Abacengezi, ubujura mu basirikare...Ikiganiro na Sheikh Harerimana ku mutekano nyuma ya Jenoside

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 1 Ukwakira 2019 saa 09:16
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Guhera tariki 9 Gicurasi 1998, mu Rwanda hatangijwe ibiganiro bidasanzwe byahurije hamwe abantu bo mu nzego zitandukanye, barimo abanyapolitiki, abanyamadini, abikorera, abagize sosiyete sivile, abahoze mu mashyaka ya kera nka MDR Parmehutu, UNAR n’abandi.

Ni ibiganiro byamaze hafi umwaka wose kuko byarangiye muri Werurwe 1999. Byabaga buri wa Gatandatu bikabera mu Rugwiro, ahari ibiro bya Perezida ari nayo mpamvu byiswe ibiganiro byo mu Rugwiro.

Abantu 133 nibo bitabiriye ibyo biganiro. Intego ari ukuganira ngo bumvikane ku cyerecyezo gishya cyagombaga guhabwa igihugu nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi igahitana abasaga miliyoni, igasiga impfubyi, impunzi zigera kuri miliyoni eshatu n’ibikorwa remezo bikangirika.

Ibyo biganiro nibyo byavuyemo icyerecyezo 2020, bivamo Inkiko Gacaca, bivamo igitekerezo cyo guhindura ibirango bya Repubulika n’ibindi byinshi byatumye u Rwanda ruba uru tureba uyu munsi.

Ibiganiro byibanze ku mutekano, ubumwe n’ubwiyunge, ubutabera n’ubukungu.

Twasubije amaso inyuma, dusubira muri ibyo biganiro ngo turebe uko byari byifashe, tuvugana na Sheikh Abdul Karim Harerimana, wari Minisitiri w’Ubutegetsi bw’igihugu n’Amajyambere ya Komini no gusubiza abantu mu buzima busanzwe, afite umutekano mu nshingano ukaba kimwe mu byari byarashegeshwe muri icyo gihe.

Mu kiganiro yahaye IGIHE, Sheikh Harerimana yagarutse ku ntambara z’abacengezi, ubugizi bwa nabi, ikibazo cy’impunzi, imyitwarire mibi ya bamwe mu basirikare, ubujura n’ibindi byari bibangamiye umutekano icyo gihe.

Ikiganiro kirambuye

IGIHE: Ibiganiro byo mu Rugwiro byaje bite?

Harerimana: Ikintu kiza kidafite aho giturutse. Buriya bituruka mu ngengabitekerezo ya FPR Inkotanyi, mu bumwe bw’abanyarwanda. Gukemura ibibazo by’abanyarwanda kandi tubyikemuriye.

Hari ibyari bimaze kwigaragaza byari bihari mbere byanatumye FPR Inkotanyi ivuka ariko na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi hari ibindi yagaragaje. Izo ntambara z’abacengezi hari ibyo zagaragazaga bituma za gahunda zose FPR igomba kuzisangira n’abandi banyarwanda.

IGIHE: Umutekano mu gihugu icyo gihe wari wifashe ute?

Harerimana: Umutekano ntabwo wari umeze neza cyane ariko muri uwo mwaka 1998/1999 wari uri kugaruka. Nyuma yo guhagarika Jenoside ikintu cy’ibanze igihugu cyagombaga kwitaho ni uguhumuriza abanyarwanda, kugarura umutekano n’ibindi bikubakiraho.

Mu nzira zo kugarura ubunyarwanda n’umutekano harimo no gucyura impunzi. Impunzi rero zarahagamagawe kenshi.

Hari gihe cyageze igihugu kibona ko abari mu nkambi abenshi atari ubushake bwabo ahubwo babaye ingwate ya Leta yakoze ibyaha. Ibihugu byumvaga ko abo bantu nibakomeza kuba ingwate bishobora kuzaba igitutu kuri Leta y’u Rwanda bakazagaruka ku mbaraga.

N’abanyarwanda bari barabaye ingwate bari bariho mu buzima bubi cyane kandi nta mpamvu, nta cyaha bakoze bashobora kugaruka mu gihugu cyabo. Hafashwe ingamba rero zo kubafasha guhunguka. Ingabo z’u Rwanda ziragenda zifungura umuryango, abanyarwanda barataha.

IGIHE: Byashobotse bite ngo ingabo z’u Rwanda zinjire mu gihugu cy’abandi amahanga adasakuje?

