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Ibidasanzwe kuri Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda yizihije isabukuru y’imyaka 60

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 7 June 2024 saa 12:03
Yasuwe :

Imyaka 60 irashize Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda (BNR) itangiye ibikorwa byayo, mu rugendo rwatumye iyi banki igira uruhare rufatika mu iterambere ry’u Rwanda.

Mu rwego rwo kwishimira ibyagezweho muri uru rugendo, Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda yateguye Inama mpuzamahanga igamije kurebera hamwe uruhare rwa Banki Nkuru z’ibihugu ruri kugenda rwaguka muri iyi Si y’ikoranabuhanga.

Guverineri wa Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda, John Rwangombwa, yagarutse ku iterambere rya Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda ryajyanye n’iterambere ry’urwego rw’Imari mu Rwanda, ndetse anagaruka ku "mikorere mishya ikwiriye kuranga banki nkuru z’ibihugu" mu rwego rwo kujyana n’ibihe bigezweho.

Yongeyeho ko Banki ayoboye yagize uruhare mu iterambere ry’u Rwanda.

Ati "Kuva yashingwa muri Mata 1964, Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda yarahindutse bigaragara, ibyerekana iterambere ry’igihugu mu myaka 30 ishize. Uyu munsi, igira uruhare rukomeye mu gushyigikira iterambere ry’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda."

Minisitiri w’Intebe, Dr. Edouard Ngirente, wari umushyitsi mukuru muri uyu muhango yashimiwe uruhare yagize mu bikorwa bya Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda cyane cyane mu myaka irindwi ishize.

Iyi banki yafunguwe bwa mbere mu 1964, nyuma y’imyaka ibiri u Rwanda rubonye ubwigenge. Mu bihe by’ubukoloni, ubukungu bw’u Rwanda n’inshingano ubusanzwe zuzuzwa na banki nkuru z’ibihugu, byose byakorwaga n’abakoloni aho bari barashyizeho Urwego ruzwi nka ’Banque d’emission du Rwanda et du Burundi (BERB)’ ihabwa icyicaro Bujumbura, ikagira n’ishami i Kigali.

Mu nshingano za Banki hari harimo gucunga politiki y’ifaranga ry’u Rwanda n’u Burundi, kugenzura ibijyanye n’ivunjisha n’amadovize aturuka hanze, gutanga no gukurikirana itangwa ry’ibyangombwa by’ibyinjira mu gihugu, kugenzura banki zigenga no gutanga ubujyanama mu by’imari ku bihugu biyigize, gutanga inguzanyo kuri Guverinoma n’ibindi.

Nubwo iyo Banki yatangijwe, inama ziyishyiraho mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko zabaye guhera tariki 9 kugeza tariki 19 Mata 1962, i Addis Abeba muri Ethiopia ku buhuza bwa Komisiyo y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye yari ishinzwe Ruanda-Urundi.

BERB yahawe ububasha bwo gutanga inguzanyo kuri za Guverinoma n’ibigo by’imari mu Rwanda n’u Burundi. Iyo banki ntabwo yari yemerewe kurenza miliyoni 500 z’amafaranga yakoreshwaga muri ibyo bihugu mu gihe u Rwanda n’u Burundi bigiye kwakira hamwe inguzanyo ku mishinga bihuriyeho na miliyoni 250 mu gihe ari guverinoma imwe igiye gusaba inguzanyo.

Raporo yakozwe mu 1962 na International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, ivuga ko ukurikije ibyo ibyo bihugu byari bikeneye, bitahuraga n’amikoro yabyo ku buryo byagannye bwangu BERB ngo ibigoboke.

Ibyo kandi byaterwaga n’ibindi bibazo birimo kugwa kw’Ibiciro by’ibikomoka k’ubuhinzi no ku mabuye y’agaciro ku buryo mu bihugu byombi ikinyuranyo cy’ibyoherezwaga hanze n’ibyavagayo byari bihabanye cyane.

Kubera gutinya kumara amadovize, BERB yategetse ko mu gihe hagiye kubaho gutumiza ibicuruzwa hanze, izajya ibanza gusuzuma niba ibigiye gutumizwa biri mu byangombwa nkenerwa. Ibyahabwaga agaciro cyane ni nk’ibikoresho byo kwifashisha mu buzima bwa buri munsi cyangwa ibiribwa abaturage bakeneye.

