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COVID-19: Ese ibihe u Rwanda rumazemo umwaka ni byo bidasanzwe bivugwa mu Itegeko Nshinga?

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 6 Gashyantare 2021 saa 07:42
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Hashize igihe hari impaka ku myanzuro ikunze gufatwa na Guverinoma igamije gukumira ikwirakwira ry’icyorezo cya COVID-19, giterwa n’agakoko nka Coronavirus kimaze umwaka urenga kiyogoza Isi.

U Rwanda si ikirwa nubwo no mu birwa Coronavirus yagezeyo. Tariki 14 Werurwe 2020 umuntu wa mbere yabonetse ku butaka bw’u Rwanda yanduye Coronavirus. Hashize iminsi irindwi, Guverinoma yarateranye yanzura ko igihugu cyose kijya muri gahunda ya Guma mu Rugo.

Ni ibintu byari biri gukorwa n’ahandi henshi ku Isi, kuko ariyo nama impuguke mu ndwara z’ibyorezo zatangaga mu gihe nta muti cyangwa urukingo rwari rwakabonetse kuri iyo ndwara yandura kandi igahererekanywa mu buryo bworoshye cyane.

Tariki ya 4 Gicurasi 2020, nyuma y’iminsi 43 abantu bari mu rugo, Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yakomoreye ibikorwa bimwe na bimwe, ariko nyuma yaho agace kabonetsemo ubwiyongere bukabije bw’ubwandu kakagashyirwa muri guma mu rugo byihariye.

Byarabaye mu bice nka Rusizi, Nyamagabe, ibice bimwe bya Kigali n’ahandi. Gufunga uduce tumwe byajyanaga n’amasaha yihariye abantu bagomba kuba bavuye mu nzira n’ayo bemerewe gusubukura ingendo mu gitondo.

Ntabwo ingamba zagiye zifatwa zavuzweho rumwe akenshi kuko hari uburenganzira n’ubwisanzure bya bamwe zabangamiraga ariko Guverinoma ikagaragaza ko nta yandi mahitamo ngo irinde ubuzima rusange bwa benshi nk’imwe mu nshingano zayo z’ibanze.

Umujyi wa Kigali kuri ubu uri mu cyumweru cya gatatu cya Guma mu rugo yashyizweho mu minsi ishize. Byitezwe ko tariki 8 Gashyantare ibikorwa bimwe bizasubukurwa, icyakora impaka zibaza niba ibikorwa bitabangamiye amategeko zirakomeje.

Ibyemezo byafashwe na guverinoma hagamijwe gukumira ikwirakwira rya Coronavirus ni byinshi kuko nk’inama y’Abaminisitiri yateranye ku wa 2 Gashyantare 2021, yemeje ko amatora y’inzego z’ibanze asubitswe kubera iki cyorezo.

Mu ntangiriro z’iki Cyumweru, ku rubuga rwa Twitter habereye impaka zishingiye ku mategeko, bamwe bavuga ko u Rwanda ruri mu bihe bidasanzwe bityo ingamba zo gushyira ibice by’igihugu muri guma mu rugo bitari mu nshingano z’inama y’abaminisitiri, ahubwo ari iza Perezida.

Icyo amategeko abivugaho

Hari uruhande rw’abantu bavuze ko ibyemezo byafashwe bikwiriye ariko bitavuze ko igihugu kiri mu bihe bidasanzwe by’amage cyangwa imidugararo biteganywa n’ingingo ya 136 y’Itegeko Nshinga u Rwanda rugenderaho, ryavuguruwe mu 2015.

Iyo ngingo igira iti “Ibihe by’amage n’ibihe by’imidugararo biteganywa n’itegeko kandi bitangazwa na Perezida wa Repubulika bimaze kwemezwa n’Inama y’Abaminisitiri. Kwemeza ibihe by’amage cyangwa ibihe by’imidugararo bigomba gutangirwa impamvu zumvikana, bikagaragaza igice cy’Igihugu icyo cyemezo kireba n’ingaruka zacyo, bikagaragaza kandi uburenganzira, ubwigenge n’ibyo umuntu yemererwa n’amategeko bihagarikwa ndetse n’igihe bigomba kumara kidashobora kurenga iminsi 15.”

