Gicurasi 1994: Ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryihuse ry’umugambi wo kumaraho Abatutsi mu cyiswe ‘Auto-Defense Civile’

Yanditswe na Dr Bizimana Jean Damascène
Kuya 28 Gicurasi 2020 saa 12:43
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Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi si impanuka. Ni gahunda yateguwe na Leta ya Habyarimana ikoresheje inzego za politiki, iperereza n’iza gisilikare uhereye kuri Perezida Habyarimana ubwe no ku buyobozi bukuru bw’ingabo. Iyi gahunda ni imwe mu zafashije cyane gushobora kwica Abatutsi barenga miliyoni mu mezi atatu.

‘Auto-Defense Civile’ yatangijwe na Perezida Habyarimana

Igikorwa cyateguwemo Jenoside cyiswe Auto-defense civile cyakoreshejwe cyane mu kwica abatutsi hose mu gihugu, ariko igeragezwa ryacyo ryatangiriye mu yahoze ari Perefegitura ya Byumba na Ruhengeri.

“Auto-defense civile” cyari igikorwa kigamije gutoranya abasore b’Abahutu bizewe kandi babishoboye bagahabwa imyitozo ya gisilikare, bayirangiza bagasubira iwabo mu makomini bagahabwa intwaro zo kujya bigisha urundi rubyiruko no kuzikoresha mu bwicanyi byitwa ko ari ukurwanya umwanzi.

“Auto-defense civile” yatangiye mu mwaka wa 1991 biturutse ku nama yatanzwe na Lt Col Gilbert Canovas wari umujyanama w’umuyobozi mukuru w’ingabo za leta muri raporo yamuhaye ku wa 30/04/1991 agaragaza ko hakwiye gushyirwaho uburyo bwo guha intwaro abaturage n’imyitozo mu gice cy’Umutara, cyane cyane mu zahoze ari Komini Muvumba na Rutare.

Iyo nama yakurikiwe n’indi nama yo ku wa 09 Nyakanga 1991 yayobowe na Minisitiri w’umutekano mu gihugu, Gen. Augustin Ndindiriyimana, yabereye muri Etat Major y’ingabo yahuje abayobozi b’inzego z’iperereza za gisilikare n’izo muri Perezidansi ya Repuburika.
Inyandikomvugo y’iyo nama yerekana ko yari igamije gusuzuma ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryihuse ry’icyifuzo cyari cyatanzwe na Perezida wa Repuburika ku birebana n’umutekano w’igihugu aho yari yavuze ko “abaturage bagomba guhabwa ibikoresho biboneye kandi bihagije byo kurwana ku busugire bw’igihugu ku buryo nta muntu uzongera gutinyuka gutera igihugu mu bihe biri imbere”.

Icyo ibi byumvisha ni uko Perezida Habyarimana ubwe ari we watanze amabwiriza yo gutoranya bamwe mu baturage bagahabwa intwaro. Icyo inzego za gisilikare n’iza politiki zakoze ni ukwiga uburyo bwo kubishyira mu bikorwa no kubyihutisha.

Muri Auto Defense Civile hemejwe ko Umututsi ari umwanzi w’u Rwanda ugomba gushakishwa no kwicwa

Inama y’ubuyobozi bukuru bw’Ingabo tumaze kuvuga yemeje ko kugira ngo ibyasabwe na Perezida Habyarimana bishyirwe mu bikorwa, hagomba kubanza kwigwa neza ibirebana n’umwanzi uwo ariwe, akagaragazwa, nyuma hakagenwa neza uburyo bukwiye bwo guhangana nawe. Iyo misiyo yahawe Etat major y’ingabo kugira ngo ikore inyigo igaragaza umwanzi w’u Rwanda uwo ariwe ndetse n’uburyo bwo kumurwanya.

Inyigo yarakozwe isohoka ku buryo bw’ibanga ku wa 21 Nzeri 1992 ishyizweho umukono na Colonel Deogratias Nsabimana wari umugaba mukuru w’ingabo z’u Rwanda, ayigenera Perezida Habyarimana n’abayobozi b’ingabo na jandarumori hose mu gihugu kugira ngo babyigishe abasilikare n’abajandarume. Iyo nyandiko ni hamwe mu hagaragarira uburyo Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yateguwe na Leta ishyiraho imfashanyigisho yo gukwiza ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside.

