Abavuga ko nta kintu Abanyafurika bakwiye kwigira ku miyoborere y’u Rwanda, kuki bumva ko Abanyafurika badashoboye kwitekerereza?

Yanditswe na Mushimire Olivier
Kuya 16 Ukuboza 2020 saa 07:39
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Mu myaka myinshi ishize, u Rwanda rwakomeje kunengwa imiyoborere yarwo ndetse rugashyirwa mu gatebo kamwe n’ibindi bihugu byose basuzugura, cyangwa bahinduye ruvumwa. Bamwe mu basesenguzi barimo n’abemera iterambere ryagezweho n’Abanyarwanda mu by’ubukungu, bakunze kwinangira kwemera intambwe u Rwanda rwagezeho muri kwihitiramo imiyoborere n’ubuyobozi, aribyo kimwe mu biranga demokarasi.

Dutuye mu Isi y’aho ukwishyira ukizana by’umuntu ku giti cye byarutishijwe inyungu rusange, ndetse demokarasi mvamahanga yahinduye uburenganzira bw’umuntu ku giti cye nk’ikigirwamana (mu isura ya demokarasi), ku buryo ibihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi binahatira ibya Afurika kugendera kuri ayo matwara ya demokarasi yo kureka buri wese akireba, akavuga akanivuguruza mu nyungu ze bwite.

Iyi myumvire rero, ni na yo ba basesenguzi banenga imiyoborere y’u Rwanda baheraho bahimba ibyo barega u Rwanda; bakanzura ko imiyoborere ihuza abantu ikabigisha gushyira imbere inyungu rusange ari ubuyobozi bw’igitugu.

Muri iyi myumvire rero, ni ho haturuka imvugo imenyerewe yo kwibwira ibindi bihugu bya Afurika ko bidakwiye kugira amasomo bivana ku ‘buryo bw’imiyoborere bujegajega bw’u Rwanda’. Ariko nanone umuntu akibaza, niba ibihugu bya Afurika bidashobora kwigana indangagaciro z’u Rwanda [mu miyoborere], kuki byajya gushaka amasomo ya demokarasi mu bihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi?

Kimwe mu bitekerezo bikunze kugararukwaho n’abo biyita abasesenguzi batunzwe no guhinyuza u Rwanda, ni uko bahora batega iminsi u Rwanda, bakavuga ko ‘ubutegetsi bufatwa nk’ubw’igitugu’ [kuko butandukanye n’imiyoborere ya nyamwigendaho yo mu Burengereazuba bw’Isi] buba bufite ibyago byinshi byo kuzasenyuka.’

Iyi mvugo yo gutega iminsi u Rwanda kandi bayigize intero n’inyikirizo, mu gihe ibihugu by’u Burayi na Amerika bimaze iminsi byugarijwe n’ibibazo by’imyigaragambyo ikomeye, kandi ari byo byirirwa byitera ijeki yo kuba birambye mu miyoborere ya demokarasi; gusa iyo witegereje ubukana bwakoreshejwe mu guhangana n’iyo myigaragambyo, uhita ubona ko iyo demokarasi bavuga no kubaha ikiremwamuntu, kuko abaturage bigaragambyaga babokorewe ihohoterwa rikomeye, ndetse harimo abaturage bahakomerekeye n’abahasize ubuzima bitari ngombwa.

Kubera iyo mpamvu rero, ubusesenguzi bwimbitse nyabwo bwakabaye bwarageze ku mwanzuro ko ubutegetsi bwose bunaniwe gukemura ibibazo bibangamiye abaturage kandi ntibwemere gukora impinduka zishobora gukemura ibibazo karande bya sosiyete, buba bufite amahirwe menshi yo guhirima. Mu yandi magambo, ingingo nyamukuru hano ni uko ubutegetsi bwose budashyira mu bikorwa ibyo abaturage bakaneye butaramba.

Muri uwo murongo, igipimo cy’uko amahitamo y’imiyoborere ya buri gihugu ni uburyo ubuyobozi bukemura ibibazo by’abaturage kandi bugatanga ibisubizo bifatika. Muri make, ubu [bwubahane] ni bwo buryo bwonyine bwo guteza imbere imiyoborere ku Isi hose, hatabayeho kwirirwa higishwa amasomo ya demokarasi atesha agaciro uburyo bw’imibereho n’imiyoborere bwa bamwe.

