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Abayobozi bazigize akarima kabo: BNR yatunze itoroshi mu bibazo byashegeshe Umurenge SACCO

Yanditswe na Akayezu Jean de Dieu
Kuya 7 June 2022 saa 06:04
Yasuwe :

Mu 2009, Leta y’u Rwanda yashyizeho Koperative zo kwizigama no kugurizanya mu Mirenge 416 igize igihugu [Umurenge Sacco] hagamijwe ko serivisi z’imari zigera ku baturage bose ntawe uhejwe, zikabageraho mu buryo bworoshye, bubegereye kandi buhendutse.

Wari umuti urambye wo kugeza serivisi z’imari ku Banyarwanda kuko icyo gihe mu 2008, Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu, BNR yagaragazaga ko nibura abatagerwaho na serivisi z’imari bari kuri 52,4%. Icyari giteye impungenge kurushaho ni uko uwo mubare wari wiganjemo abo mu bice by’icyaro.

Kuvuga ko 52,4% batagerwaho na serivisi z’imari mu Rwanda, bishatse gusobanura ko icyo gihe abarengaga kimwe cya kabiri cy’Abanyarwanda [icyo gihe bari miliyoni hafi 10, icya kabiri cyabo ni miliyoni eshanu] bose batagiraga konti muri banki, badashobora gusaba inguzanyo n’ibindi.

Umurenge Sacco n’izindi gahunda zitandukanye Guverinoma yashyizeho zirimo ikoranabuhanga n’ibindi, byatumye abaturage babasha gusobanurirwa ibyiza byo gukorana na banki, ibyo bikorwa hatavanguwe abo mu mijyi cyangwa icyaro.

Umusaruro urigaragaza kuko imibare iheruka ya BNR, igaragaza ko uyu munsi nibura Abanyarwanda 93% bagerwaho na serivisi z’imari. Ni ukuvuga ko hasigaye 7% bonyine batagerwaho na serivisi z’imari. Gahunda ya Leta yo kwihutisha iterambere iteganya ko mu 2024, Abanyarwanda 100% bazaba bagerwaho na serivisi z’imari.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko nubwo bimeze bityo, uruhare Koperative Umurenge Sacco zigira muri iyi gahunda yo kuba umubare munini w’Abanyarwanda ukomeje kwegerezwa serivisi z’imari, ruracyari ruto bigatuma zitagera ku ntego nyamukuru yatumye zishyirwaho.

Ibi bigaragazwa n’uko iyo urebye amafaranga yose Abanyarwanda babitsa muri banki, nibura 5% ni yo abitswa muri Sacco, ni ukuvuga ko abaturage bahitamo kuyoboka izindi banki z’ubucuruzi ugereranyije n’izi Sacco zabegerejwe.

Ibibazo biri muri za Sacco kandi byagarutsweho mu nama nyunguranabitekerezo yerekeye kugeza ku baturage serivisi z’imari mu buryo budaheza. Yari yateguwe n’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko, Umutwe wa Sena.

Yitabiriwe na Minisitiri w’Imari n’Igenamigambi, Dr Ndagijimana Uzziel, Minisitiri w’Ikoranabuhanga na Inovasiyo, Ingabire Musoni Paula, Guverineri wa BNR, Rwangombwa John n’abandi.

Perezida wa Komisiyo y’Iterambere ry’ubukungu n’imari muri Sena, Nkusi Juvenal yavuze ibibazo bituma abantu batitabira za Sacco birimo no kuba inyungu ku nguzanyo ziri hejuru cyane ugereranyije na banki z’ubucuruzi.

Ati “Muri rusange ibibazo biri muri za Sacco birimo imicungire yazo, kutishyura neza, inguzanyo ziri hejuru […] Urebye zashyizweho kugira ngo zorohereze abaturage, zibegere ariko ikigaragara ni uko zibahenda.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Za Sacco twazegereje abaturage ariko nizikoreshwe kuko usanga ahubwo amafaranga ziyabitsa mu mabanki kugira ngo zijye kuguriza ugasanga nizo zaka inyungu ku nguzanyo ihenze cyane.”

Hagaragajwe ko inyungu ya 22 % yakwa abasabye inguzanyo, ica intege abandi ndetse bikadindiza iterambere ry’ubukungu.