Harerimana: Byabanjirijwe n’ibiganiro Leta y’u Rwanda yagiranaga n’ibihugu byo mu Karere ndetse n’intumwa z’ibihugu bimwe na bimwe byitwa ko bikomeye. Hari ibyabereye i Cairo, Tunis byose bigamije ko abantu bari mu bice bya Congo cyane cyane bari ku mupaka ku buryo banahungabanyaga umutekano.

Hari ibitero shuma byakorwaga biturutse muri izo nkambi. Bakaza bakica cyane cyane abayobozi bo mu nzego z’ibanze, rimwe na rimwe bakibasira abagabo bari hafi y’imipaka, bagasahura. Bageze aho batangira no gukoresha imbunda nini.

Sheikh Harerimana avuga ko umutekano wari warashegeshwe na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

IGIHE: Mu byaganiriwe mu Rugwiro harimo n’ikibazo cy’abacengezi, bo bavaga he?

Harerimana: Muri abo binjiye nanone, hari abinjiye batabishaka bahoze mu ngabo zatsinzwe n’abari Interahamwe kabuhariwe. Batangiye kugira ibitekerezo , bati ‘buriya twajyaga turwana turi hanze, ariko noneho dushobora guhungabanya umutekano w’igihugu no gukuraho iyi Leta tutemera turi no mu Rwanda.’

Abari hanze batangiye imyiteguro ariko n’abari mu Rwanda bari mu myiteguro. Nicyo gituma twazise intambara z’abacengezi. Bazaga rwihishwa nyine bagacengera bagahura n’abari mu Rwanda bagatangira izo gahunda.

Mu 1997 cyane cyane nibwo batangiye gukora ibikorwa bibi. Uribuka imodoka bahagaritse yari itwaye abagenzi hano ku Kirenge, bavangura abaturage bati abahutu mujye ku ruhande, abatutsi mujye ku rundi barangiza bakabarasa, bakayitwika […] Gisenyi, Ruhengeri, Kigali Ngali ndetse na Byumba na za Kibuye. Uribuka abanyeshuri ba Nyange.

Mu 1998 byarakaze ariko umwaka ujya kurangira byari bigabanyutse ku buryo bugaragara.

IGIHE: Ko ibiganiro byatangiye umutekano utangiye kugaruka, byari ngombwa ko uganirwaho mu Rugwiro?

Harerimana: Nawe mbwira icyo wageraho udafite umutekano. Na politiki waba uri gukora yose wayikorera mu masasu? Wayikora abaturage barimo gupfa? Uvuga ngo ndi gukora gahunda z’ubukungu, z’imibereho myiza y’abaturage […] Ntabwo ushobora kubikora uri mu masasu, ntabwo ushobora kubikora abaturage badafite umutekano.

Umuturage se azajya guhinga ari mu masasu? Ushobora kujya mu biro amabombe arimo kugwa? Umutekano ni umutima wa buri kintu cyose. Iyo uhari nibwo ushobora gukora politiki nziza. Nicyo gituma mu biganiro byo mu Rugwiro umutekano wahawe umwanya.

IGIHE: Mwafashe izihe ngamba?

Harerimana: Hari ibyemeranyijweho na gahunda zo gukomeza kwugarurra zirakomeza. Hari inzira ebyiri zakoreshwaga. Iya mbere abahungabanya umutekano bari bari gukoresha intwaro, barimo kwica abaturage. Iyo ntambara igomba kurwanywa.

Hari na politiki noneho, abaturage bagakangurirwa kwigarurira umutekano ubwabo no kuwirindira bakitandukanya n’abacengezi maze bagafatanya n’ingabo z’igihugu n’izindi nzego z’umutekano kugira ngo umutekano ugaruke ku misozi yabo kandi abaturage babikoze neza cyane.

IGIHE: Muri Raporo y’izo nama, havugwamo ibikorwa byo kubohoza byari biteye inkeke, byari byifashe bite?

Harerimana: Hari abantu batinze gusubira mu byabo kubera ko hari ikibazo cyo kubohoza imitungo cyari cyabayeho. Urabona 1994 Jenoside irakozwe, ariko irahagaritswe. Mu bukangurambaga Leta y’Abatabazi yakoze imaze gutsindwa yo n’ingabo zayo bafashe abaturage bashoboye bose barabatwara.

Muri uwo mwaka nanone hari abanyarwanda bari barahunze kera muri za 1959, 1960 […] nabo bari barimo guhunguka. Abo ku butaka bw’u Rwanda nta cyitwa icyabo bari barasigaranye , ibyari ibyabo byari byaratwawe na Leta ya Kayibanda ibiha abaturage, hamwe n’abaturage barabibohoje ndetse bimwe Leta yabikoresheje nk’ibihembo iha abari abaparmehutu b’imena bagaragaje ubwicanyi kurusha abandi.

