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Inkomoko n’impamvu by’intambara mu burasirazuba bwa Congo (Igice cya I)

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Kuya 22 Ukuboza 2022 saa 05:47
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Ubwanditsi: Iyi nyandiko ni ikiganiro umushakashatsi wandika ku mateka y’u Rwanda n’Akarere k’Ibiyaga bigari, Rutazibwa Privat, yatangiye mu itorero ry’Urungano icyiciro cya V, kuwa 14 Ukuboza 2022, muri IPRC Musanze. Ni ikiganiro cyari kigamije ‘Gusobanukirwa inkomoko n’impamvu-muzi z’irondakoko n’intambara mu burasirazuba bwa Congo (DRC).

Mwese mukurikira amakuru mu buryo butandukanye; muzi ko muri iki gihe hari intambara ibera mu burasirazuba bwa Congo, mu Ntara ya Kivu y’Amajyaruguru (Nord-Kivu), ishyamiranyije Leta ya Congo n’Umutwe wa M23 (Mouvement du 23 Mars 2009) wiganjemo Abanye-Congo bavuga ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda.

Muri 2020, mu burasirazuba bwa Congo (Nord-Kivu, Kivu y’Amajyepfo, Ituri, Tanganyika) habarurwaga imitwe yitwaje intwaro 122 harimo na M23. Ingabo za Leta ya Congo, FARDC n’ine muri iyo mitwe 122 ari yo FDLR (Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Rwanda), ADF (Allied Democratic Forces), APCLS (Alliance des Patriotes pour un Congo Libre et Souverain) na NDC-R (Nduma Defense of Congo-Rénové ya Guidon Shimiray Mwissa) byari byihariye kwica icya kabiri cy’abaturage bose bishwe hagati ya 2017 na 2020 mu burasirazuba bwa Congo, ndetse na kimwe cya gatatu cy’imirwano (incidents) muri ako gace.

Abantu rero bakwibaza impamvu M23 ariyo yashyizwe mu majwi cyane muri iyi minsi, intambara irwana na Leta ya Congo ikaba igarukwaho cyane n’itangazamakuru, ibihugu n’imiryango mpuzamahanga, ndetse n’umubano w’u Rwanda na Kongo ukaba warahazahariye.

Muri iki kiganiro ndagerageza gusobanura impamvu-muzi y’umutekano mucye mu burasirazuba bwa Congo, by’umwihariko intambara zakunze kugaragaramo Abanyekongo bavuga Ikinyarwanda, inkomoko yazo mu mateka n’uruhererekane rwazo kugeza ubu.

Impamvu zikunze kugaragazwa z’intambara z’urudaca mu burasirazuba bwa Congo

Intambara zibasira cyangwa zirwanwa n’abavuga ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda muri kariya gace ka Congo kuva ibonye ubwigenge mu 1960, zatangiye mu 1963 mu ntambara yiswe Kanyarwanda. Benshi mu bazikorera isesengura bakunze kwibanda kuzabaye kuva muri 1996 ubwo intambara ya AFDL (Alliance des Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Congo-Zaire) yatangiraga muri Sud-Kivu bikarangira ikuyeho ubutegetsi bwa Maréchal Mobutu, kugeza none.

Kutamenya cyangwa kwirengagiza izindi ntambara zabaye mbere, bituma abakora isesengura ryazo bashakira inkomoko cyangwa impamvu-muzi yazo mu cyo bita ubushake bw’u Rwanda, kuva ruyobowe na FPR-Inkotanyi muri 1994, bwo gusahura amabuye y’agaciro n’indi mitungo ya Congo, gushaka aho rusagurira abaturage barwo benshi by’umwihariko aborozi b’Abatutsi; kurema icyo inzego zo hejuru muri Congo zise ‘empire hamite’ ‘Etats à composante mono-ethnique’, cyangwa ‘empire Hima’. Hari rero n’impamvu yumvikanye cyane muri iki gihe yitwa ‘balkanisation’.

Ijambo balkanisation rikunze gukoreshwa cyane n’abanyapolitiki ba Congo, cyane abarwanya ubutegetsi; abayobozi ba Kiliziya gatolika; itangazamakuru n’imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta bakunze kwita ‘société civile’. Rikomoka kuri ‘Balkans’, agace k’Uburayi bw’amajyepfo y’uburasirazuba kahoze kuva cyera mu gihugu cya Turkiya, nyuma kakaza gucibwamo ibihugu bito byigenga hagati ya 1805 na 1923.

Iri jambo risobanuye igihugu gicikamo ibihugu byinshi bitoya byigenga. U Rwanda rero ruregwa kuba mu mugambi wo gushaka guca Congo mo ibihugu byinshi no kwiyomekaho ibice bimwe byayo. Impuguke za ONU nazo zashinje u Rwanda gushaka kwiyomekaho Nord-Kivu na Sud-Kivu muri 2012, zishingiye ku makuru zahawe n’inzego z’ubutasi za Congo.

Abanye-Congo bashinja u Rwanda muri iki gihe gushaka gukora ‘balkanisation’ ya Congo babikorana ubukana bwinshi ku buryo hari abakeka ko ari ikintu gishya kandi giteye impungenge. Nyamara si ubwa mbere Abanyekongo bakoresha iryo jambo, kuko ryatangiye kumvikana muri za 1980. Gusa ntibashoboraga kuyishinja u Rwanda ruyobowe na FPR kuko rwari rutarabaho.