Imiyoborere mibi n’ubujura byabaye karande muri za Sacco

Imibare ya Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu, BNR, igaragaza ko kuva Sacco zashyirwaho zakomeje kugenda zongera umubare w’abaturage bagana serivisi z’imari muri rusange kuko kugeza ubu abarenga miliyoni eshatu [3.500.000] bafitemo konti.

BNR igaragaza ko Sacco zifite 39% by’umutungo w’ibigo by’imari bito n’ibiciriritse mu Rwanda. Umutungo wazo ugeze kuri miliyari 177 Frw ukaba waravuye kuri miliyari 112 Frw mu 2017.

Inguzanyo zitangwa na Sacco zavuye kuri miliyari 41 Frw ubu zikaba zigeze kuri miliyari 69 Frw. Ni imibare yo muri Werurwe 2022.

Guverineri wa BNR, John Rwangombwa yavuze ko Sacco ari urwego rufite icyo ruvuze ku buzima bw’Abanyarwanda, iterambere ry’urwego rw’imari n’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda muri rusange.

Ati “Nubwo harimo ibibazo ariko ni urwego ubona ko rukomeje guteza imbere icyaro cyane cyane kuko ni urwego rukomeye cyane mu iterambere ry’icyaro muri rusange n’amafaranga abaturage bazanamo murabona ko akomeza kugenda azamuka.”

Rwangombwa yavuze ko ibibazo bigaragara muri za Sacco bishingiye ku mikorere na politiki izishyiraho kuko mbere byatangiye bigizwemo uruhare na leta nyuma leta iza kugira ngo abaturage bamaze kumenya kuba bakwiyoborera ibyo bigo irabacutsa ariko ikintu cyo kuba babyicungira gikomeza kuba ingorabahizi.

Ati “Leta yageze aho yibeshya ko abaturage bamaze kugira ubushobozi bwo kugira ibigo byabo irabacutsa ariko iza gusanga harimo ikibazo gikomeye cyo kutabigira ibyabo, akenshi ni byo tubona mu mikorere yabo no mu migenzurire yabo.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Ugasanga hatowe inama y’ubutegetsi, hashyizweho ubuyobozi ariko uko bakurikirana imikorere yazo ntifashije. Ugasanga umukozi witwa ngo ni ‘Manager’ niwe byose, yayigize akarima ke, arakora uko abyumva, ubujura buraba ntihagire ushobora kubikurikirana n’ibindi.”

Iki kibazo cy’ubujura no kuba bamwe mu bakunze guhabwa inshingano zo kuyobora za Sacco baragiye batorokana amafaranga yazo cyatangiranye nazo kuko mu myaka yo hambere hari abayobozi bagiye bavugwaho gutorokana amafaranga y’izi koperative.

Nko mu 2018, Umurenge SACCO wari umaze kwibwa arenga miliyari 1,7 Frw mu gihe cy’imyaka 10 [2009-2018]. Uburyo ubwo bujura bwakorwagamo; hari abazaga bagatobora banki bagatwara amafaranga cyangwa umuyobozi akaba yayashyira mu gikapu agatoroka.

Hari kandi n’ikindi kibazo cy’inguzanyo izi koperative zitanga ariko ntizishyurwe kuko nk’umwaka ushize zari kuri 12% ni mu gihe muri uyu mwaka zageze ku 9%.

Guverineri Rwangombwa ati “Nabyo ugasanga harimo n’ikibazo ukuntu inguzanyo zitangwa, na byo ni ibintu bikorwa mu buryo bw’ikimenyane cyangwa harimo amanyanga ugasanga hajemo kutishyura neza inguzanyo.”

Yavuze ko ibyo bibazo ari byo byakomeje gukoma mu nkokora iterambere rya za Sacco ariko kuri ubu inzego zitandukanye zamaze kubihagurukira kandi hari icyizere cy’uko bizakemuka mu bihe biri imbere.

Ati “Mvuze kuri iyi mikorere yabo, ari RCA n’izindi nzego twese tugerageza kubaka ubushobozi bw’inzego z’imiyoborere ya Sacco. Natwe nka BNR icyo twakoze twagerageje kubashyiriraho amabwiriza abafasha, ikindi twashyizeho amasezerano agenga abakozi babo, nabyo birushaho kunoza imikorere yabo.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Twagerageje gushyiraho amategeko n’amabwiriza agenga abakozi, agenga inguzanyo noneho tunashyiraho ibigenderwaho ku bakozi n’ibisabwa kuba bakwirukanwa, ikindi turushaho gukorana n’izindi nzego […] hari ibintu bimwe, amanyanga akorwa atari yashyizwe mu byaha byasabwa ko ukoze amanyanga ahita yirukanwa ako kanya, ibyo byarakozwe.”