Hari uwagarukaga rero azi n’iwabo agahita ahajya rimwe na rimwe agasanga n’ibintu byabo nta cyahindutse cyane agasubira aho. Hari n’uwaje n’iwabo atakihibuka akigira ahandi mu Rwanda yasanga inzu nta muntu uyirimo, isambu nta muntu uyirimo akayijyamo.

Hari amazu icyo gihe abantu bajyaga bandikaho ngo ‘inzu yafashwe’. Mu guhunguka, hari uwasanze ibintu bye ntawe ubirimo agahita abijyamo ako kanya. Hari uwasanze harimo abantu, akabana nabo aho mu gihe agitegereje ko ibintu bye abisubizwa. Hari uwaje asanga ibintu bye birimo abantu ariko ntaho ashobora kuba ari icyo gihe, nibwo bamwe bashobora kuba baragiye mu kintu gisa nk’ikambi.

Mu byaganiriwe rero mu Rugwiro nuko abantu bagomba gusubizwa imitungo yabo. Abari mu by’abandi bagomba kubivamo kandi nta mananiza agomba kubaho. Ntuzitazwe ngo uyu muntu yarishe, uyu muntu yari Interahamwe, ibyo ni urundi rubanza niba runahari hari inzego zibishinzwe zizabikurikirana.

Sheikh Harerimana yagarutse ku ntambara z’abacengezi, ubugizi bwa nabi, ikibazo cy’impunzi, imyitwarire mibi ya bamwe mu basirikare, ubujura n’ibindi byari bibangamiye umutekano icyo gihe

IGIHE: Nta bigometse kuri ibyo byemezo?

Harerimana: Byabaye ikibazo kitoroshye ndetse cyageze no mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko. N’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko hari bamwe batabyumvaga uko Guverinoma yabyumvaga.

Hari ibaruwa nandikiye ba Perefe ndetse menyesha ba Burugumesitiri bose ko abantu bari mu by’abandi bagomba kuba babivuyemo na ba nyirabyo bakabisubiramo.

Hari abadepite bayibonye biba ngombwa ko Minisitiri mpamagarwa gutanga ibisubanuro. Naritabye rwose kuko Inteko ntawe uyisuzugura. Naritabye bambaza ibibazo hafi mu minsi ibiri cyangwa itatu ku buryo ibisobanuro natanze icyo gihe bavuze ko batanyuzwe. Noneho (bansaba) gutanga ibisubizo mu nyandiko. Bambajije ibibazo bibiri cyangwa bitatu ndagenda ndabisubiza.

Visi Perezida wa Repubulika akaba na Minisitiri w’Ingabo Paul Kagame icyo gihe yahamagaje ikiganiro n’abanyamakuru hariya aho yakoreraga mu mujyi rwagati (hari Marriot Hotel) . Yahamagaye n’abayobozi batandukanye harimo n’abadepite bamwe na bamwe.

Mubyo yavuze, yaravuze ati ‘Bishoboka bite ko abantu bajya aho bakajya impaka ko hagira umuntu ugundira imitungo itari ye? Ibindi bibazo biri ku ruhande abantu bashobora kubyiga kandi bifitiwe ingamba ariko icyo kigomba kubanza gukemuka. Nta kuntu ushobora kuvuga ngo urashaka ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda warangiza ugashyigikira ko […] mbese ni irihe tegeko ribaho rimeze rityo uretse amategeko y’inyamaswa? Kuva ubwo icyo kibazo cyagabanyije ubukana cyari gifite.

IGIHE: Bivugwa ko hari n’ubukangurambaga bwo guhindanya isura ya Leta, byo byari byifashe bite?

Harerimana: Icyo gihe turwana n’abacengezi hari abantu bakwirakwizaga ibihuha bavuga ngo Leta y’u Rwanda irimo kwica abahutu mu majyaruguru nta n’ikindi igamije.

Mu rwego rwo gushaka kwerekana ukuri twahamagaye abadipolomate ndetse n’imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta dushyira mu modoka duti muze tujye muri kariya gace muvuga ko twica abaturage. Tugenda tubereka ibice bitandukanye wenda aho ingabo zacu zarasiwe, imodoka barashe na za mbunda zitwika imodoka abasirikare bacu bakaba barapfuye.

Twabajyanye no mu kigo cya gisirikare kiriya cya Muhoza tubereka imfungwa zafatiwe ku rugamba . Muri izo ntambara z’abacengezi hari Lieutenant umwe wafashwe ku rugamba hariya mu bice bya za Musanze hagana ku ishyamba ry’Ibirunga.

