Kanimba François: Imyaka 34 mu bukungu bw’u Rwanda

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 23 Mutarama 2020 saa 04:38
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Kanimba François ni izina rizwi na buri wese ukurikiranira hafi ubukungu na politiki by’u Rwanda. Yamaze imyaka 34 ari umukozi wa leta mu nzego nkuru z’ubukungu n’imari by’igihugu, cyane cyane muri Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu (BNR) ndetse no muri Minisiteri y’ubucuruzi n’inganda.

Ni umugabo wagize uruhare rukomeye mu gusubiza urwego rw’imari ku murongo nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, yatwaye ubuzima bw’abarenga miliyoni ikanasiga igihugu ku busa mu ngeri zose z’ubuzima bwacyo.

Kanimba yarangije amashuri ye mu 1983, atangira akazi mu mwaka wakurikiyeho mu yahoze ari Ministeri y’imigambi ya Leta, ayikoramo kugeza mu 1995. Yahise ajya gukora mu ishami rya Banki y’Isi i Kigali, nk’impuguke mu bukungu.

Mu 2000, ubwo Perezida Paul Kagame yabaga Umukuru w’Igihugu, yamugize Visi Guverineri wa BNR, nyuma y’imyaka ibiri ayibera Guverineri kugeza mu 2011, ni ukuvuga imyaka icyenda, akaba yarahinduriwe imirimo agirwa Minisitiri w’ubucuruzi n’inganda kugeza mu 2017.

Kanimba ni umugabo ukunda gufasha, wicisha bugufi kandi w’intangarugero mu kwizigama no kubyaza umusaruro ibyo afite.

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Kanimba avuga ko kuva mu 2017 yagiye mu kiruhuko, yagarutse ku buzima bwe bwite n’inshingano yagiye ahabwa mu bihe bitandukanye cyane cyane izirebana n’ubukungu n’ubucuruzi bw’u Rwanda.

IGIHE: Mu 1995 wabaye umukozi wa Banki y’Isi, icyo gihe ubukungu bw’u Rwanda rwari rusohotse muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bwatangaga icyizere cy’uko buzongera kuzuka?

Kanimba: Nk’uko mwese mubizi byari ibihe bikomeye, ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwari hasi cyane, kubera Jenoside ahantu yabusize bwari ntaho.

Hanyuma ndibuka y’uko mu kwezi kwa mbere muri 1995 habaye inama mpuzamahanga yabereye i Genève [mu Busuwisi], nanababwira y’uko iyo nama rwose nk’umunyarwanda wari warakoze muri Ministeri y’imigambi ya Leta igihe kinini, nagize uruhare rukomeye cyane mfatanyije n’abayobozi ba PNUD, hano i Kigali mu kuyitegura.

Iyo nama icyo yari igamije kwari ukurebera hamwe ku rwego mpuzamahanga uburyo u Rwanda rwafashwa mu kwisana. Iyo nama rero koko yarabaye, Guverinoma nshya yariho yerekana porogaramu zayo, amahanga, ari imiryango mpuzamahanga, ari ibihugu u Rwanda, rwari rufitanye umubano na byo n’ibindi bishya byumvaga byarufasha mu bihe rwarimo, batanga inkunga n’ibitekerezo.

Wabonaga hari ubushake bukomatanye ku rwego rw’isi rwo kugerageza gufasha Guverinoma nshya kugira ngo itangire gahunda zo gusana igihugu.

Na Banki y’Isi rero yari muri iyo nama, ndetse nyuma y’aho yatangiye gahunda yo gushakisha uburyo yafasha u Rwanda, ishyiraho imishinga yo gufasha mu rwego rw’imari ku buryo bwihuse kugira ngo Guverinoma nshya ibone ubushobozi bwo gutangiza imirimo ya ngombwa ya Leta kugira ngo igihugu cyongere gukora.

Iyo nama yavuyemo ibyemezo, ari ibihugu ari imiryango mpuzamahanga bagiye bavuga inkunga bazatanga. Ndibuka y’uko iyo wateranyaga amafaranga imiryango mpuzamahanga n’ibihugu byiyemeje kuzatanga mu rwego rwo gufasha u Rwanda kwisana, twashoboye kugera kuri miliyari y’amadolari wenda, ariko birumvikana yagombaga kwegeranywa mu myaka myinshi, ntabwo yari amafaranga yabonekeraga rimwe igihe kimwe.

Kanimba wayoboye BNR imyaka icyenda, ni umwe mu basubije ku murongo urwego rw'imari rw'u Rwanda mu myaka 26 ishize

IGIHE: Ugereranya ute serivisi z’imari mu Rwanda mu myaka 25 ishize na mbere ya Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi?

