatutsi, no gushishikariza Abahutu gukora jenoside.

Tariki ya 20 Gashyantare 1993, CDR yakomeje uwo mugambi w’ubukangurambaga bwo gukora Jenoside isohora irindi tangazo ryereka Abahutu bakomoka i Cyangugu no ku Kibuye ko nabo bagiye guterwa n’Inkotanyi, ibasaba kwirwanaho, bikaba byaravugaga kwica Abatutsi. Izo mpuruza za CDR zakurikiwe n’ubwicanyi bukomeye muri utwo duce, hibasirwa Abatutsi.

Igisirikare cy’u Rwanda cyahamagariye ingabo zacyo kwitegura gukora Jenoside

Ku itariki ya 17 Gashyantare 1994 inyandiko ifite n° 17 yo muri serivisi z’ubutasi z’u Bubiligi itanga amakuru agaragaza ko umugaba mukuru w’ingabo z’u Rwanda, Jenerali Déogratias Nsabimana, yari yarateguje imitwe y’ingabo harimo n’abajandarume, kwitegura igikorwa gikomeye.

Jenerali Nsabimana, muri icyo gihe yanasabye ko abasirikare n’abajandarume bagiye mu mpushya cyangwa mu kiruhuko basubira mu bigo byabo bihuse mu buryo bwose bushoboka. Yasabye kandi ko hakorwa igenzurwa mu bubiko bw’intwaro, amasasu n’ibindi bikoresho by’intambara ndetse anasaba ko hakwinjizwa abandi basirikare bashya mu rwego rwo kongera umubare w’ingabo.

Izi ngamba zose zafashwe amezi abiri mbere ya Jenoside zari zigamije gutegura Jenoside abazayikora n’ibikoresho byagombaga kwifashishwa, igihe amabwiriza yo kuyitangira azatangirwa.

Perezida Habyarimana yamenyesheje umugambi wa jenoside abayobozi ba jandarumori

Tariki ya 17 Gashyantare 1994, Perezida Habyarimana yayoboye inama y’abayobozi bakuru ba jandarumori y’igihugu yayoborwaga na jenerali Augustin Ndindiriyimana. Bimwe mu byayivugiwemo, harimo inzitizi ku gushyiraho inzego z’inzibacyuho no kuba intambara ishobora kubura.

Habyarimana yabibamenyesheje muri aya magambo “FPR iramutse itangiye intambara, dufite umushinga wo kwita ku byitso byayo”.

Aya magambo ya Habyarimana yarumvikanaga, kwica Abatutsi byafatwaga nk’umushinga wa Leta, ibyo bikaba byarahaga abajandarume bari bashinzwe umutekano kwirara mu Batutsi igihe ubutegetsi bwari kubabwira kubutangira.

Umugaba mukuru w’ingabo z’u Rwanda, Jenerali Déogratias Nsabimana yeretse mubyara we Jean Birara urutonde rw’abantu bagomba kwicwa

Tariki ya 20 Gashyantare 1994, mu gihe hagaragaraga ibikorwa binyuranye bitegura jenoside, umugaba mukuru w’ingabo z’u Rwanda, jenerali Nsabimana Déogratias, yeretse mubyara we Birara Jean Berchmas wahoze ari Guverineri wa Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu, urutonde rugaragaza amazina y’abantu 1500 bagombaga kwicwa.

Mu kinyamakuru cyo mu Bubiligi cyo kuwa 24 Gicurasi 1994, Birara ahamya ko aya makuru yayagejeje ku ntumwa z’ibihugu by’i Burayi zari mu Rwanda, by’umwihariko Ambasade y’u Bubiligi. Ku ruhande rwe, uwari ambasaderi w’u Bubiligi mu Rwanda icyo gihe, Johann Swinnen, yemeje aya makuru ubwo yabazwaga na Sena y’u Bubiligi mu 1997.

Agenda ya Colonel Bagosora yo muri 1994 yagaragaje imyiteguro ya jenoside

Kuwa 21 Gashyantare 1994, Bagosora yanditse muri ajenda ye (yabonywe mu ishyinguranyandiko rye i Kigali) ubwihutirwe bwo ‘gukora urutonde rw’abasezerewe mu ngabo’ bagombaga gusubizwa mu gisirikare.

Muri icyo gihe kandi raporo za MINUAR zagaragazaga ko hari umugambi wateguwe n’agatsiko k’abicanyi ugamije gutsemba Abatutsi no kwica abatavuga rumwe na Leta bakomeye. Hirya no hino mu gihugu havugwaga ubwicanyi bwibasiraga Abatutsi.

Ubwo bwicanyi bwakorwaga n’abasirikari, Interahamwe za MRND hamwe n’Impuzamugambi za CDR. Tariki ya 19/2/1993 abasirikari b’u Rwanda bishe abantu 5 muri Komini Tumba. Hagati y’itariki ya 20 na 22/2/1994 habaye imvururu zikomeye muri Kigali zikorwa n’Interahamwe na CDR, ubwicanyi burakomeza muri Gisenyi, Ruhengeri, Kibuye na Byumba, hicwa umubare munini w’Abatutsi.

