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Ibihato mu ishyirwaho ry’umushahara fatizo mu Rwanda

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 31 Nyakanga 2021 saa 07:24
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Imyaka igiye kuba itatu Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ivuguruye Itegeko ry’Umurimo mu Rwanda, igumishamo ingingo ivuga ko hagomba kujyaho umushahara fatizo ariko ukagenwa n’Iteka rya Minisitiri ufite umurimo mu nshingano.

Amaso yaheze mu kirere by’umwihariko ku bakora imirimo itanditse cyangwa se iciriritse, bafata umushahara fatizo nk’umucunguzi w’igihe kinini bamaze bahembwa intica ntikize.

Umushahara fatizo u Rwanda rwagize umaze imyaka isaga 40 ugiyeho, wateganyaga ko umukozi wese ukorera abandi mu gihugu, atagomba guhembwa munsi ya 100 Frw ku munsi. Ibihe byarahindutse ubu n’umugati kuwubona kuri ayo ni hamana.

Hari urubanza rwaburanishijwe mu Rukiko rw’Ikirenga mu 2016, aho ikigo cy’ubwishingizi kimwe cyaburanaga n’indi sosiyete ku bijyanye n’indishyi, biba ngombwa ko rufata umwanzuro w’uko icyo kibazo gikemurwa, haherewe ku mushahara fatizo wa 3 000 Frw.

Nibura ibihumbi 100 Frw ku kwezi

Ni ibisanzwe, mu gihe nta tegeko rihari, umucamanza arabyemerewe mu bushishozi bwe, kugena uko bigenda kandi bikazanifashishwa mu zindi manza nk’urwo mu gihe itegeko ritaraboneka.

Bivuze ko habayeho gushingira kuri uwo mushahara fatizo urukiko rwanzuye ubwo Guverinoma izaba ishyiraho umushahara fatizo, nta muntu ukorera undi mu Rwanda wahembwa munsi ya 90 000 Frw.

Ayo na yo ntahagije, nk’uko bivugwa na Gasore Séraphin, Umunyamabanga Mukuru Wungirije w’Impuzamasendika Iharanira uburenganzira bw’abakozi, Cotraf-Rwanda, akaba n’Umuhuzabikorwa wa Synergie-Zamuka.

Gasore yabwiye IGIHE ko hari ubushakashatsi bakoze mu 2014, bagasanga nibura muri Kigali, kugira ngo umuntu ahabe, amafaranga amake ashoboka akwiriye guhabwa mu kazi ari 126 000 Frw n’ibihumbi 80 Frw hanze ya Kigali. Nyuma y’imyaka irindwi, birumvikana ko byahindutse.

Yavuze ko haramutse hashyizweho umushahara fatizo, byazamura imibereho y’abakozi bahora bataka kubaho nabi.

Ati “Imirimo yose ntabwo yagombye kugira umushahara fatizo umwe kuko imvune ntabwo ari zimwe. Umuntu wirirwa acukura amabuye ntabwo wamubwira ngo bitatu ni yo fatizo ariko hari aho usanga n’ubu bahembwa atageze no kuri ayo yagenwe. Nk’umusekirite ntarenza 50 000 Frw ku kwezi kuko abamukoresha batekereza ko yirirwa ahagaze ariko umushahara ugomba no gushingira ku guhenda k’ubuzima.”

Ishyirwaho ry'umushahara fatizo ni inyungu cyane ku bakora mu nzego z'irimo yanditse n'itanditse

Mu gihe umushahara fatizo waba udashyizweho, ngo ni ikibazo gikomeye ku bukungu bw’igihugu by’umwihariko ku mibereho y’abakozi n’imiryango yabo.

Ati “Niba muri Kigali udashobora gukodesha inzu iri munsi y’ibihumbi 25 by’amafaranga y’u Rwanda, udashobora kurya munsi y’ibihumbi bibiri, ugakenera utwangombwa twa buri munsi, usanga mu by’ukuri umushahara udakwiriye kujya munsi y’ibihumbi 100 by’amafaranga y’u Rwanda.”

Ishoramari ryahababarira

Impuguke akaba n’umusesenguzi mu bukungu, Teddy Kaberuka yabwiye IGIHE ko gushyiraho umushahara fatizo bisaba kwigengesera, kuko ushobora gusanga ubukungu bwose busubiye inyuma.

U Rwanda ruri ku mwanya wa kabiri muri Afurika nk’ahantu byoroshye gukorera ubucuruzi, nk’uko Raporo ya Banki y’Isi izwi nka Doing Business Report 2020 ibigaragaza.

Nyuma y’umutekano, ibiciro by’abakozi na byo ni ingenzi ngo umushoramari runaka yemere kujya gushinga uruganda rwe mu gihugu runaka.

Kaberuka yavuze ko mu gihe u Rwanda rwaba rushyizeho umushahara fatizo, bivuze ko waba ujyanye n’uko ubuzima buhagaze mu gihugu. Nuramuka ubaye mwinshi, bizatera ubwoba abashoramari bagabanuke.