Kanimba: Biratandukanye cyane kuko serivisi z’imari za mbere ya Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, reka ntange nk’ingero ebyiri; nk’icyerekeye kugira ngo umucuruzi ushaka gucuruza ku buryo bwisanzuye mu gihugu imbere areba n’amahanga yashoboraga gukenera amadovize ashobora gukoresha kugira ngo ajye guhaha hanze; isoko ry’amadovize mu Rwanda ntabwo ryari rifunguye kuri buri munyarwanda uwo ari we wese.

Icyemezo cyo kugira ngo Umunyarwanda ashobore gukoresha amadevize cyatangwaga na Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu. Yego hari isoko ryari ryarishyizeho hariya muri Quartier Commercial, ugasanga abacuruzi bamwe na bamwe bacuruza rwihishwa amadorali icyo bita mu Gifaransa “marché noir”, ariko mu by’ukuri iryo soko riba rihenze cyane ntabwo ushobora kuribonaho amadevize ushaka kugira ngo ushobore gucuruza mu murongo mwiza.

N’abanyarwanda kugira ngo bajye hanze byari biruhije kugira ngo ubone pasiporo yo kugenda, cyari ikibazo. Wasangaga rero hari bamwe na bamwe batashoboraga kubona uburyo bwo gukoresha amadevize ndetse akenshi ugasanga ibibazo bya ruswa ari ho bigenda bishamikira.

Serivisi ya kabiri ni serivisi yo kubona inguzanyo muri banki. Icya mbere twari dufite banki eshatu gusa, Banki ya Kigali, Banki y’ubucuruzi y’u Rwanda na Banki yitwaga Bacar, ubu ikaba ari yo GT Bank. Abantu bari bafite imikoranire y’izo banki bari bake, nta n’ubwo izo banki zari zagashinze amashami hirya no hino mu giturage cy’u Rwanda.

Ariko nabashoboraga gukorana na zo, kugira ngo ugire umushinga ujye gusaba inguzanyo, ntabwo banki y’ubucuruzi mwakoranaga yari ifite icyemezo ku buryo bwisanzuye mu biganiro byawe ni uko ikubona nk’umukiriya wayo kugira ngo iguhe iryo deni. Banki yajyaga gusaba uburenganzira muri Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu kugira ngo iguhe inguzanyo.

Nta bigo by’imari iciriritse byabaga mu Rwanda uretse Banki y’Abaturage. Banki z’abaturage zari zaratangiye mu 1975 ku buryo wasangaga muri buri Komine mu Rwanda, hari ishami rya banki y’abaturage. Navuga y’uko ari ho abaturage bashoboraga kugana kugira ngo babone serivisi z’imari ariko n’ubundi iyo wajyaga muri Komini wasangaga abanyamuryango b’izo banki ari mbarwa.

Tuvugishije ukuri rero abantu benshi babikaga amafaranga yabo mu ngo, mu bimuga, mu misego, mu mikenyero y’ingutiya kuko no kugira ngo uyakoreshe uyakuye muri banki bari bazi ko ari ikintu kitoroshye.

Ubu rero iby’ubu sinirirwa mbijyamo kuko abanyarwanda barabyibonera habayeho impinduka zikomeye cyane, ari mu byerekeye imicungire y’isoko ry’amadevize ubwaryo. Ikintu cya mbere cy’impinduka zikomeye ntekereza cyabaye mu bucuruzi bw’u Rwanda, ni ukumva y’uko amadevize atari aya Leta, ari ay’abaturage.

Politike za cyera n’amategeko yazishingiragaho, yavugaga ko nta muntu ufite uburenganzira bwo kugira konti mu madovize muri banki, n’uyifite akaba atakoresha ayo madovize uko ashatse, mu by’ukuri zari politike mbi kuko ni nk’aho zatangaga ubutumwa mu baturage ko kujyana amadovize muri banki uyafite ari nk’aho uba uyataye kuko kuzongera kuyabona ngo uyakoreshe ntibyari byoroshye.

N’abacuruzi b’u Rwanda benshi ndetse n’abanyepolitiki bari bafite imitungo babonye ku buryo bunyuranye, wasangaga ari bo bajya kuri rya soko nababwiye kugura ya madevize yari ahari.

Ndibuka nkimara kuba Guverineri wa Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu muri 2003, ni cyo kintu cya mbere gikomeye navuga nakoze cyagiriye igihugu akamaro, ‘kugerageza kubaka isoko ry’ubucuruzi bw’amafaranga y’amahanga ku buryo busobanutse’ ku buryo umuntu yumva ko afite uburenganzira bungana n’ubw’undi.