Igika cya gatatu cy’iyo ngingo gikomeza kigira giti “Icyo gihe ntigishobora kongerwa birenze iminsi cumi n’itanu keretse iyo bitangiwe uburenganzira n’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ibyemeza ku bwiganze bwa bibiri bya gatatu by’amajwi y’abagize buri Mutwe.”

Ingingo ya 137 y’Itegeko Nshinga, ivuga ko ibihe by’amage bidashobora gutangazwa mu gihugu, keretse iyo Igihugu cyatewe cyangwa kiri hafi guterwa n’amahanga, cyugarijwe cyangwa se iyo inzego zashyizweho n’Itegeko Nshinga zahungabanye.

Ni mu gihe ibihe by’imidugararo byemezwa mu gihugu hose cyangwa mu gice cyacyo, iyo Igihugu kiri mu byago cyangwa iyo inzego zashyizweho n’Itegeko Nshinga zahungabanye ariko uburemere bwabyo butageze ku rugero rwatuma hatangazwa ibihe by’amage.

Ingamba Guverinoma ifata irazemerewe?

Depite Dr Habineza Frank, uyobora Ishyaka riharanira Demokarasi no Kurengera Ibidukikije, yabwiye IGIHE ko ibihe igihugu kimazemo iminsi ari ibisanzwe bitandukanye n’ibivugwa mu Itegeko Nshinga, bityo ko ingamba Guverinoma ifata zitabangamiye amategeko.

Yavuze ko ibihe igihugu kirimo ari iby’icyorezo, ko Guverinoma iramutse itangaje ko igihugu kiri mu bihe bidasanzwe aribwo hatangira kurebwa niba yubahiriza ibiri mu ngingo ya 136.

Yagize ati “Njyewe nasobanuye ko turi mu bihe by’indwara iri ku isi yose utafata nk’ibihe bidasanzwe. Ubundi mu bihe bidasanzwe naho habaho kubuza abantu kugenda mu masaha runaka no kubuza abantu gusohoka mu rugo hari n’igihe inzego za Leta ziba zihagaritswe. Biterwa n’uko bihagaze cyane iyo ari mu bihe by’intambara.”

IGIHE yabajije Dr Habineza icyo Guverinoma ishingiraho ifata imyanzuro irimo Guma mu Rugo, niba ibihe igihugu kirimo ari ibisanzwe, avuga ko “Bashingira ku bushishozi ariko kandi Perezida afite inshingano zo kurinda abaturage.”

Umwarimu muri Kaminuza akaba n’impuguke muri Politiki, Dr Buchanan Ismael, yabwiye IGIHE ko na we abona igihugu kitari mu bihe bidasanzwe nk’uko bivugwa mu Itegeko Nshinga.

Yavuze ko ibyemezo bifatwa na Guverinoma mu kwirinda Covid-19 ari ingamba kandi ibifitiye ububasha nkuko hari indi myanzuro runaka ijya ifata.

Ati “Ni ingamba ntabwo ari ibihe by’amage kandi nta nama y’abaminisitiri ivuga ko turi mu bihe by’amage kereka niba tutumva ijambo amage kimwe. Njye niko mbyumva. Amage bifite inyito yabyo mu itegeko naho icyorezo cyangwa indwara yateye, leta ntacyo iratangaza kugira ngo bibe byaba itegeko ryo mu gihe cy’amage.”

Dr Buchanan yavuze ko kuba abantu bari muri Guma mu Rugo, bidakwiriye kumvikana nk’aho bari mu mage cyangwa imidugararo. Yavuze ko ari umwanzuro ugamije guhangana n’ikibazo gihari cy’indwara.