Ingabo z’u Bufransa zoherejwe muri Operation Chimère zahawe ububasha budasanzwe harimo ubwo gusaba ibyangombwa kuri za bariyeri

Nyuma y’itariki ya 8/2/1993, byaragaragaye ko FPR Inkotanyi irusha Ingabo z’u Rwanda ingufu za gisirikari, ubwo FPR yageraga mu nkengero za Kigali, u Bufaransa bwafashe umwanzuro wo gutangiza igikorwa cyo gufasha ingabo z’u Rwanda, cyiswe «Opération Chimère » yamaze ukwezi uhereye tariki ya 20 Gashyantare kugeza 20 Werurwe 1993.

Tariki ya 20/2/1993, u Bufaransa bwohereje Kompanyi ebyiri z’ingabo zirwanira mu kirere (compagnies parachutistes), umunsi ukurikiyeho bwohereza ingabo zirwanisha ibibunda binini (section de mortiers lourds) mu gushyigikira Leta ya Habyarimana mu ntambara.

Ibi nabyo ni icyerekana umugambi w’u Bufaransa wo gushyigikira u Rwanda mu mugambi warwo wo gukomeza intambara no gutegura Jenoside. U Bufaransa bwavugaga ko bushyigikiye imishyikirano, nyamara ibikorwa bikerekana ko bushaka intambara.

Raporo ya Misiyo y’Inteko ishinga amategeko y’Abafaransa yari ishinzwe kwegeranya amakuru ku Rwanda yari iyobowe na Paul Quiles itangazwa tariki ya 15/12/1998 yanenze iki gikorwa cy’intambara, ivuga ko uku « kuba hari abasirikare b’Ubufaransa mu Rwanda byabaye kurengera bakarenga umurongo batagombaga kurenga ».

Iyi raporo yongeraho ko abasirikari bari muri iki gikorwa cya gisirikari bongerewe inshingano ku buryo burenze, hiyongeraho gukora irondo, kugenzura uduce dukikije umujyi wa Kigali, no kugenzura ibya ngombwa mu ma rembo yose ya Kigali.

Muri make, operasiyo za gisirikare u Bufaransa bwakoreye mu Rwanda (Noroit, DAMI, Chimère…) zabaga zifite intego imwe yo gushyigikira ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda n’ingabo zabwo bigatuma hatabaho gucira akari urutega FPR n’abandi batavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi.

Imbuto za jenoside ziboneka muri iyi politiki y’Igihugu cyari kizi neza ko mu bihe ibyo ari byo byose gishyigikirwa n’igihugu cy’igihangange cy’Ubufaransa.

Serivisi z’ubutasi z’Ubufaransa zemeje ko ingabo z’u Rwanda zishe abaturage 300

Tariki 18 Gashyantare 1994, ubuyobozi bukuru bw’ubutasi bwo hanze muri serivisi z’ubutasi mu Bufaransa (DGSE) bwanditse inyandiko y’ibanga igaragaza ko habayeho ubwicanyi bushingiye ku moko, hakicwa abantu 300 bishwe n’ingabo z’u Rwanda.

Iyo nyandiko ivuga ko ubwo bwicanyi bwari mu mugambi wo gutsemba Abatutsi: « Ni kimwe mu biikorwa bigize umugambi wo gutsemba ubwoko bw’Abatutsi ».

Ku munsi wakurikiyeho, tariki, 19 Gashyantare 1994, jenerali Christian Quesnot, umugaba mukuru w’ingabo wihariye wa Perezida Mitterrand hamwe na Dominique Pin, wari wungirije umuyobozi w’ishami rishinzwe Afurika mu biro bya Perezida w’Ubufaransa, bashyikirije perezida Mitterrand ibitekerezo bibiri by’ingenzi ku birebana n’u Rwanda.

Igitekerezo cya mbere cyari ugucyura abaturage b’Abafaransa , gucyura abasirikare bo muri operasiyo Noroît, ariko Quesnot na Pin ntibari bashyigikiye iki gitekerezo, bagiriye inama perezida Mitterrand kutagishyigikira : « Kwaba ari ugutsindwa muri politiki yacu ku Rwanda. No gutakaza icyizere dufitiwe ku mugabanae w’Afurika».

Igitekerezo cya kabiri ni icyo batekereza igihe FPR yaramuka ifashe Kigali. Bavugaga ko FPR ifashe Kigali ubwicanyi bushingiye ku moko bwakaza umurego, bityo u Bufaransa bukaba bukwiye kongera imbaraga kurusha ibindi bihe byose mu gufasha ubutegetsi bwa Kigali kugira ngo FPR idafata Kigali.

Iki na none ni ikimenyetso kigaragaza ko u Bufaransa bwari buzi neza ko ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwateguraga jenoside, ariko bugatsimbarara ku bushake bwabwo bwo kubufasha ntacyo bwitayeho.

Ibi bimenyetso byose bigaragaza ko Leta y’u Rwanda yari ifite umugambi wo kurimbura Abatutsi yishingikirije inkunga ya gisirikari yahabwaga n’Abafaransa. Gushyigira Leta y’u Rwanda byayihaye umwanya wo gukomeza ubwicanyi bwibasiraga abasivili b’Abatutsi, no kunonosora umugambi wo kubatsemba.


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