Mu by’ingenzi byanditswe muri iyo nyandiko, bavugaga ibi ngibi: « Umwanzi ntakiri muri Uganda gusa, ahubwo aherereye mu gihugu imbere. » Icyo bisobanuye nuko hatangiye gahunda ya gutanya abaturage babashyamiranya ku buryo habonekamo ababi n’abeza, bityo abeza bakica ababi babyita kwikiza umwanzi.

Inyandiko ikomeza ivuga ngo “Umubare w’umwanzi imbere gihugu wiyongereye” bishaka kumvisha ko abaturage bari mu gice cy’abeza bagomba gukanguka bakamenya ko abo mu gice cy’ababi ari benshi, bityo bikaba bisaba ko buri wese mu beza ashyiramo imbaraga zishoboka mu kwikiza ababi.

Inyandiko ikomeza noneho isobanura neza umwanzi uwo ariwe n’aho agomba gushakirwa:

“Umwanzi arimo ibice bibiri: a) umwanzi w’ingenzi (ennemi principal) = Umututsi wo mu gihugu imbere cyangwa se uri mu mahanga utarigeze wemera revolusiyo yo muri 1959. Aho agomba gushakirwa = impunzi z’Abatutsi, ingabo za Uganda, Abatutsi b’imbere mu gihugu, Abagabo b’abanyamahanga barongoye Abatutsikazi, Abahutu batishimiye ubutegetsi buriho, (…) abanyamahanga bafite inkomoko imwe n’iy’Abatutsi, abakoze ibyaha bahunze igihugu. Umufasha w’umwanzi cyangwa umufatanyacyaha (partisans de l’ennemi) = ni umuntu wese umuha ubufasha ubwo aribwo bwose.”

Iyi nyandiko irakomeye cyane mu mateka ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi kuko niyo yagennye uburyo bwo kwita Umututsi umwanzi w’igihugu no kugena ko uwo ariwe wese uzafasha Umututsi mu buryo bwose azafatwa nk’umwanzi, bityo akicwa nk’Umututsi.

Auto-Defense Civile yatangijwe n’ibikorwa byo gutoza abicanyi no kubaha uburyo n’intwaro zo gukora Jenoside

Indi nyandiko yerekana imiterere ya Auto-defense civile ni iyo ku wa 29/09/1991 nayo yanditswe na Col. Deogratias Nsabimana wari umukuru w’ingabo mu Mutara. Ni inyandiko yageneye Minisitiri w’ingabo ivuga ibyari byemejwe n’inama yari yabaye yo gushyiraho uburyo Auto-defense civile yakora.

Nsabimana yavuze ko inama yemeje ko mu gutoranya abazahabwa imyitozo n’intwaro, bazajya bafata byibura umuntu umwe mu mazu 10 y’abaturage (Nyumbakumi), agatoranywa na Burugumesitiri afatanyije n’inama ya Komini.

Colonel Nsabimana yanagaragaje umubare w’intwaro zigomba gutangwa ku buryo bukurikira:

Komini Muvumba = 350; Komini Muhura = 580; Komini Ngarama = 530; Komini Bwisige = 300. Zose hamwe zikaba 1760 zatanzwe muri 1991!

Mu mpera z’ukwezi kwa Mutarama 1993 no mu ntangiriro za Gashyantare 1993, Colonel BAGOSORA yayoboye igikorwa cyo gutanga imbunda mu Nterahamwe zo mu Majyaruguru y’igihugu. Muri Agenda ye yo muri 1993 yerekanywe nk’ikimenyetso kimushinja mu rubanza rwe muri TPIR, hagaragajwe amapaji yanditseho ko muri Komini za Mutura, Giciye, Rubavu na Rwerere zari muri Perefegitura ya Gisenyi hatanzwe intwaro 500.

Ukwezi kwa Mutarama 1994 kwaranzwe ku ruhande rumwe n’ibyishimo bya bamwe mu Banyarwanda bari bishimiye ko abasilikare 600 b’INKOTANYI n’abanyapolitiki babo basesekaye i Kigali ku wa 28 Ukuboza 1993, aho bari biteguye kwinjira mu nzego z’Inzibacyuho nkuko zateganywaga n’amasezerano y’amahoro y’Arusha.

