‘Gushinja u Rwanda kuniga itangazamakuru ni ukwirengagiza ukuri’

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 18 Mata 2019 saa 12:35
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Mu 2004 itangazamakuru ry’u Rwanda ryinjiye mu mpinduramatwara idasanzwe yatumye radiyo na televiziyo zigenga ziyongera ubutitsa, itangazamakuru rikorera kuri internet riravuka ndetse rishinga imizi ari nako ibyo ritangaza bishingira ku bwisanzure bwaryo no ku byifuzo by’abaturage.

Imibare y’Urwego rw’abanyamakuru bigenzura (RMC), igaragaraza ko ubu mu Rwanda habarirwa radiyo 34, televiziyo 14, ibinyamakuru byandika ku mpapuro 46 harimo 10 bitagikora n’imbuga za internet 88.

Amashuri yigisha itangazamakuru ry’umwuga nayo akomeje kwiyongera kuko ubu abarikora abenshi usanga bararyize muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Mount Kenya University, Institut Catholique de Kabgayi na Christian University of Rwanda.

Iterambere urwego rw’itangazamakuru mu Rwanda rugezeho yaba mu bwinshi no mu bwisanzure bw’ibyo ritangaza, ririvugira kandi abakora mu itangazamakuru n’abaturage rikorera, bahamya umusemburo waryo mu iterambere igihugu kigezeho.

Icyegeranyo cya 2018 ku bipimo by’iterambere ry’itangazamakuru mu Rwanda, cyagaragaje ko abanyarwanda barifitiye icyizere ku kigero cya 75.3% naho ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru bukaba buri kuri 81.3%.

Gusa Raporo nyinshi zikorwa n’imiryango mpuzamahanga zikunze gushyira u Rwanda ku myanya y’inyuma zivuga ko runiga ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru.

Urugero ni raporo nshya y’abanyamakuru batagira umupaka ‘Reporters without Borders’ yashyize u Rwanda ku mwanya wa 155 mu bihugu 180 mu kugira ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru mu 2018, aho rwazamutseho umwanya umwe.

Iyi raporo kimwe n’izindi zinengwa n’abafite aho bahuriye n’itangazamakuru mu Rwanda n’abakurikiranira hafi imikorere yaryo, bagashinja abazikora gutangaza ibyo babwirwa, kuko baba batigereye aho bibera ndetse no kuyoborwa n’inyungu za politiki.

MHC yamaganye raporo ya Reporters without Borders

Raporo nshya ya Reporters without Borders, mu byo ishinja u Rwanda harimo kudaha viza n’ibyangombwa abanyamakuru b’abanyamahanga bashaka gutara no gukora inkuru ku Rwanda, kubuza abanyamakuru gutangaza amakuru runaka cyangwa nabo bakabyibuza.

Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa y’Inama Nkuru y’Itangazamakuru, MHC, Peacemaker Mbungiramihigo, yanenze umwanya u Rwanda rwahawe kuko udahura n’ukuri kw’aho rugeze ruteza imbere itangazamakuru.

Ati “Iki cyegeranyo usanga gishingira ku marangamutima ntabwo gishingira ku bushakashatsi bugaragaza iterambere u Rwanda rumaze kugeraho mu rwego rw’ubwisanzure, kwiyubaka, kuvugurura amategeko n’inzego zigamije iterambere ry’itangazamakuru”.

Mbungiramihigo yemeza ko mu Rwanda nta munyamakuru ufungwa kuko yakoze inkuru runaka cyangwa ngo ahohoterwe. Avuga ko abanyamakuru b’abanyamahanga bashyiriweho uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga buborohereza kubona ibyangombwa bibemerera gutara no gukora inkuru ku Rwanda.

Ati “Ubu bakoresha urubuga Irembo. Iri koranabuhanga rituma aho umunyamakuru ari mu gihugu runaka asaba ibyangombwa tukamwakira mu buryo bwihuse dukoresheje ikoranabuhanga agasubizwa vuba niba yujuje ibyangombwa”.

Mu 2017 MHC yatanze ibyangombwa ku banyamakuru b’abanyamahanga bashaka gutara no gutangaza inkuru ku Rwanda bagera kuri 243, mu 2018 bari 218, naho mu 2019 kuva muri Mutarama kugeza ubu haje abagera kuri 244, bakaba barabaye benshi kubera kwibuka ku nshuro ya 25 Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Raporo zo kwanduza isura y’abantu

Ingabire Marie Immaculée, impirimbanyi mu kurwanya ruswa n’akarengane akaba n’Umuyobozi wa Transparency International Rwanda, avuga ko hari intambwe itangazamakuru rimaze gutera mu myaka 25 ishize mu bijyanye n’ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru.

Raporo Reporters without Borders, ivuga ko umubare w’abanyamakuru bahohoterwa mu Rwanda wagabanutse ariko hari ibyo itangazamakuru ribuzwa kuvuga n’abanyamakuru hakaba ibyo bibuza banga kuvuga nabi ubutegetsi.

Ingabire avuga ko kugereranya aho itangazamakuru rigeze no mu 1994 n’imyaka nk’ibiri yakurikiyeho ari ukwirengagiza ukuri n’intambwe imaze guterwa.