Ikibabaje ni uko ibi atari ko ubu bwubahane nta buhari, kuko abiyita abasesenguzi bo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi bakomeza guhatira Afurika gukurikiza uburyo bw’imiyoborere bushingiye ku ‘mahame ya demokarasi’ uko bo bayumva, kuko ‘ari bwo buryo bwiza bw’imibereho’, [kabone] n’ubwo ayo mahame akenshi ananirwa gutanga ibisubizo bikwiriye mu ibyo Bihugu byumva ko byageze mu bushorishori bwa demokarasi.

Icya kabiri, abo basesenguzi n’ubundi bakomeza kuvuga ko amategeko arwanya abahakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda akoreshwa mu gucecekesha abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bw’igihugu. Aha ariko ntibajya bagaragaza abo ayo mategeko yarenganyije, bakaregwa ibyaha byo guhakana Jenoside, kuyihindurira inyito cyangwa se kuyitesha agaciro ku maherere nta n’ishingiro.

Byongeye kandi, abo basesenguzi ntibajya bibaza ibibazo ‘nk’impamvu buri wese uvuga ko arwanya Leta, aho kugaragaza ibyo anenga muri politiki n’imiyoborere y’u Rwanda rw’uyu munsi, buri gihe yumva yagaruka ku mateka ya Jenoside?’ Igisobanuro kigaragara kuri aba bumva ko guhakana no gupfobya jenoside ari politiki, ni uko bahisemo politiki ishingiye ku moko (yahozeho mu Rwanda), kuko badafite ibitekerezo n’ubushobozi mu bya politiki byo kuzana impinduka cyangwa kongera umuvuduko mu iterambere ry’igihugu.

Ibi rero bituma bakora politiki yo kwishora mu bikorwa bibujijwe n’amategeko, kandi bigamije gukomeza kubangamira ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda n’icyerekezo bahuriyeho.

Mu by’ukuri, gukomeza gushyikigira ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda ni ingenzi cyane mu rugendo rwo kubaka u Rwanda rwanyuze mu bihe bikomeye by’ivangura n’amacakubiri ashingiye ku moko byaje kugeza no kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994. Iyi politiki yo kubanisha Abaturage niyo mu yandi mahanga nka Amerika bita ‘Urugendo rugana ku ku bumwe bwuzuye bw’Amerika’ (to form a more perfect Union).

Birumvikana rero ko igihugu nk’u Rwanda cyanyuze mu macakubiri, kikarokoka imwe muri Jenoside zikarishye zabayeho mu mateka ya muntu, aho umuturanyi yadukiraga mugenzi we akamwica, gifite byinshi cyakwigisha amahanga ku bigendanye no kongera kubaka imibanire n’igihugu gifite amahoro arambye.

Kugira ngo habeho kwigira amasomo ku bandi, bisaba ko habaho ubwubahane hagati y’ibihugu, ntihagire icyumva ko kigomba umwalimu ibindi bikaba abanyeshuri iteka. Igiteye inkeke rero ni uko ubu bwubahane hagati y’Ibihugu budahari.

Indi ngingo ikunze kugarukwaho mu kugerageza kubuza Abanyafurika kugira amasomo bakwigira ku miyoborere y’u Rwanda, ni uko ‘imiterere y’imiyoborere na politiki biriho kuri ubu mu Rwanda, bitazakomeza kubaho igihe Perezida Kagame azaba asoje akazi ke, agasohoka mu Biro by’Umukuru w’Igihugu’.

Bityo rero, bakemeza ko iterembere n’uburyo bw’imiyoborere by’u Rwanda bitazaramba. Gusa aha umuntu yakwibaza impamvu imiyoborere iriho mu Rwanda ifatwa nk’idashinze imizi, cyangwa idashobora kwihanganira impinduka runaka, ndetse no kuba u Rwanda rwahangana n’ibibazo mu bihe bikomeye.