Ati “Leta zo muri Afurika kuko ziri gushaka gukurura abashoramari benshi, baravuga bati nidushyiraho igiciro fatizo, umushoramari uzaza bizamusaba guhemba ayo mafaranga, bizatuma igiciro cy’abakozi kizamuka bitume n’ibiciro bihenda ku isoko.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Ni icyemezo cyo kwitondera. Keretse nk’ubu turi muri EAC cyangwa mu isoko rusange rya Afurika, ibihugu bifashe politiki imwe ijyanye n’umurimo, bikagira ikiguzi cy’ibikorerwa mu nganda (production cost) kijya kungana. Kubikora igihugu muturanye kitabikoze, bizatuma niba uruganda rwashakaga kuza mu gihugu cyawe, rujya ahandi horoheje.”

Ni byo byateje imbere u Bushinwa mu myaka mike ishize, ubwo inganda nyinshi zajyaga gukorerayo kuko abakozi baho babaga bahendutse ugereranyije n’i Burayi. Byatumye n’ibicuruzwa bivayo ku isoko mpuzamahanga bihenduka.

Kaberuka yavuze ko mu gihe ibiciro mu nganda byiyongereye kubera imishahara, bivuze ko n’ibiciro byavuye muri izo nganda uretse kuba bizahenda ku isoko ry’imbere no hanze y’igihugu bizahenda cyane, ntibigurwe.

Ati “Ibijyanye n’imishara y’abakozi biri mu bikurura abashoramari cyangwa bikabaca intege. Ibihugu biri kujyamo inganda muri iki gihe ni ibifite imishahara y’abakozi itaremereye.”

Mu zindi ngaruka zo kuba hashyirwaho umushahara fatizo ubereye abakozi, ni uko bigabanya ihangwa ry’ubucuruzi buciriritse kuko akenshi ba nyirabwo baba bataragira ubushobozi bwo guhemba amafaranga menshi, nyamara ari bumwe mu buzamura ubukungu bw’igihugu.

Kaberuka ati “Niba ufite na butiki muri karitsiye, uwo ukoresha agomba guhembwa hakurikijwe wa mushahara fatizo. N’umukozi wo mu rugo biramureba, ntagomba kujya munsi.”

Impuguke mu bukungu zigaragaza ko gushyiraho umushahara fatizo ari ibyo kwitondera cyane

Gasore we avuga ko ahubwo kongera imishahara ari bimwe mu bizateza imbere ubukungu, kuko abaturage bazazamura ubushobozi bwabo bwo guhaha.

Ati “Ufite ubushobozi bwo guhaha ashoboza inganda gukora byinshi kurushaho. Iyo inganda zikeneye gukora byinshi, zishaka n’abakozi benshi bo kubikora.”

“Iyo umukozi akennye akaba uwo kugura ibyo kurya gusa, ntacyo azamarira inganda n’izindi serivisi, azateza imbere abahinga gusa kuko akeneye ibyo kurya.”

Ku kijyanye n’uko ubucuruzi buciriritse bushobora kuhazaharira kubera izamurwa ry’imishahara, Gasore we yavuze ko ahubwo iziyongera kuko abantu benshi bazaba bafite ubushobozi, bagasagura ayo gukora ibindi.

Ati “Iyo wa mukozi utuma igihugu gitangarirwa adashobora kwigurira n’igare ngo agende muri ya mihanda myiza yubaka, ntabwo ari ikintu cyiza. Ntabwo yaba uwo gufasha igihugu n’abanyamafaranga kumera neza, ngo we n’umuryango we babeho nabi.”

Nubwo Kaberuka na we yemeza ko imibereho myiza y’abakozi ari ingenzi, yavuze ko bidakuraho impungenge Leta ikwiriye kugira ku kuba ibiciro bishobora kuzamuka kubera gushyiraho umushahara fatizo, ubukungu bukaba bubi aho kumera neza.

Umwaka ushize Urukiko rw’Ikirenga rwatesheje agaciro ikirego cy’Ishyirahamwe ry’amasosiyeti y’Ibigo by’Ubwishingizi mu Rwanda (ASSAR), ryari ryasabye ko Leta y’u Rwanda itegekwa gukuraho imbogamizi zituma hatajyaho umushahara fatizo.

ASSAR yavugaga ko inzitizi zose zituma umushahara fatizo ujyaho zivaho kuko ari ikibazo kibangamiye inyungu rusange z’abaturarwanda.

Ubusanzwe umushahara fatizo ujyaho ngo ufashe abaturage kwivana mu bukene no gutera imbere. Ubushakashatsi bwa Gatanu ku mibereho y’ingo (EICV5) bwagaragaje ko nibura Umunyarwanda ubarwa nk’umukene ari utabasha kwinjiza 159,375 Frw ku mwaka.

Ni mu gihe mu 2018, Igenzura ku murimo ryakozwe n’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ibarurishamibare (Labour Force Survey), ryagaragaje ko nibura umukozi w’Umunyarwanda uhembwa ku kwezi, yinjiza nibura 56,982 Frw ku mpuzandengo.

Mu rukiko rw’Ikirenga umwaka ushize, uruhande rwari ruhagarariye Guverinoma rwagaragaje ko bitafatwa nk’igikuba cyacitse kuba umushahara fatizo utarajyaho, kuko bigaragara ko abakorera umushahara mu Rwanda, amafaranga bahembwa ku kwezi atatuma bajya mu bukene.

Teddy Kaberuka yavuze ko nubwo umushahara fatizo ari ingenzi ku mibereho myiza y'abakozi, ari ngombwa kwita ku iterambere ry'ubukungu bw'igihugu muri rusange
Gasore Séraphin yavuze ko ubukungu budashobora gusubizwa inyuma no gushyiraho umushahara fatizo

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