Ku ruhande rwa Guverinoma y’u Rwanda n’ingabo zayo, bo ntibabyishimiye, maze batangira ibikorwa by’ubukangurambaga bwa Jenoside harimo gukaza imyitozo y’Interahamwe no kuziha intwaro babyita auto-défense civile. Ibi bikorwa byose bikaba byari bigamije gukangurira abaturage b’Abahutu kumva ko Abatutsi bose ari abanzi b’igihugu bagomba kwicwa.

Kimwe mu byakozwe bikomeye ni ugushyiraho abayobozi b’iyo gahunda hose mu gihugu bashinzwe by’umwihariko kuyobora Auto-défense civile yaranzwe n’itangwa ry’intwaro, imyitozo y’abicanyi no guha Interahamwe/Impuzamugambi agahimbazamusyi. Abayiyoboye ni aba bakurikira:

• Ku rwego rw’Igihugu : Colonel Athanase GASAKE ;

• Umujyi wa Kigali : Komanda BIVAMVAGARA agafatanya na Perefe

• Colonel Tharcisse RENZAHO ;

• Kigali Ngari : Major Stanislas KINYONI ;

• Kibungo : Colonel Pierre Céléstin RWAGAFIRITA ;

• Cyangugu : Colonel SINGIRANKABO ;

• Gitarama : Major Jean-Damascène UKURIKIYEYEZU ;

• Butare : Colonel Alphonse NTEZIRYAYO wagizwe perefe wa Butare mu gihe cya Jenoside ;

• Gikongoro : Colonel Aloyizi SIMBA ;

• Kibuye : Major JABO ;

• Gisenyi na Ruhengeri: auto-défense civile yayoborwaga n’abakuru b’ingabo muri izo Perefegitura aribo Colonel Anatole NSENGIYUMVA ku Gisenyi na Augustin BIZIMUNGU mu Ruhengeri waje gusimburwa na Colonel Marcel BIVUGABAGABO.

Abo basilikare bakuru nibo babaye ku isonga yo gufatanya n’abategetsi b’inzego za Perefegitura na Komini gushyiraho uburyo bwo gukora Jenoside no kuyihutisha.

Uburyo bwakoreshejwe mu gutoranya urubyiruko rw’Interahamwe ruhabwa imyitozo

Raporo y’ibanga yo ku wa 07/02/1992 yanditswe n’umukozi wari uhagarariye serivisi y’urwego rw’iperereza muri Byumba witwaga RWIRAHIRA Vincent wakomokaga muri Komini Kibilira ku Gisenyi, yerekana imigendekere y’ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya “auto-defense civile”.

RWIRAHIRA avuga ko Minisiteri y’ingabo yemeye kuba itanze intwaro 300 zagombaga gushyikirizwa abaturage batoranyijwe muri perefegitura za Byumba na Ruhengeri; 180 zagombaga guhabwa abaturage bo muri Byumba naho izindi 220 zigahabwa abo muri Ruhengeri.

Raporo ya Rwirahira ivuga ko kuri superefegitura ya Ngarama habaye inama yize ku nmigendekere ya “auto-defense civile” ikemeza ko hagomba gutoranywa abasore magana abiri na mirongo itanu (250), bigakorwa mu ibanga na ba burugumesitiri bafatanyije n’inama ya komini y’umutekano bakazoherezwa mu kigo cya gisilikare cy’I Gabiro, bagahabwa imyitozo yo kwiga kurashisha imbunda kuva ku itariki 29/01 kugeza ku ya 05/02/1992.

RWIRAHIRA akomeza avuga ko inama yemeje ko umubare w’abaturage bahabwa imyitozo ugomba kuzagenda wiyongera kandi ba burugumesitiri bakazajya bakurikirana icyo gikorwa umunsi ku wundi.

Mu kigo cya GABIRO, imyitozo y’Interahamwe yayoborwaga na Kapiteni Injeniyeri Faustin NTIRIKINA na Major RWABUKWISI Vincent. Aba basilikare bombi bagize uruhare rukomeye muri Jenoside; ubu ngubu NTIRIKINA aba mu Bufaransa, akaba n’umwe mu batangabuhamya bifashishijwe n’umucamanza BRUGUIERE mu binyoma bye arega u Rwanda.

