Kuki Afurika yabaye indiri ya Coup d’état?

Yanditswe na Dufitumukiza Salathiel
Kuya 27 Kanama 2020 saa 07:30
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Kuva mu myaka ya 1960 ubwo ibyinshi mu bihugu bya Afurika byabonaga ubwigenge kugeza ubu, uyu mugabane ni wo umaze kuberamo ibikorwa byo guhirika ubutegetsi (Coup d’état) byinshi, kuko muri 478 zabaye ku Isi yose izigera kuri 208 zabereye ku mugabane wa Afurika.

Ijambo coup d’état rikoreshwa bavuga ikurwaho ry’ubutegetsi ritunguranye, rikorwa n’agatsiko k’abasirikare bakuru cyangwa abayobozi bo mu nzego nkuru za leta. Ni igikorwa abahanga mu bya politiki bemeza ko kimara igihe gito, hagati y’amasaha n’icyumweru.

N’ubwo rifite inkomoko mu rurimi rw’Igifaransa, rikoreshwa cyane n’Abanyafurika kurusha Abanya-Burayi bariremye.

Ubwo ibihugu bya Afurika byamaraga kubona ubwigenge mu myaka ya 1960, abaturage b’uyu mugabane bumvaga ko bagiye kubaho mu mutekano cyane ko bari bigobotoye ingoma ya gikoloni.

Bari biteze ko igikurikira kwari ukwitorera abayobozi bishimiye, bakababera ijwi kandi bakabageza ku iterambere rirambye.

Uwavuga ko Abanyafurika bagize amahirwe make ku hazaza habo batekerezaga muri iyo myaka ntiyaba abeshye; kuko abagombaga kubarindira umutekano bakanabageza ku mibereho myiza batagejejweho n’abakoloni; baje baka ruswa, bigwizaho umutungo w’igihugu, abatabikoze batyo bakarwanira ubutegetsi.

Ubu bwumvikane buke mu nzego nkuru za leta cyangwa hagati ya zo n’igisirikare akenshi nibyo biba intandaro ya Coup d’état nyinshi ziba ku mugabane wa Afurika.

Amateka agaragaza ko kuva mu 1950, Afurika imaze kubamo Coup d’état 208.

Mu nkuru umwanditsi wa BBC, Christopher Giles yanditse kuwa 11 Mata 2019,nyuma y’umunsi umwe habaye Coup d’état muri Sudani, yagaragaje ko mu Isi yose hari hamaze kuba Coup d’état 476, aho 206 zari izo muri Afurika.

Iyi mibare irahura n’igaragara muri raporo y’umwanditsi wa Washington Post ,Adam Taylor yo kuwa 22 Nyakanga 2016 yagaragaje ko mu Isi hamaze kuba Coup d’état 475.

Nyuma y’iyi mibare, hageragejwe Coup d’état muri Ethiopia muri Kamena 2019 n’iheruka kuba muri Mali muri Kanama 2020. Ibi byatumye umubare uva kuri 476 mu Isi yose na 206 muri Afurika, ugera kuri 478 ku Isi na 208 muri Afurika.

Ubushakashatsi bwashyizwe ahagaragara na Banki Nyafurika isura Amajyambere (AfDB) mu 2012, bwagaragaje ko muri Coup d’état 203 zari zimaze kuba muri Afurika, Akarere ka Afurika y’Iburengerazuba kabarizwamo ibihugu 17 ariko kazahajwe cyane, ahamaze kuba 104 (1/2 cy’izabaye nuri Afurika).

Afurika y’Iburasirazuba niyo ikurikiyeho na Coup d’état 48, Afurika yo hagati 35, mu gihe Afurika y’Amajyepfo yabayemo 16.

Coup d'etat iheruka ni iyo muri Mali, aha ingabo zahiritse ubutegetsi zari mu byishimo

Imiyoborere mibi ku isonga mu bitera Coup d’état

Umusesenguzi muri politiki mpuzamahanga, Dr. Ismael Buchanan, avuga ko imiyoborere mibi ikunda kurangwa muri Afurika ariyo igira uruhare rukomeye muri Coup d’état ziharangwa kenshi.

Ati ”Hari ikibazo cy’uko Afurika ikunda kurangwa n’imiyoborere mibi hamwe na hamwe, aho ubutegetsi busa n’ubwikanyiza cyangwa bw’igitugu muri politiki, ubukungu n’ibindi ku buryo bibyara ubusumbane mu baturage ahenshi.”

Akomeza avuga ko indi mpamvu ari uko hari zimwe mu ngaruka z’ubukungu nazo zitera Coup d’état.

Ati ”Mwarabibonye muri za Sudani n’ahandi, aho abaturage kubera kubaho mu bukene bukabije cyangwa igipimo cy’ubukene kiri hejuru batihanganira kuba muri ubwo buzima akenshi na leta yabo ntacyo ikora ngo bagere ku byiza. Ibyo akenshi bibageza ku isubiranamo cyangwa hakabaho Coup d’état.”

