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Abari inshuti nibo bahindutse ibikoko: Ikiganiro na Yolande Mukagasana ku byabaye ku Kivugiza muri Jenoside

Yanditswe na Akayezu Jean de Dieu
Kuya 21 June 2022 saa 07:30
Yasuwe :

Hashize imyaka 28 Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ibaye igahitana ubuzima bw’abasaga miliyoni. Abayirokotse kugeza n’ubu babyibuka nk’ibyabaye ejo.

Buri gace mu Rwanda gafite amateka yihariye ndetse na buri wese by’umwihariko uwarokotse afite inkuru y’ibihe by’icuraburindi yanyuzemo mu gihe cy’iminsi 100 Jenoside yamaze.

Abarokokeye ahitwa ku Kivugiza ya Nyamirambo mu Karere ka Nyarugenge, bafite amateka ashaririye babayemo mbere gato no mu gihe cya Jenoside kuko uretse kuba bari begereye umujyi, bari baturanye n’abakomeye mu bagize uruhare muri Jenoside.

Umwe muri abo ni Mukagasana Yolande, umwanditsi w’ibitabo akaba n’umushakashatsi kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, wabaye ku Kivugiza kuva mu 1977, ari na ho Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 yabaye atuye.

Mu kiganiro yagiranye na IGIHE, yagarutse ku buryo umuryango we mbere ya Jenoside wari ubanye neza n’abawuhekuye, amajoro y’icuraburindi banyuzemo mu gihe cya Jenoside ndetse n’urugendo rwe rwo kongera kwiyubaka.

IGIHE: Wadusubiza inyuma ukatubwira uko mbere ya Jenoside ku Kivugiza mwari mubayeho ?

Mukagasana: Natuye ku Kivugiza kuva mu 1977, nkora ku Bitaro bya Kigali. Niho nari ntuye kuva icyo gihe kugeza kuri Jenoside. Ni ukuvuga ngo abantu baho ndabazi n’uko bagiye baza.

Ku Kivugiza yo ku ruhande hariya umuntu akata asa n’ujya i Mageragere, niho nari ntuye n’ubu niho ngituye. Nari mpafite umuryango munini kuko abantu bazaga bakurikiye abandi ariko noneho mbere ya Jenoside tugiye nko mu 1990, niho twagiye kumva bavuga ko Kivugiza ituwe n’Abatutsi gusa ariko ntabwo byari byo […] nkabona tubana neza nta kibazo twagiranaga hagati yacu.

Nka Karera François [yari Burugumesitiri wa Komini Nyarugenge] twari duturanye, musaza wanjye wo kwa mama wacu [Kahabaye Joseph] yari umwubatsi, ni na we wamufashije kugura ikibanza ku Kivugiza, amuha ikiraka cyo kubaka amashuri yo ku Kivugiza. Yari inshuti y’umuryango kuko no mu bukwe bwanjye yaritabiriye.

Uretse Karera se hari abandi bakoze Jenoside mwari muturanye ku Kivugiza?

Abantu bose twari duturanye tubana neza. Umuntu wenda navuga utarageraga n’iwacu na mbere ni Noheli Hitimana wari umunyamakuru kuri RTLM ariko yari umuturanyi.

Undi dufitanye igihango ni Mwamini [Nyirandegeya Mwamini Esperance ufungiye i Mageragere aho yakatiwe gufungwa burundu], wabaye ruharwa muri Jenoside.

Kubera ko yari Umuyisilamu agomba guhindura idini ubwo yari ashakanye n’umugabo we, umuturanyi wanjye twanakoranaga mu Bitaro bya Kigali witwa Berancille ni we wamubyaye muri batisimu.

N’abageni [Mwamini n’umugabo we] ntekereza ko inzu ya mbere bakodesheje ari iyanjye. Ubwo rero urumva igihango twari dufitanye ntabwo twari tuzi ko abo bantu ari bo bashobora guhinduka ntacyo tuzi dupfa na bo, tubanye neza.

Uko guhinduka, abo mwasangiraga bakaba abanzi byatangiye ryari?

Intambara yo kwibohora igeze nibwo bahindutse, baraduhindukirana, ukibaza icyo upfa n’umuntu ukakibura.