Mu gihe hagiye kugurwa ibiri ku rutonde rw’ibyangombwa nkenerwa, ifaranga rya Ruanda-Urundi (FRU) ryanganyaga agaciro n’ifaranga ry’u Bubiligi ariko byaba ari ukugura ibindi bicuruzwa bidakenewe cyane, agaciro ka FRU kakaba hasi ugerernayije n’agaciro k’ifaranga ry’u Bubiligi (1FB=1.66 FRU).

Hari abacuruzi babizamukiyemo, bakajya kurangura ibyitwa ko bikenewe cyane mu gihugu ariko babihageza bagashyiraho ibiciro bihanitse, cyangwa se bagakora amanyanga bajya kugura ibyemewe bakazanamo n’ibitemewe.

Bijyanye n’uko ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwari bukiri buto mu myaka ya 1960, inshingano za BNR nazo ntizari nyinshi cyane, uretse ko zakomeje kugenda ziyongera ahagana mu 1970, cyane cyane hazamo ibyo kugenzura urwego rw’imari n’amabanki rwari rutangiye kugaragaza ibimenyetso byo kwaguka.

Mu myaka 1980 iyi banki yakomeje kwaguka mu buryo bw’inshingano ifite, ari nako yaguka mu bikorwaremezo.

Kimwe n’izindi nzego nyinshi mu gihugu, imyaka ya 1990 ntiyari byiza kuri iyi banki ahanini kubera Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 yanasize iyi banki isahuwe bikomeye.

Urugendo rwo kongera kwiyubaka no kubaka ubukungu bw’igihugu rwafashe umurongo ahagana mu 2000 ubwo iyi banki yatangiraga gukora amavugurura atandukanye agamije kuyifasha kugira uruhare rufatika mu gutanga umurongo mwiza wo guteza imbere ubukungu bw’u Rwanda.

Bijyanye n’intego za Vision 2020 u Rwanda rwari rwarashyizeho, iyi banki yateje imbere ibikorwaremezo cyane cyane ikoranabuhanga, ndetse inongerera ubushobozi abakozi bayo, nk’uko Guverineri Mukuru wayo, John Rwangombwa, aherutse kubibwira The Long Form Podcast.

Mu 2014 nibwo iyi banki yashyizeho intego yo kongera ubushobozi bwayo ku buryo ikorera ku bipimo mpuzamahanga (international standards) mu rwego rwo kwishyira mu mwanya mwiza wo gukomeza kugira uruhare mu iterambere ry’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda muri rusange.

Kuri ubu iyi banki iri kugenda ibigeraho, bikagaragazwa n’ibihembo mpuzamahanga igenda yegukana, harimo nk’icyo yabonye ku itariki ya 15 Nzeri umwaka ushize, ubwo Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda (BNR) yahabwaga igihembo mpuzamahanaga cyo guhanga udushya mu guteza imbere ikoreshamari ridaheza. Icyo gihembo BNR yagihawe n’Ihuriro Mpuzamahanga ry’Ikoreshamari ridaheza (Alliance for Financial inclusion-AFI) i Manila muri Philippines.

Ba Guverineri baturutse mu bihugu bya Afurika birimo Somalia, Tanzania, Zambia, Sudani y’Epfo, Eswatini n’ibindi bitabiriye uyu muhango uri bugaruke ku rugendo rw’iyi banki ndetse n’intego zayo mu gukomeza kugira uruhare mu iterambere ry’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda.

Abungiririje ba Guverineri za banki nkuru z’ibihugu barimo uturuka muri Angola, Uganda, Madagascar, Gambie, Ghana, Cambodia, Lesotho n’abandi bitabiriye.

Haraganirwa kandi ku ruhare rwa banki nkuru z’ibihugu mu kurushaho guteza imbere ubukungu bwa Afurika ndetse no kugeza serivisi z’imari kuri bose, nka bumwe mu buryo bwo kwihutisha iterambere rirambye.

BNR iri kwizihiza imyaka 60 imaze ishinzwe
Guverineri wa Banki Nkuru y'u Rwanda yavuze ko Banki Nkuru y'u Rwanda yagize uruhare mu gushyigikira iterambere ry'u Rwanda
Minisitiri w'Intebe, Dr. Edouard Ngirente, yitabiriye iyi nama
Ni igikorwa cyabereye kuri Intare Arena
Ni inama yitabiriwe n'abantu batandukanye
Dr. Diane Karusisi (uhagaze) uyobora Banki ya Kigali ni umwe mu bitabiriye iyi nama

Amafoto: Kwizera Moses


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