Ati “Ni umwanzuro bashobora gufata bavuga bati reka iki kibazo gihari turebe uko twarwana nacyo mu gukiza abantu. Iyo bavuze ko ari amage nibwo n’ariya mategeko turiho tuvuga akurikizwa, mu gihe bitavuzwe ngo hakorwe isesengura ko hari amage, njye ndumva Guverinoma ifata ingingo ziyibereye.”

Umujyi wa Kigali ugiye kumara ibyumweru bitatu mu bihe bya Guma mu Rugo

Igihugu kiri mu bihe bidasanzwe, ibyo Guverinoma ikora biremewe

Umunyamategeko akaba n’umwarimu muri Kaminuza, Maître Bayingana Janvier ntiyemeranya n’abavuga ko u Rwanda ruri mu bihe bisanzwe.

Yavuze ko mu mategeko mpuzamahanga n’ay’igihugu kigenderaho, hagaragazwa neza ibijyanye n’uburenganzira bw’ibanze bwa muntu burimo ubwisanzure mu gukora icyo ashaka nko gutembera, gutahira igihe ashakiye, kwidagadura n’ibindi.

Icyakora, Bayingana yavuze ko mu Itegeko Nshinga rya buri gihugu, habamo ingingo zigaragaza ibyakorwa mu bihe bidasanzwe ku bw’inyungu rusange, birimo no gufata ingingo zishobora kubangamira bumwe muri bwa burenganzira bw’ibanze.

Ku bijyanye n’u Rwanda, yavuze ko akurikije uko Itegeko Nshinga ribisobanura, byigaragaza ko u Rwanda ruri mu bihe bidasanzwe kuko hari bwa burenganzira bw’ibanze bwa muntu bwabangamiwe kubw’inyungu rusange.

Ati “Mu bihe bisanzwe nta muntu wabwira ngo ntuve iwawe keretse ahari uwo muntu afunze kandi nabwo ntiwamugumisha iwe, wamujyana ahagenewe gufungirwa, ariko iyo uvuze ngo nturenge aha, ntugende iyi saha, biba byabaye ibihe bidasanzwe.”

Yongeyeho ati “Kutabyita amage cyangwa se imidugararo sinzi icyo waba ushingiyeho. Icyorezo byagaragaye ko gihitana ubuzima. Reba umudagururo uba niba abantu bashoboraga guhurira muri stade bakaba badashobora guhura, mu rugo umugore yarwara Covid-19 umugabo akajya mu kato, umudugararo urenze uwo ni uwuhe?”

Yavuze ko Itegeko Nshinga ryatanze imirongo migari kuba ritaravuze ngo ibihe bidasanzwe birimo ibi n’ibi, ngo kuko nta wamenya ikintu cyose gishobora kuza kigahungabanya ituze rya rubanda.

Kuba u Rwanda rwaba ruri mu bihe bidasanzwe bivugwa mu Itegeko Nshinga, hari abagaragaje ko bivuze ko ibyemezo Guverinoma itangaza bitemewe kuko Itegeko Nshinga riteganya ko Perezida wa Repubulika ari we ubitangaza nyuma yo kwemezwa n’inama y’abaminisitiri.

Bayingana yavuze ko ububasha bwo gufata iyo myanzuro biri mu bubasha bw’Umukuru w’igihugu, Guverinoma n’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko.

Ati “Kugeza ubu mbihuje n’ibikorwa muri guma mu rugo, nsanga nta gipfa, nta Tegeko Nshinga ryicwa kubera ko ibyemezo bifatwa na Guverinoma iyobowe na Perezida, ku buryo utavuga ko Guverinoma yafashe ibyemezo umukuru w’igihugu atabyemeye.”

Kuba ibyemezo bya guma mu rugo n’ibindi byubahirizwa mu kwirinda Covid-19 bitangazwa n’Ibiro bya Minisitiri w’Intebe cyangwa izindi nzego za Leta, Bayingana yavuze ko nta kibazo kirimo kuko ntawe ubitangaza atabiherewe uburenganzira na Perezida wa Repubulika, wahawe icyizere n’abaturage.

