Gufatwa nk’umwere igihe utarahamwa n’icyaha ni ingenzi, ariko si ihame

Yanditswe na Gatete Nyiringabo Ruhumuliza
Kuya 1 Kanama 2020 saa 06:09
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Ndifuza kunga mu ry’Umushinjacyaha Mukuru ku cyemezo cyo gufatira imitungo y’abakekwaho ibyaha mu gihe bagikorwaho iperereza ku byaha byo kunyereza umutungo, kunyereza imisoro, gukoresha nabi umutungo wa rubanda n’ibindi byaha by’uburiganya.

Umushinjacyaha yanavuze ko bazajya bakurikirana abantu bafite imitungo batabasha gusobanura inkomoko yayo, ba hafi y’abakekwaho ibyaha cyangwa imiryango yabo.

Ubwo icyemezo cyatangazwaga mu kiganiro n’abanyamakuru, abantu benshi basubizaga ko kizaba kinyuranye n’Itegeko Nshinga ko umuntu wese ukekwaho icyaha, afatwa nk’umwere igihe ataragihamywa n’urukiko.

Muri iyi nkuru ndagerageza kwerekana, nkoresheje itegeko riboneye ry’u Rwanda, itegeko mpuzamahanga, nanagendere ku byemezo byagiye bifatwa mu bindi bihugu bigaragaza ko gufatira imitungo y’umuntu urimo gukorwaho iperereza ntaho bihuriye no guhonyora ihame rivuga ko Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat (ibimenyetso bituruka ku ushinja, si uhakana), rizwi cyane nko “gufatwa nk’umwere kugeza uhamijwe icyaha’, atari no guhonyora uburenganzira ku mutungo bwite.

Mu itegeko ry’u Rwanda: Umutwe wa Kane w’Itegeko Nshinga ry’u Rwanda ugaragaza uburenganzira n’ubwisanzure bya muntu kuva mu ngingo ya 12 kugeza ku ya 40. Ingingo ya 41 ariko igaragaza aho uburenganzira n’ubwisanzure bigarukira.

Gufatwa nk’umwere igihe utarahamwa n’icyaha biteganywa mu ngingo ya 29 (2):

Buri muntu wese afite uburenganzira ku butabera buboneye, burimo uburenganzira bwo gufatwa nk’umwere kugeza igihe urukiko rubifitiye ububasha rumuhamije icyaha.

Uburenganzira ku mutungo bwite buteganywa mu Ngingo ya 34 (2):

Umutungo bwite, uw’umuntu ku giti cye cyangwa uwo asangiye n’abandi ntuvogerwa.

Ikirenga kuri ibyo ariko, Itegeko Nshinga ryemera ko leta ishobora gufatira umutungo bwite w’umuntu bitewe n’impamvu zitandukanye:

Ingingo ya 34(3): Uburenganzira ku mutungo ntibuhungabanywa keretse ku mpamvu z’inyungu rusange kandi hakurikijwe ibiteganywa n’amategeko. - Tubishimangire

Hashingiwe ku ngingo ya 29 (2) y’Itangazo Mpuzamahanga ry’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu (UDHR), Itegeko Nshinga ry’u Rwanda mu ngingo 41 rigaragaza aho uburenganzira n’ubwisanzure bigarukira.

Mu gukoresha uburenganzira n’ubwisanzure, buri wese azitirwa gusa n’itegeko rigamije kwemera no kubahiriza uburenganzira n’ubwisanzure by’abandi ndetse n’imyitwarire iboneye, ituze rusange rya rubanda n’imibereho myiza muri rusange biranga Igihugu kigendera kuri demokarasi.

Amategeko asanzwe nayo agaragaza ishingiro ry’icyemezo cy’umushinjacyaha cyo gufatira imitungo y’abakekwaho ibyaha:

Itegeko ryerekeye imiburanishirize y’imanza z’inshinjabyaha, mu ngingo ya 57 havuga ifatira n’itambamira ry’ibintu:

Umugenzacyaha cyangwa Umushinjacyaha ashobora gufatira ibintu cyangwa gutambamira umutungo utimukanwa aho byaba biri hose no mu buryo ubwo ari bwo bwose iyo bishobora kunyagwa mu buryo bwateganyijwe n’itegeko […]

Ashobora kandi ku mpamvu z’iperereza ku cyaha cyakozwe cyangwa kuburizamo icyaha cyendaga gukorwa, gufatira amafaranga ari kuri konti, imigabane yo mu bucuruzi cyangwa inyungu zayo hagamijwe gushakisha ibimenyetso kuri icyo cyaha.

Ifatira rivugwa muri iki gika, ntirishobora kurenza iminsi mirongo itatu (30) keretse mu gihe Umushinjacyaha yongereye icyo gihe indi minsi itarenze mirongo itatu (30).

Umushinjacyaha kandi yavuze ko hazakurikiranwa n’imitungo y’inshuti n’umuryango by’abakekwaho icyaha. Ibi bigaragazwa neza n’Itegeko N°54/2018 ryo kuwa 13/08/2018 ryerekeye kurwanya ruswa. Ingingo ya 9 ivuga ku kudasobanura inkomoko y’umutungo ivuga ko:

Umuntu wese udashobora gusobanura inkomoko y’umutungo afite ugereranyije n’ibyo yinjiza byemewe n’amategeko aba akoze icyaha, kandi iyo abihamijwe n’urukiko, ahanishwa igifungo kiri hagati y’imyaka 7-10 n’ihazabu y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda yikubye inshuro kuva kuri 3 kugeza kuri 5 z’agaciro k’umutungo adashobora kugaragaza aho yawubonye mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko.