Kubera ibyo bibazo batwerera ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda, bamwe bagaragaza ko uburyo bw’imiyoborere bwiza bukwiriye kwiganwa n’Abanyafurika ari ubw’igihugu cya Ghana cyo mu Burengerazuba bwa Afurika. Gusa ikitavugwa kuri icyo Gihugu, ni uko mbere y’uko Ghana igera ku buryo bw’imiyoborere ifite kuri ubu, aho amashyaka abiri akomeye ari yo yihariye urubuga rwa politiki, iki gihugu cyayobowe na Nyakwigendera Perezida Jerry Rawlings mu gihe cy’imyaka 20 yose, iyo myaka ikaba yarazanye impinduka zikomeye Ghana igenderaho n’uyu munsi.

Mu yandi magambo, uburyo bw’imiyoborere bwa Ghana uyu munsi, ntabwo bwituye hasi nk’ikimanuka, ahubwo bwagiye bwiyubaka gahoro gahoro, maze Ghana iza kugera ku miyoborere yayo mu mahoro, hashingiwe ku rufatiro rukomeye rwashyizweho mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bwa Perezida Rawlings.

Ikitagibwaho impaka ni uko kubaka inzego zikomeye bitwara igihe kinini kandi bigasaba ubuyobozi bufite intego, ibyo rero kubikora bisaba abayobozi bakomeye kandi bagendera ku mahame afatika. Niyo mpamvu Abanyafurika batagomba kwitesha amahirwe yo kuyoborwa n’umuyobozi ufite intego zifatika.

Ikindi cy’ingenzi, abo banyamahanga bahatira Abanyafurika kutagira amasomo bavana ku miyoborere y’u Rwanda babikora babitewe no kutareba icyihishe inyuma y’imvugo iciriritse y’uko ‘u Rwanda rufite ubuyobozi bw’igitugu’, bigatuma badasobanukirwa icyo ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda buharanira.

Igikwiye kumvikana cyo ni uko nta bisobanuro bihari by‘imiyoborere myiza’ Abanyafurika bose bakwiye gukurikiza buhumyi. Uburyo bw’imiyoborere bwihariye bukwiye gukurikizwa muri buri Gihugu cy’Afurika, bukwiye gushingira ku muco, amateka, politiki ndetse n’imibereho isanzwe ya buri gihugu. Ni muri urwo rwego, uburyo bw’imiyoborere na politiki y’u Rwanda byubatse ku buryo bushobora gukemura ibibazo byihariye by’u Rwanda.

Ikindi kandi ni uko iterambere rirambye rishobora gushingira ku miyoborere iyo ari yo yose, mu gihe ubuyobozi burajwe ishinga no kuzuza inshingano zabwo mu buryo burambye.

Icya nyuma, ni uko ubumwe bw’abanyagihugu no kugira intego bahuriyeho, ari ihame riganisha ku iterambere rya buri gihugu. Rero Abanyafurika bagomba kurwana n’inzitizi bahura na zo muri urwo rugamba rw’iterambere, bagaharanira gukora ibishoboka byose kugira ngo batere imbere.

Ibi kandi ni na byo u Rwanda rwakoze, kuko si igihugu kigira umutungo kamere mwinshi, ndetse ntigikora ku nyanja, kikanagira n’ubuso buto ugereranyije n’ibyo abaturage bacyo bakenera. Ibi byose ariko ntibibuza u Rwanda kuba igihugu gifite ijambo n’ijambo mu guharanira agaciro n’iterambere ry’Afurika.

Birumvikana ko hari amasomo yo kwigira ku gihugu nk’u Rwanda, cyabashije kurenga ibizazane cyanyuzemo, ndetse kikanabasha guhangana n’ibibazo by’ingutu. Gusa ku Banyafurika, kwiga ayo masomo bisaba kwanga agasuzuguro no kureka kwisuzugura, ari na cyo kibazo ku bantu birirwa baha amasomo u Rwanda, kuko badashaka ko Abanyafurika biyumvamo ko bashoboye.

U Rwanda rero na rwo ntirujya rwemera ayo masomo, kuko Abanyarwanda bizera ko bafite ubushobozi bwo kwifatira ibyemezo no kwishakamo ibisubizo, hubakiwe ku mateka n’umuco wabo, n’ubwo bitababuza kwigira ku bandi ndetse no kwigana ibyiza babona ku bandi.


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