Kanimba yabaye umuyobozi muri Minisiteri y'imigambi ya leta mbere ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994

IGIHE: Nk’umuntu wakoraga muri Minisiteri y’imigambi ya leta, ubukungu bw’u Rwanda mbere ya jenoside bwari bufite iyihe shusho?

Kanimba: Nguhaye igipimo cyoroshye, izamuka ry’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda gatoya mbere ya 1990, tuvuge nka 1985-1990, wasangaga iyo umuvuduko wabaga wagiye hejuru kabaga ari nka 2%, abaturage bazamukaho gatatu n’ibice ku ijana. Ubwo ni ukuvuga y’uko umutungo w’umuturage wagendaga usubira inyuma.

Niba umuvuduko w’abaturage warutage umuvuduko rusange w’izamuka ry’ubukungu, iyo ni yo shusho. Hari n’igihe wasangaga umuvuduko rusange wa GDP wagiye munsi ya zero. Ni uko byari bimeze.

Buriya ikindi kintu abanyarwanda mugomba kumenya mu byerekeye imiyoborere aho itandukanira n’uburyo imiyoborere igira uruhare mu iterambere rusange ry’ubukungu bw’igihugu.

Ntabwo ubuyobozi bwari mu Rwanda mbere ya Jenoside bwumvaga ko inshingano yabwo ari iterambere ry’abaturage.

Nguhaye nk’urugero, mbere ya 1990 ingengo y’imari ya Leta ntabwo yarengaga miliyari 25 FRW; ufashe ingengo y’imari isanzwe n’iyiterambere. Urumva ibikorwa by’iterambere byavaga muri ayo mafaranga byabaga ari bike cyane noneho n’ibikorwa by’abaturage ubwabo bivuye mu bucuruzi no kwihangira imirimo byari bike, ni nacyo cyatumaga mu by’ukuri umuvuduko w’iterambere utagaragara ku buryo bufatika.

Ubu rero impinduka zabaye ni nyinshi kuri ibyo byose, cyane cyane ubwisanzure mu bucuruzi kuko buriya kiriya ni ikintu gikomeye cyane umuntu wese wumva afite akumva ashobora gucuruza ashobora gutekereza akihangira igikorwa cyamuteza imbere, yashaka amafaranga akagana ibigo by’imari byaramwegerejwe, yashaka kujya hanze akajya ku isoko ry’amadevize akayagura.

Kiriya ni cyo navuga cyabaye urufunguzo, rwo gufungura umuvuduko; bikanashimangirwa na Politiki y’imiyoborere ya Guverinoma nshya ishingiye mu by’ukuri kurwanya ubukene n’iterambere ry’abaturage.

Iyo tuvuga ngo u Rwanda ubungubu ruri kuvuduka ku gipimo cya 8-10%, mu gihe mbere iyo rwavudukaga, iyo rwihutaga byari 2-3%, ni aho bitandukanira.

IGIHE: Mu 2002 wabaye Guverineri wa BNR, izi nshingano zifite akahe gaciro mu buzima bwawe?

Kanimba: Birumvikana kuba Guverineri wa Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu ni umwanya ukomeye…Ikintu navuga ni uko muri iriya myaka namazeyo, nishimira rwose ko urwego rw’imari mu Rwanda rwafashe umusingi w’iterambere udasubirwaho ndetse nkanishimira y’uko abansimbuye maze kuhava bateye ikirenge mu cyanjye ku buryo urwego rw’imari rwakomeje kugira umuvuduko n’imikorere ubona isobanutse, itanga icyizere igatuma n’abanyarwanda muri rusange bishimira urwego rw’imari uburyo rukora n’uburyo rubafasha kugira ngo biteze imbere muri rusange.

Kanimba yabaye Minisitiri w'ubucuruzi n'inganda mu 2011 kugeza mu 2017

IGIHE: Muri Minisiteri y’ubucuruzi n’inganda, abantu benshi bakwibukira kuri gahunda ya Made in Rwanda. Iyi gahunda yatekerejwe gute?

Kanimba: Buriya gahunda ya Made in Rwanda twayitangiye mu mwaka wa 2015, nari maze hafi imyaka ine muri Minisiteri y’Ubucuruzi n’Inganda.

Muri iriya myaka ya 2011 na mbere y’aho, byaravugwaga icyuho cyagaragaraga mu bucuruzi bw’u Rwanda n’amahanga cyari kinini cyane kandi uko imyaka ishira indi ikaza ukabona ahubwo kigenda cyiyongera aho kugira ngo kigende kigabanuka.

Gutekereza rero ingamba zatuma ubucuruzi bw’u Rwanda n’amahanga butekerezwa ku buryo icyuho kigaragara mu buhahirane bw’u Rwanda n’amahanga kigenda kiganuka na byo biri mu bibazo muri Ministeri y’Ubucuruzi icyo gihe twagerageje gutekereza.