Mu 1992, nashinze ivuriro ryanjye ku Kivugiza ryitwaga ‘Mpore’ kandi nabwo ni ukubera ibibazo nagiraga by’akazi kuko nakoraga akazi katoroshye, nkajya ntera ikinya abasirikare bavuye ku rugamba kurwana n’Inkotanyi bakavuga ngo ninze ntere ikinya abo basaza banjye bishe.

Ngatotezwa gutyo mu ntekerezo ku buryo no kugira ngo nshobore gushinga iryo vuriro nabanje kugurisha imodoka nari mfite. Sinakubwira ngo navuraga Abahutu cyangwa Abatutsi ahubwo navuraga bose. Hari n’umwana wa Karera nigeze kuvura.

Hagati ya 1992 na 1993, inshuti zagiye zituvaho buhoro buhoro tutazi uko bigenze. Noneho ugasigara utinya umuturanyi, ugatinya umuvandimwe wibaza […].

Njye nka Mwamini namutinye mbere. Ndibuka no kugira ngo bave mu nzu yacu yari amereye nabi umugabo we ko adashaka kumbona mu maso ye, ashaka ko bubaka inzu yabo. Baragiye ni na byiza, biyubakira iyabo nzu.

Ariko n’abantu baturanye na Mwamini n’ubu nabo ubwabo baracyafite ubwoba bwa Mwamini kuko mbere ya Jenoside ntiyari akiri umugore w’umubyeyi mu rugo n’inshuti z’abandi bagore, oya yari Interahamwe. Na we ubwe ntabwo yabihakana kuko twabimuhamya.

Nta nama n’imwe Mwamini yasibaga, inshuti yari asigaye agira ari Karera ndetse njye narabiboneye bombi muri Jenoside, barimo bajya impaka ku bishyimbo byo kwa Kahabaye musaza wanjye. Ntabwo Mwamini yamenya aho nari ndi, nari mbari iruhande.

Jenoside yatangiye ndi ku Kivugiza uretse ko itarangiye ariho ndi, Mwamini yari Umujenosideri, kandi wa wundi utoroshye kuko yari agize kwambara Gisirikare, yari yambaye ishene y’amasasu, ntiyabihakana kuko yabonywe n’abandi benshi batari njyewe.

Inkuru bijyanye: Umutima umenetse, uruhare muri Jenoside: Mwamini Espérance yaturitse ararira (Video)

Nk’umuntu mwari muturanye ndetse mufitanye igihango usobanura ute uruhare rwe muri Jenoside?

Njye navuga ko ari ruharwa nta kindi nakubwira, kubera ko na we ntabihakana, erega. Kuba yarakoze Jenoside ntabihakana, ahubwo ikibazo ntabisobanura. Iteka yumvikanisha ubufatanyacyaha, ntavuga we ibyo yikoreye ku giti cye kandi birahari.

Niba we yumva yararenganye, ndumva atabivuga kuko ujya mu Nyakabanda, bakakubwira Mwamini, wajya mu Biryogo bakakubwira Mwamini. Yafatiwe i Burundi, mva i Burayi n’indege ubanza ntarayishyura, kugira ngo nze nshinje Mwamini adafungurwa.

Yemere ko yakoze ibibi, yicuze asabe imbabazi abanya-Kivugiza yaraduhemukiye kandi ntacyo twapfaga na we, twari dufitanye igihango.

Mukagasana yavuze ko ubumwe n'ubwiyunge buzaturuka mu kuvugisha ukuri haba ku bakoze Jenoside, abayirokotse n'abayibonye

Urabona uwarokotse Jenoside ntabona byose […] uwabonye byose ntakiriho, ntawe uhari yarishwe. Ni ukuvuga ngo nabonye aka, undi abona kariya, gutyo gutyo kuko twese twagendaga twihisha.

Navuge ati ‘kanaka’ warokotse ndagusaba imbabazi ibyo nakoreye iwanyu tuzamubabarira, ko tubabarira abandi se we kuki tutamubabarira?

Uyu munsi leta y’u Rwanda yahisemo kunga Abanyarwanda nyuma ya Jenoside, bivuze iki kuri wowe?

Turi mu gihugu gishaka ubwiyunge, natwe turabukeneye kugira ngo tugire icyo twubaka.