Muri jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri 1994, abasilikare bayoborwaga na Major NRILIKINA bari mu yitwaga batayo Huye bari bakambitse kuri Mont Kigali ni bamwe mu bagize uruhare mu iyicwa ry’Abatutsi I Nyamirambo, Biryogo, Nyakabanda n’ahandi. Zimwe mu Nterahamwe zitoreje I Gabiro ni izavuye muri Komini Muvumba zirimo abitwa: MWUMVANEZA Emmanuel, NKURUNZIZA Elias wari konseye wa segiteri Karama, MUNYANDINDA Sylvestre wari umwarimu w’ubuhinzi mu baturage (moniteur agricole), KABURAME Jean Damascene, n’abandi. Izi nterahamwe zahawe imyitozo muri 1992.

Umwe mu basilikare wabahaga imyitozo witwa NDINDABAHIZI Emmanuel waganiriye na Komisiyo y’u Rwanda yakoze iperereza ku ruhare rw’Ubufaransa muri Jenoside (Komisiyo Mucyo) yayitangarije ko izo Nterahamwe zigishwaga kurasa, ariko cyane cyane bakazigisha uburyo bwo kwica abantu mu kanya gato bakoresheje ibikoresho gakondo.

Umwe mu Nterahamwe zikomeye witoreje I Gabiro witwa Joseph SETIBA wari umuyobozi wazo muri Komini Shyorongi yatangarije Komisiyo Mucyo ko Interahamwe zitoreje I Gabiro muri 1992 zibarirwa hagati ya 600 na 700.

Gahunda ya Jenoside yiswe “auto-defense civile” niyo yatanzwemo imihoro

Muri gahunda yo gukora Jenoside ya auto-defense civile, hatoranyijwe urubyiruko rw’Abahutu ruhabwa imyitozo ya gisilikare, imbunda, amasasu na grenades ariko Leta inashyiraho uburyo bwo kugura imihoro no kuyikwirakwiza mu baturage mu gihe gito. Iyo mihoro ni kimwe mu bikoresho byifashishijwe n’abicanyi muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Muri Gashyantare 1994, umukozi wa sosiyeti CHILLINGTON yo mu Bwongereza yemeje ko isosiyeti yabo yari imaze kugurisha u Rwanda mu mezi make, imihoro myinshi iruta kure ubwinshi iyo bari baratumije mu mwaka wose w’1993. Impapuro zisaba impushya zo kuzana ibintu mu gihugu zasuzumwe na Human Rights Watch hagati ya Mutarama 1993 na Werurwe 1994, igaragaza ko toni 581 z’ imihoro zinjijwe mu Rwanda.

Iyo mihoro yatumijwe yose hamwe ku giciro cya miliyoni 95 z’ amafaranga y’ u Rwanda, yatanzwe n’umunyemali KABUGA Félicien, ikwitrakwizwa mu baturage, biganjemo interahamwe.

Ikinyamakuru cyo mu Bwongereza, The Sunday Times cyo kuwa 24 Ugushyingo 1996, cyagaragaje ko hagati ya Kanama n’Ukuboza 1993, sosiyeti CHILLINGTON yagurishije indi mihoro ku bakozi babiri ba sosiyete nyarwanda yitwaga RWANDEX, Eugène Mbarushimana na François BURASA. MBARUSHIMANA wari umukozi wa RWANDEX yari umukwe wa KABUGA ndetse ari n’Umunyamabanga mukuru w’ Interahamwe ku rwego rw’ Igihugu.

Naho BURASA we yari yarasezerewe mu gisirikare ari n’umuyoboke w’ishyaka ry’ abahezanguni b’Abahutu, CDR, akaba na mwenenyina wa Jean-Bosco BARAYAGWIZA, umwe mu bayobozi bakuru b’iryo shyaka. Kugura no gukwirakwiza imihoro ku baturage b’abasivili bari barahawe imyitozo ya gisirikare byari biri muri gahunda yo kwirwanaho kwa « auto-defense civile » yagaragaye muri ajenda ya BAGOSORA.

Umwanzuro

Igikorwa cyiswe “auto-defense civile” cyabaye uburyo bukomeye bwakoreshejwe na Leta ya Habyarimana mu gutegura no gushyira mu bikorwa irimburwa ry’Abatutsi. Iki gikorwa cyafashije mu kugena urubyiruko ruzashyirwa mu bicanyi kandi bitangizwa na Perezida Habyarimana. Ni ikimenyetso ko Leta ya Habyarimana yari mu mugambi wa Jenoside.


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