Ati “Ntabwo itegeko rivuga ngo bitangazwa binyuze mu kinyamakuru, cyangwa ahandi, rivuga ko umukuru w’igihugu abigiramo uruhare. Si rimwe si kabiri twumvise abigiramo uruhare. Kuba watangaza ibintu wifashishije abandi ntabwo icyemezo bikigira icyabo ahubwo icyemezo gikomeza kuba icyawe.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Kuba itangazo ryashyirwaho umukono n’undi utari Perezida, mu miyoborere birasanzwe ko umuntu yakwifashisha undi (delegate) ariko akamwifashisha ku cyemezo yafashe. Iyo abikoze abikora muri ya mikoranire isanzwe ya Guverinoma. Ni ububasha itegeko riha umukuru w’igihugu.”

Ibyemezo birenze iminsi 15

Ingingo ya 136 y’Itegeko Nshinga ry’u Rwanda mu gika cya kabiri ivuga ko igihe cy’amage n’imidugararo kitagomba kurenza iminsi 15, yongerwa inshuro imwe.

Mu gihe iyo minsi irenze, Inteko Ishinga Amategeko niyo itanga uburenganzira. Ni mu gihe Guma mu rugo ya mbere muri Werurwe 2020, yamaze iminsi 43. Umujyi wa Kigali ugiye kumara iminsi 20 muri Guma rugo izasozwa tariki 7 Gashyantare uyu mwaka.

Bayingana yavuze ko nta na rimwe Guverinoma yigeze iterana ngo itangaze iminsi irenze 15 yemererwa n’amategeko.

Ati “Ntabwo ufata ibyemezo byose ngo ubiteranye, niba bavuze ngo Guma mu rugo ngo wenda umujyi wa Kigali cyangwa mu gihugu hose kuva itariki iyi kugeza kuri iyi hazubahirizwa ibihe bidasanzwe, ntabwo wavuga ngo ubushize wafashe icyemezo, ahubwo urareba ngo uwo muntu washyizeho iminsi 15 arayemerewe cyangwa ntayemerewe?”

“Ntabwo Itegeko Nshinga risobanura iminsi 15, ngo rivuge ko ari iminsi 15 uyiteranyije, ahubwo rivuga ko ibirengeje iminsi 15 aribyo bishobora kwemezwa n’Inteko. Mu byemezo byagiye bifatwa guhera mu 2020, ntaho ndabona ko iyo minsi 15 yarenze. Ahubwo irafatwa igihe cyagera ikongera igasuzumwa.”

Yavuze ko byaba bihabanye n’amategeko, Guverinoma yicaye umunsi umwe igatangaza ko ibyemezo byafashwe byo kugumisha abaturage mu rugo bizamara iminsi irenze 15, ari nabwo bisaba ububasha bw’Inteko.

Ati “N’iyo yamara imyaka icumi cyangwa ijana ibikora mu rwego rw’amategeko byaba byemewe nubwo numva itabikora. Inteko yabizamo muri gahunda yo kugenzura ibikorwa bya Guverinoma ariko yaba ibabaza impamvu ibyo bikorwa. Icyo gihe ishobora kuyihamagara ikababaza icyo bashingiraho mu byemezo bafata hanyuma bakabitangira ibisobanuro”.

Icyakora, Bayingana yavuze ko mu gihe habayeho impaka nk’izi ku ngingo z’amategeko, ubifitemo inyungu yemerewe kubaza urwego rwafashe imyanzuro yumva ko ibangamye rugatanga ibisobanuro atanyurwa akitabaza inkiko.

Mu gihe umuntu atitabaje izo nzira zemewe n’amategeko yitwaje ko ingamba zafashwe atazemera cyangwa abona zihabanye n’amategeko, akanga kubahiriza imyanzuro yafashwe n’inzego zemewe, Bayingana avuga ko bishobora kumuviramo gukora ibyaha birimo kwigomeka n’ibindi.


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