Buriya iyo bavuga ubutabera, ntibukenewe n’abarokotse Jenoside gusa, n’abayikoze barabukeneye kuko babaye ibitambo by’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside yubatswe n’abari abayobozi babo.

Dufite amateka yacu, nituyemere tuyakire. Nimureke twubake u Rwanda rutubakiye ku kinyoma, amateka yacu tuyakire uko yabaye nta kindi twayahinduraho ariko turebe ngo ese turagana he?

Nk’umwanditsi, ubona ari nde ukwiriye kwandika ku mateka ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi?

Nonese niba Jenoside yarabaye ku manywa y’ihangu, utayandikaho ni nde? Ni umusirikare wakoraga Jenoside cyangwa ni uwayihagarikaga?

Ni Umunyarwanda wayikorerwaga akarokoka, ni uwarebereye? Ni uwagerageje gukiza Abatutsi? Ninde utakwandika kuri Jenoside ko twese twayibonye?

N’utabashije kwandika yakwegera akavuga ati ’mfasha kwandika ibyo nabonye’. Igihe cyose Umunyarwanda atazandika ku mateka ye, ntimuzatangazwe n’uko Umunyamahanga ayabandikira kandi akayandika uko ashaka.

Ubuhamya bwo wumva bukwiye gutangwa n’uruhe ruhande? Uwarokotse cyangwa uwakoze Jenoside

Nta muntu udakwiye kuvuga kuri Jenoside uko yayibonye. Hari abayikorewe hari n’abayikoze, icya ngombwa ni uko tuvugisha ukuri, tukagira aho duhurira twubaka igihugu.

Ibi nabitangiye mu 1998, njya kwandika igitabo cyitwa ‘Les Blessures du silence’. Nabaga hanze noneho bakajya bavuga ngo buriya se ntibabeshya? Ngo barokotse bate niba barabibonye?

Noneho hariho n’inkundura yo kuvuga ko habaye Jenoside ebyiri. Nicyo cyatumye ngaruka mu Rwanda mpa ibiganiro abantu bakoze Jenoside, abarokotse, abarokoye abantu, mbese nabajije abo mu mpande zose.

Ntabwo naje mfite gahunda yo kuvuga ngo mpamye icyaha kanaka. Naje nje gushaka ubumuntu muri buri wese, yaba asigaranye nyuma y’ibyo yakoze cyangwa nyuma y’iyo yakorewe.

Nagiye muri gereza nkagenda mpura n’abantu biyemereye ibyaha bakambwira ibyo bakoze. Ako kazi urumva ko nagatangiye muri za 1998, uyu munsi rero ntabwo aribwo twagahagarika cyane ko hari abantu bakomerekejwe cyane […] buriya ntabwo mushobora kumva ukuntu no mu bakoze Jenoside hari abafite ibikomere by’ibyo bakoze.

Ubona bikwiye ko mu myaka 28 ishize hari abagihakana cyangwa bapfobya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi?

Rero reka mbabwire, ntawe uhakana Jenoside atari uko yayibonye, icyo ni icya mbere. Arakora ibyo azi ubundi agashaka ko abantu bajya ku ruhande rwe.

Abantu ba mbere bahakana Jenoside ni abayikoze. Kuko nta bundi buryo bafite uretse guhakana bakabitsimbararaho, bakavuga ko Jenoside itabayeho, kuko batabona uko basobanura ibyo bakoze.

Bo ntibayihakane kuko dufite za gihamya tuzabibumvisha, ahubwo ikibabaje ni inzirakarengane babyara, njyewe nizo mbona.

Bariya bahakana ibyo bazi, nabonye banakoresha n’abari hano mu gihugu […], abo ariko niyo mpamvu nashyizeho Foundation Yolande Mukagasana, nzabarwanya batazica u Rwanda rw’ejo. Abo bana ni inzirakarengane.

Yolande Mukagasana avuga ko kwandika ku mateka ya Jenoside bikwiye gukorwa n'abantu bose baba abayikoze n'abayirokotse
Mukagasana yanditse ibitabo bitandukanye. Iki cyitwa 'Not My Time to Die'
Mukagasana Yolande, ni umwe mu bahamya b'uko Jenoside yateguwe ikanashyirwa mu bikorwa n'ubutegetsi bubi

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