Ndibuka mu mwaka wa 2004, ni bwo twicaye tukavuga tuti ariko iki cyuho, turakomeza gutekereza ibyo u Rwanda rwohereza mu mahanga, ariko nta n’ubwo tujya dutekereza bihagije ibyo u Rwanda rukura mu mahanga, nta byo twakwikorera?.

Dukora inyigo yagaragazaga ibyiciro bitandukanye, dufashe gusa inganda ziriho, tukazitaho, tukavugana na bene zo, ibintu bishobora kuva muri izo nganda bigasimbura ibitumizwa mu mahanga, icyo gihe iyo nyigo yatwerekaga y’uko mu gihe cya bugufi dushobora gusimbura mu buryo bworoshye, hafi miliyoni 450.

Politiki ya Made in Rwanda abanyarwanda bajye bayumva neza, ntabwo ari Politiki yo gutegeka abanyarwanda kugura ibikorerwa mu Rwanda uko byaba bimeze kose, ahubwo ni Politiki igamije gufasha abanyarwanda, bagafashwa gukora ibintu byiza bishobora guhiganwa.

Kugira ngo abanyarwanda rero babikunde ni uko mu by’ukuri iyo Politiki yaje cyane cyane ko na mbere yayo Guverinoma yari yaratangiye igikorwa mu rwego rwo kwihesha agaciro, kureba ukuntu abanyarwanda bacika ku muco wo kwambara caguwa, hari n’ibyemezo byari byarafashwe mbere byarebaga cyane cyane imyenda y’imbere, amakariso n’indi.

Byari byaratangiye gushyirwa mu bikorwa ariko mu mwaka wa 2004, Guverinoma ifata icyemezo cyo kureba ukuntu twarwanya caguwa, cyane cyane y’uko no mu rwego rw’umuryango wa EAC, ibyo byemezo byari bihari, n’ibyemezo byarafashwe ariko hakabura ufata iya mbere mu kubishyira mu bikorwa. U Rwanda rero turatangira.

Buriya rero Made in Rwanda igitangira abantu babonanaga gusa kurwanya caguwa, ariko murumva y’uko wari umugambi mugari ariko cyane cyane twahereye kuri icyo cyifuzo cyo gushaka ukuntu duhera ku myenda.

Amafaranga y’ingendo no gutumiza imyenda hanze ni miliyari nyinshi, abantu bayitayeho bakayiha imbaraga zihagije, yonyine ishobora gutuma cya cyuho twavugaga mu bicuruzwa hagati y’u Rwanda n’amahanga kigabanuka ku buryo bufatika.

Ni ho twatangiriye ariko Made in Rwanda ntabwo ireba gusa urwego rw’imyenda n’inkweto, ireba ubukungu bwose muri rusange.

Ikigaragara ni uko ni umugambi umaze guhama, abanyarwanda barawiyumvamo, kandi iyo mwuvise imibare itangazwa n’ikigo cy’ibarurishamibare muri iyi myaka ibiri ishize, ukuntu Made in Rwanda iri guhindura amateka mu byerekeye ibyo u Rwanda ruhahirana n’amahanga, sinshidikanya y’uko uriya ni mugambi watekerejwe neza.

Ndizera ntashidikanya y’uko, iyo ndebye n’imbaraga Guverinoma ibishyiramo, ndetse no guhindura imyumvire ari mu bayobozi ndetse n’abaturage, kugira ngo bashyigikire iyo porogaramu, izahindura amateka y’igihugu.

IGIHE: Mwadusangiza imbogamizi mwahuye na zo mu gutangiza Made in Rwanda?

Kanimba: Iya mbere, buriya guca caguwa rwari urugamba rutoroshye. Harimo abantu bari babifitemo inyungu, babirwanyaga bagaramye, ariko hari n’abanyarwanda muri rusange, kuko murabizi abanyarwanda mu mibereho yacu turakennye.

Umunyarwanda kumubuza kujya kugura umwenda w’igihumbi, ibihumbi bibiri, tumubwira ngo u Rwanda rurashaka guteza imbere inganda kandi zitaragaragara, zitarabaho, ibyo biganiro ntabwo byari byoroshye.

Kanimba avuga ko ikindi cyakozwe ari ubuvugizi mu nzego za leta cyane cyane ku kiguzi cy’umuriro n’amazi mu nganda, gukuraho umusoro ku bitumizwa mu mahanga bikoreshwa n’izo nganda n’ibindi.

Gahunda ya Made in Rwanda yatangiye gushyirwa mu bikorwa ubwo Kanimba yari Minisitiri w'ubucuruzi n'inganda

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