Ikindi Dr. Ismael Buchanan abona gitera Coup d’état nyinshi ni uburyo igisirikare cyubatswe cyangwa imiterere yacyo bishobora gutuma habaho izo Coup d’état.

Ati “Akenshi iyo hariho ikandamizwa muri bamwe muri bo.”

Uretse izi mpamvu za Buchanan, abahanga mu bya politiki Habiba Ben Barka na Mthuli Ncube bavuga ko ukwivanga muri politiki n’ubukungu by’ibihugu bya Afurika kw’ibihugu by’ibihangange mu isi nabyo biba intandaro ya Coup d’état zibera kuri uyu mugabane.

Aha ibi bihugu byitwaza ko bije kubungabunga umutekano mu duce tumwe na tumwe twa Afurika cyangwa gufasha ubutegetsi runaka gutsinda inyeshyamba, ariko bifite izindi ntego.

Ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi rya hato na hato muri Afurika, rinashobora guterwa n’ igitugu no gukandamiza abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi buriho.

Ese hari izishobora kuba mu minsi iri imbere ?

Dr. Ismael Buchanan avuga ko igihugu cyabayemo Coup d’état haba hari ibyago byinshi by’uko izongera ikabamo.

Yagize ati ”Aho iba biterwa n’impamvu zitandukanye, si ihame. Gusa iyo urebye muri bimwe wenda bishoboka, ni uko akenshi aho Coup d’état yagiye iba haba hari impamvu amahirwe ko n’ubutaha yahaba. Urugero ni Nigeria mu gihe cya mbere.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Ikindi ni uko nk’ahantu ubukungu bugenda bukendera cyane, ibibazo by’ubukungu bikamunga igihugu ndetse na leta ntigire icyo ikora, akenshi haba ibibazo bya za Coup d’état kubera kwanga ubutegetsi buriho.”

Afurika yakora iki mu gukumira izi Coup d’état

Mu kwirita Coup d’état za hato na hato mu bihugu bya Afurika, Dr. Buchanan asanga bashyiraho leta ihuriweho n’abantu bose, ikorera abaturage nta vangura, leta irangwa n’imiyoborere myiza, ubuyobozi bushyira mu gaciro mu bikorerwa abanyagihugu.

Gushyiraho ingamba zikomeye z’uburyo abanyagihugu bose bibona mu bibakorerwa hatagendewe ku nkomoko n’icyenewabo na byo byarinda Afurika Coup d’état.

Ibindi Dr. Buchanan abona byafasha, ni ugushyiraho umutwe umwe w’ingabo zigize igihugu, gushyiraho inzego zikorana kandi zuzuzanya mu bikorwa byose ndetse no gufata ingamba zihamye mu kurwanya uwo ari we wese wajya muri icyo gikorwa.

Uyu musesenguzi asanga n’imiryango mpuzamahanga nka AU, ECOWAS n’indi yakabigizemo uruhare, ihangana n’icyo gitekerezo ndetse n’abajya inyuma y’ibyo bikorwa.

Zimwe muri Coup d’état zabaye muri Afurika

 1960: Habaye imwe muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo.

 1963: Habaye eshatu, imwe muri Togo, indi muri Repubulika ya Congo na Benin.

 1965: Habaye eshanu, eshatu zo muri Benin, Algeria na RDC.

 1967: Habaye eshatu, Imwe muri Togo, Sierra Leone na Benin

 1968: habaye eshatu, imwe muri Sierra Leone, Repubulika ya Congo na Mali

Izabaye Vuba

 2005: Habaye imwe muri Mauritania

 2006: Habaye imwe muri Tchad

 2008: Habaye ebyiri, imwe muri Mauritanie indi muri Guinea

 2010: Habaye imwe muri Niger

 2012: Habaye ebyiri, imwe muri Mali indi Guinea-Bissau

 2013: Habaye imwe mu Misiri

 2017: Habaye imwe muri Zimbabwe

 2019: Habaye imwe muri Sudani

 2020: Hamaze kuba imwe muri Mali

Kugeza ubu, Sudani niyo imaze kugeragezwamo Coup d’état nyinshi muri Afurika aho zigera muri 15 zirimo enye zagezweho, mu gihe Burkina Faso ari yo imaze kubamo izagezweho nyinshi zigera kuri zirindwi.

Nyuma ya Afurika, Amerika y’Amajyepfo ni yo ibamo Coup d’état nyinshi, Aziya ikaba iya gatatu, nk’uko The Conversation ibigaragaza, kuva mu 1950 kugeza 2020 ni imyaka ibiri yonyine (2007 na 2018) itarabayemo cyangwa ngo igeragezwemo Coup d’état.

Aha hari mu 2019 ubwo uwahoze ari Perezida wa Sudan Omar Al Bashir yahirikwaga ku butegetsi
Aha ni muri 2017 ubwo Perezida Mugabe yahirikwaga ku butegetsi

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