Guverineri wa Banki Nkuru y'u Rwanda, John Rwangombwa avuga ko ibibazo by'imicungire mibi byabaye akarande muri za Sacco byenda gushyirwaho iherezo

Guhuza za Sacco; igisubizo ku ruhuri rw’ibibazo

Mu 2014, Perezida Kagame yasabye ko Imirenge Sacco yose ihuzwa binyuze mu ikoranabuhanga igahinduka ‘Cooperative Bank’. Ni ukuvuga ko wari umushinga wo guhuza izo Sacco ku buryo umuntu wabikije amafaranga mu Murenge wa Karangazi i Nyagatare ashobora kugera mu wa Kamembe i Rusizi akabasha kuyabikuza.

Ni gahunda yitezweho kurushaho kwegereza serivisi za Sacco abaturage no kongera umubare w’abagana izi koperative, yabanje guhabwa ihuriro ry’ ibigo by’imari iciriritse mu Rwanda (AMIR) ariko ntiryabasha kubikora nk’uko byari byifujwe.

Iryo huriro ryashyizeho Ikigo cya FinTech International Ltd ngo gikore uwo mushinga wo kwinjiza ikoranabuhanga mu Mirenge Sacco.

Byaje kurangira mu 2018, amasezerano asheshwe bituma Minisiteri y’Imari n’Igenamigambi, ishyiraho abakozi bayo kugira ngo babashe gukora iri koranabuhanga.

Fintech International yari yaramaze kwishyurwa 3.393.218.370 Frw nk’uko bigaragara muri raporo y’Umugenzuzi Mukuru w’Imari ya Leta ya 2019/2020.

Guverineri Rwangombwa yavuze ko kugeza ubu imirenge 35 yo muri Kigali n’undi umwe wo mu Karere ka Rubavu imaze guhuzwa. Ni mu gihe hakomeje gukorwa ibisabwa ku buryo hari icyizere cy’uko umwaka utaha imirenge myinshi izaba yahujwe.

Yavuze ko impamvu habayeho uku gutinda ari uko “Hajemo ibibazo ariko turimo gufatanya kugira ngo turebe ko byakemuka iri koranabuhanga rikagezwa muri za Sacco. Muri gahunda ni uko uyu mwaka wagombaga kurangiran byakozwe, twizeye ko nibigenda neza bigakemuka bizashobora gukwirakwiza hose.”

Guverineri Rwangombwa yavuze ko hari ikindi gitekerezo gihari cy’uko batazategereza igihugu cyose ahubwo aho bimaze gukorwa nko mu karere kamwe bazajya bahuza iyo Mirenge Sacco yose hanyuma bikazakorwa ku gihugu cyose nyuma. Ubu muri Gicumbi na Rubavu nitwo turere tuzakurikiraho nyuma y’Umujyi wa Kigali.

Senateri Habiyakare François we avuga ko kugira iri koranabuhanga ririmo gukorwa mu guhuza Sacco rikwiye kujyana no kunoza imikorere ndetse bikanagabanya inyungu ku nguzanyo kuko akazi kazaba kagabanyutse.

Yavuze kandi ko hakwiye no gukorwa ubukangurambaga abaturage bakumvishwa ko nubwo hari impinduka zigiye gukorwa muri izi koperative, hagatamijwe kuyambura abaturage ahubwo ari ukuborohereza serivisi.

Minisitiri w’Imari n’Igenamigambi, Dr Ndagijimana Uzziel yavuze ko uku guhuza za Sacco bizafasha mu kongera umubare w’abazigana ariko bikanoroshya imitangire ya serivisi ndetse bikanajyana na gahunda ya leta yo kujya mu cyerekezo cy’uko abantu batagendana amafaranga mu ntoki.

Hagaragajwe ingamba zikakaye zafatiwe imicungire mibi yabaye akarande muri Umurenge Sacco
Abasenateri batumijeho abayobozi mu nzego zifite aho zihuriye no kwegereza abaturage serivisi z'imari kugira ngo bagaragaza gahunda zitandukanye zihari
Minisitiri w'Imari n'Igenamigambi, Dr Uzziel Ndagijimana yavuze ko guhuza za Sacco bizagira uruhare mu micungire yazo kandi bigatuma abaturage begerezwa serivisi zayo

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