Yavugaga Igifaransa duti mugende muganira na we. Arababwira ati nza kurwana aha nari nzi ko umwanzi wanjye ari umututsi, nanjye nkaba umwanzi we. Ko ntashobora kwicara imbere y’umututsi atanyishe kimwe nuko nanjye mubonye imbere yanjye atamara umunota ntaramwica, ariko ikintangaje dore nafashwe, ndi gufatwa neza hano mu kigo cya gisirikare.

Kubera ko abaturage bafatanyaga n’abasirikare muri icyo gikowa ari bo bamugezeho bwa mbere, abasirikare aba aribo bamutabara. Abaturage bari bamaze kumunyuzaho utunyafu nka dutatu, ati ‘Natangaye, abaturage navugaga ko nje kurengera b’abahutu nibo bankubise bari banyishe, iyo ingabo zitahatunguka zikantabara.’

IGIHE: Mu gihugu hanavugwaga ikibazo cy’ubujura bwitwaje intwaro ndetse ngo hari n’abasirikare babikoraga?

Harerimana: Ubujura bwarabaye koko mu 1994, hari abantu bajyaga mu ngo z’abandi bakajya gusahura, mu 1995 na 1996 byarabaye. Nubwo twabiganiriyeho 1998 byasaga n’aho bimaze gucika kuko ingamba zari zarafashwe.

Ndibuka 1994 umwaka utararangira njyewe ubwanjye naganiriye na Visi Perezida (Paul Kagame) , nti ko hari abantu bari aha bari kutwicira izina. Ati ndabibona n’ingamba zirahari.

Ingamba zafashwe , iya mbere ni uko nta musirikare wemerewe gucaracara mu mujyi wa Kigali uko yishakiye. Icya kabiri hari umutwe w’ingabo wari hano muri Kigali, arawimura awukura muri Kigali awusimbuza undi abasubiza mu myitozo i Gabiro.

Naramwiboneye njye ubwanye mu 1994 ndi perefe w’inzibacyuho wa Cyangugu naje i Kigali. Hariya mu mujyi rwagati imbere y’Inkuru Nziza hari abantu b’inshuti zanjye bahakoreraga ndi kuganira nabo ariko mfite abarinzi. We ubwe (Kagame) yazamukaga mu modoka kuri uriya muhanda hagana kuri BK, naramubonye we ntiyambona.

Akebutse abona hari abasirikare bari aho, arahagarara. Abwira abe ngo baze bafate abo basirikare babajyane mu kigo kuko batagomba kuba mu mihanda. Baraza basanga ninjye uri aho, nti abasirikare ni abanjye mu kanya ndabasubirana iwacu mu cyaro i Cyangugu.

Ubujura bukoresheje imbunda bwakorwaga ahanini na bamwe mu bari batangiye kwibagirwa gahunda za RPF Inkotanyi.

Byagombaga gucika kandi ndakurahiye ko byo bitamaze amezi atatu, naho ubundi bari barateye kuri Sulfo ku manywa y’ihangu, bateraga ahantu hari kwinjira amafaranga ngira ngo n’amabanki bari bashatse kuyatera.

IGIHE: Haganiriwe iby’ibendera n’abahohoterwaga rizamurwa cyangwa ryururutswa, mwabivuzeho iki?

Harerimana: Uzi ko ibendera rigira amategeko yaryo. Haje igitekerezo atari ukuvuga ngo ni ugukubitwa gusa cyangwa kuzamura no kurimanura ahubwo twaravuze ngo ubundi ibendera rivuga iki? Ni ikirango cy’igihugu gikomeye cyane. None se nijoro u Rwanda ruba rwagiye he? Kuki saa mbili za mu gitondo abantu bagiye ku kazi rizamurwa , saa kumi n’imwe abantu bavuye ku kazi rikamanurwa.

Hajemo n’utwo tuntu twose mu gitondo hakaza umupolisi bavuza ifirimbi imodoka zigahagarara , abagenda ku maguru […] Byari ukwibaza ngo iyo abantu bagiye kuryama , bavuye ku kazi n’u Rwanda ruva ku kazi rukajya kuryama maze rukabyuka saa mbili runatinze?

Nibwo bavuze bati ibendera rigume mu kirere rigaragaze ko u Rwanda ruhari nubwo bamwe mu bana barwo baba baryamye rwo ruba ruri maso.

Sheikh Abdul Karim Harerimana, yari Minisitiri w’Ubutegetsi bw’igihugu n’Amajyambere ya Komini no gusubiza abantu mu buzima busanzwe, afite umutekano mu nshingano

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