Mu gihe abakozi ba leta basabwa kugaragaza umutungo wabo ku Rwego rw’Umuvunyi buri mwaka, ari nawo waherwaho mu gukora iperereza ku kunyereza umutungo, abikorera nabo bashobora gusabwa kugaragaza inkomoko y’umutungo wabo.

Kuri bo naho amategeko agaragaza ubu burenganzira n’aho bugarukira…

Amategeko mpuzamahanga: UDHR ishimangira ubwo burenganzira bwombi:

Ingingo ya 11: Buri muntu wese ukurikiranyweho icyaha afite uburenganzira bwo gufatwa nk’umwere kugeza icyaha kimuhamye […]

Ingingo ya 17 (1): Buri wese afite uburenganzira ku mutungo we bwite kimwe n’uwo afatanyije n’abandi.

(2) Nta muntu ukwiye kunyagwa umutungo we mu buryo budakurikije amategeko.

Ariko mu ngingo ya 29 (2) muri UDHR havugwamo aho ubwo burenganzira bugarukira, mu magambo amwe n’ayo mu Itegeko nshinga ry’u Rwanda.

Kugaragaza aho uburenganzira runaka bugarukira ni ikintu kigaragazwa mu Itegeko Nshinga rya buri gihugu, kubera ko uburenganzira bwa muntu bwose ntabwo ari ntakorwaho, bishobora guhindurwa binyuze mu nzira ziteganywa n’amategeko.

Uburenganzira ntayegayezwa nk’uko mperuka kubivugaho buzwi nka jus cogens burimo kurindwa Jenoside harimo na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, gushimuta, ubucakara (harimo n’icuruzwa ry’abacakara), intambara z’ubushotoranyi no kwikubira agace k’abandi, iyicarubozo no kwirukanwa mu gihugu.

Nk’urugero uburenganzira bwo kubaho, ushobora gusanga ari ntayegayezwa mu bihugu byose byo ku Isi, birimo n’u Rwanda, ariko nta gaciro buhabwa mu bihugu nka Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, u Bushinwa n’ibindi bigifite igihano cy’urupfu mu mategeko yabyo.

Andi mategeko mpuzamahanga akubiyemo ubu burenganzira akanagaragaza aho bugarukira…

Kubahiriza ifatira ry’imitungo: Hari umwihariko ushyirwa ku ifatira rya konti za banki: mu gihe izo konti ariyo nkomoko y’imibereho, amafaranga y’ishuri, ubuvuzi n’ibindi by’umuryango, umushinjacyaha asabwa kwemerera umuryango kubikuza amafaranga runaka agereranyije.

Ni nabyo bikurikizwa iyo izo konti zafatiriwe ari iz’ikigo, zikaba ziriho amafaranga agomba gufasha abakozi bacyo.

Rimwe na rimwe dukwiye kubasha gutandukanya gufatira konti z’ukekwaho icyaha ariko hakaba n’irengayobora, no kwigarurira imitungo y’umuntu. Mu gufatira konti, leta iba ikumira umuntu kurigisa imitungo yayo mu gihe cy’urubanza, hagamijwe ko atiyambura ubushobozi bwakenerwa mu gihe yaba ahamwe n’icyaha agategekwa gusubiza umutungo wa rubanda.

Ihame nk’iryo rinakurikizwa iyo hemezwa ko ukekwaho icyaha afungwa by’agategamyo mu gihe agikorwaho iperereza, kugira ngo hirindwe ko yacika ubutabera cyangwa agasibanganya ibimenyetso. Ariko no muri icyo gihe bemererwa kuba bajya kwivuza no gusurwa n’umuryango, mu mpamvu zumvikana.

Reka ndekere aho iby’amategeko, nzi ibibashimisha; mureke tuganire ku mupira w’amaguru na Neymar!

Muri Nzeri 2015, uwari umukinnyi ukunzwe cyane wa FC Barcelone, Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior nawe yahuye n’ibisa nk’ibitegereje abakekwaho gusahura umutungo mu Rwanda, ubwo urukiko rwo muri Brazil rwafatiraga umutungo w’umuryango we ufite agaciro ka miliyoni $50, nyuma yo kumukekaho kunyereza imisoro ingana na miliyoni $16 muri Brésil.

Byatangajwe ko umucamanza yafatiriye umutungo ukubye gatatu agaciro k’ikiburanwa, hateganywamo n’ingano y’inyungu cyangwa ihazabu ashobora gucibwa, nk’uko byasobanuwe n’inyadiko y’icyemezo cy’umucamanza cyategekaga iryo fatira.

Mu cyamenyekanye mu Bufaransa nka ‘Affaire Cahuzac’, uwitwa Jérôme Cahuzac wari Minisitiri muri Guverinoma ya François Hollande wari ushinzwe kurwanya inyerezwa ry’imisoro, yahamijwe ibyo byaha yari ashinzwe kurwanya, bihinyuza ya mvugo ya Kinyarwanda ngo “iyo udashaka kwibwa urindisha igisambo.”

Byaje gutahurwa ko uwo mufaransa yari afite konti z’ibanga muri banki zo muri Seychelles n’amafaranga mu bigo byo muri Singapore. Umucamanza w’umufaransa wakoraga iperereza kuri icyo kirego, yafatiriye amayero 685.000 atari yaramenyekanishijwe yari kuri konti muri banki muri Singapore, ya Bwana Cahuzac, nk’ingwate mu gihe yahamwa n’ibyaha. Ni nako byagenze, akatirwa gufungwa imyaka itatu.


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