Ashingira ku kuba icyo gihe radiyo yari imwe nayo ya Leta kandi yatangazaga ibiri mu murongo wa Guverinoma ndetse n’ibinyamakuru byandika byigenga bikagenzurwa ku buryo hari ibitarasohokaga. Kugereranya icyo gihe n’uyu munsi ngo ni ukwirengagiza byinshi.

Ati “Kubigereranya n’uyu munsi dufite radiyo zirenga 30, dufite ibinyamakuru udashobora kubuza kuvuga kuko binasohoka kuri internet, radiyo buri gitondo abaturage bazinduka batelefona bavuga ibyo bashatse kuko uriya utelefona nta nubwo bamucecekesha, kuko ntuba uzi icyo agiye kuvuga”.

Ingabire atangazwa no kuba haragiyeho itegeko rigenga itangazamakuru aho buri wese ategetswe gutanga amakuru yayimana akaregwa, kuba gusebanya mu itangazamakuru byaravuye mu byaha, gushyiraho urwego rw’abanyamakuru bigenzura, ariko abakora raporo bagashyira u Rwanda kuri uriya mwanya.

Ati “Ni ibintu bigaragarira buri wese ko nta kutabogama bakoresha, nta kuri, ni ibintu bisa no kwibasira gusa, ku buryo icyo byatanze ni uko nta muntu ukibyitaho”.

“Ubusanzwe izindi raporo zirakorwa, hagakorwa n’urutonde mu rwego rwo kubakosora ngo barebe ahari ikibazo bisubireho ariko iyo ubikoze bisa no guhimana cyangwa kwanduza isura y’abantu, uwo murimo uba upfuye ubusa kuko ntacyo umara”.

Raporo zihishe mu isura ya politiki

Iyi raporo igaruka ku mubare w’abanyamakuru bahunze igihugu, Itegeko ry’itangazamakuru rya 2010, ridatanga ubwisanzure busesuye n’ifungwa rya BBC, Ishami ry’Ikinyarwanda.

Rudatsimburwa Albert nyiri Radiyo na Televiziyo Contact, umaze imyaka irenga 15 mu itangazamakuru, avuga ko mu Rwanda ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru buhari ndetse n’ibikoresho bihari ku buryo uwashaka kugira icyo atangaza atabura uko agitangaza.

Ntiyemeranya na raporo ya Reporters without Borders, kuko bitumvikana uko u Rwanda rwatera imbere mu bindi ariko itangazamakuru rigahora inyuma. Yemeza ko izi raporo ziba zihishe mu isura ya politiki kuko abazikora batigenda.

Ati “Urebye raporo zabaye imyaka yose ubona ko twagumye ahantu hamwe, nibwo ubona ko izi raporo zishingiye kuri politiki kuko aya mashyirahamwe ntiyigenga”.

Avuga ko nka Reporters without Borders rikorera mu Bufaransa kandi kuva ku butegetsi bwa Mitterand ntako iki gihugu kitagize ngo kivuge u Rwanda nabi.

Ibi abihuriraho na Mbungiramihigo wagize ati “Icyegeranyo uko bagikoze bitandukanye n’ukuri. Usanga ibyo bavuga bashingira ku marangamutima ugasanga ni icyegeranyo kiri politiki kidashingiye ku bushakashatsi nyabwo.”

Itangazamakuru mu Rwanda rikorera abaturage

Icyegeranyo ku iterambere ry’itangazamakuru mu Rwanda cya 2018, kigaragaza ko Abanyarwanda bafitiye icyizere itangazamakuru ku gipimo cya 75%.

Mbungiramihigo avuga ko ibi bigaragaza ko itangazamakuru rikora akazi karyo uko rishoboye.

Ati “Ubu urubuga rusesuye rwahaye n’abikorera uburenganzira bwo gushinga ibitangazamakuru ku buryo hari ibitekerezo binyuranye bica mu itangazamakuru […]. Kubera ko dufite ibitangazamakuru byinshi bitanga amakuru atandukanye, bituma abaturage bagira agaciro bariha.”

Ku rundi ruhande ariko bamwe mu bahanga mu by’itangazamakuru bavuga ko mu Rwanda ryigenga, ikibazo ari uko usanga abanyamakuru ubwabo ari bo bikumira mu byo batangaza.

Mbungiramihigo avuga ko ibitangazamakuru bikorera mu bwisanzure kandi kwiniga k’umunyamakuru yabikora kuko ari umutimanama we ubimusabye bitewe n’uko abona ko igikwiye ari cyo gikwiye gutangazwa, bityo agahitamo n’icyo adakwiye gutangaza kuko kidafitiye akamaro abo yandikira.

U Rwanda kandi rufite umwihariko w’uko rwabayemo Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, kikaba ari igihugu kikiyubaka ku buryo abanyamakuru bahitamo ibyo gutangaza ibyo babona bikwiye, bitandukanye no mu bindi bihugu.

Bikaba bivuze ko umwihariko wa buri gihugu ari wo ugomba guhabwa agaciro kubera amateka igihugu cyanyuzemo.

Abanyamakuru bo mu Rwanda no mu mahanga bahabwa umwanya wo kuganira n'abayobozi bakuru b'Igihugu, aha barimo kwitegura kuganira na Minisitiri w'ububani n'amahanga
Ubwisanzure bw'itangazamakuru mu Rwanda buri ku gipimo cya 85%

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