Ntibashoboraga no gushinja ‘balkanisation’ u Rwanda rwategekwaga na Habyatimana icyo gihe, kuko Leta ye ariyo yari yarahimbye icyo kirego ibinyujije muri MAGRIVI (mutuelle des Agriculteurs des Virunga), ishyirahamwe ryari ryarashyiriweho guhungabanya Abatutsi muri Congo. Inyandiko idasinye yakwirakwijwe mu 1981 kuri Universite y’i Kinshasa yahamagariraga kwica abanyeshuli n’imiryango y’Abatutsi ituye hafi aho, inabashinja ‘gusaba kwigenga kwa bimwe mu bice bigize Congo, ari byo zones za Masisi, Rutshuru, Idjwi, Kalehe, n’igice kimwe cya zones za Uvira, Fizi na Mwenga’.

Hari zimwe mu ntambara zabereye cyangwa zatangiriye mu burasirazuba bwa Congo Leta y’u Rwanda yemera koko ko yagizemo uruhare, ishyigikiye imwe mu mitwe yarwanyaga Leta, cyangwa yatumiwe na Leta ya Congo ubwayo. Iya mbere ni iya AFDL yatangiye mu 1996 u Rwanda rushyigikiye uwo mutwe ikarangira mu 1997; iya kabiri ni iya RCD (Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie) yatangiye mu 1998 ikarangira mu 2002. RCD yaje gucikamo ibice, u Rwanda rusigara rushyigikiye ikiswe RCD/Goma.

Intambara ya gatatu u Rwanda rwagizemo uruhare rufatanyije na Leta ya Congo ni operasiyo yiswe ‘Umoja Wetu’ yatangiye kuri 20 Mutarama ikarangira kuri 25 Gashyantare 2009 hagamijwe kurwanya FDLR no gucyura mu Rwanda abarwanyi bayo ndetse n’abaturage b’Abanyarwanda yafashe bugwate muri Congo. U Rwanda rugaragaza ko impamvu rwinjiye muri izo ntambara za Congo ari ukurengera umutekano warwo wakomeje guhungabanywa n’abasize bakoze jenoside mu Rwanda muw’i 1994.

Aba ni abahoze ari ingabo z’u Rwanda kubwa perezida Habyarimana (1973-1994) n’abari bagize imitwe yitwara gisilikare nk’Interahamwe. Babanje kwihuriza mu mashyaka n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro igiye itandukanye cyangwa yagiye ihinduranya amazina muri Congo nka RDR (Rassemblement pour la Démocratie et le Retour des réfugiés), PALIR (Parti pour la Libération du Rwanda), ALIR (Armée de Libération du Rwanda),… ariko uwamenyekanye cyane ni FDLR.

U Rwanda kandi ruherutse gutangaza ko igihe cyose FDLR izagerageza guhungabanya umutekano warwo iturutse muri Congo, izaba ari impamvu ihagije yatuma rujya kuyirwanyiriza muri icyo gihugu.

Impamvu-muzi y’intambara z’abenegihugu bavuga Ikinyarwanda muri Congo

Nkuko nabyanditse mu 1998 mu gitabo Les Crises des Grands Lacs et la Question Tutsi. Réflexions sur l’Idéologie du génocide dans la sous-région, impamvu nyamukuru itera umutekano mucye mu karere k’Ibiyaga bigari nta yindi uretse ingengabitekerezo y’urwango ishingiye ku moko yibasira Abatutsi, yateguwe igashyirwa mu bikorwa mu Rwanda mu 1959 mbere yo gukwirakwira mu karere kose.

Iyo ngengabitekerezo y’urwango yibasira Abatutsi rero niyo mpamvu-muzi y’intambara z’urudaca zakunze kugaragaramo abavuga Ikinyarwanda bo mu burasirazuba bwa Kongo. Ibi turabigaragaza twerekana inkomoko n’uruhererekane rw’izo ntambara, imvugo n’ibikorwa by’urwango byazibanjirije bikanaziherekeza, kuva muri za 1960 kugeza ubu. Ni byiza ariko kubanza gusobanura ibyiciro bitandukanye by’abavuga Ikinyarwanda batuye cyangwa bigeze gutura muri Congo.

Ikiciro cya mbere kigizwe n’Abanye-Congo b’abenegihugu kavukire bavuga Ikinyarwanda babarizwa cyangwa bakomoka mu ntara (provinces) za Nord-Kivu, Sud-Kivu na Tanganyika. Muri Nord-Kivu ni Abatutsi b’Abanyejomba n’Abahutu n’Abatwa bo muri Teritwari ya Rutshuru; Abatutsi, Abahutu n’Abatwa bo muri Teritwari ya Nyiragongo n’umujyi wa Goma n’Abatutsi b’Abagogwe, Abahutu n’Abatwa bo muri Teritwari ya Masisi.

Muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo, abavuga Ikinyarwanda bagizwe cyane cyane n’Abatutsi b’Abanyamulenge bo muri Itombwe (Teritwari ya Mwenga), Minembwe (Teritwari ya Fizi), Bijombo (Teritwari ya Uvira). Muri Tanganyika naho ni Abatutsi b’Abanyamulenge bo muri Vyura (Teritwari ya Moba).

Icyiciro cya kabiri kigizwe n’abimukira (transplantés) b’Abatutsi n’Abahutu bakuwe mu Rwanda n’abakoloni b’Ababiligi bakajya gutuzwa muri Gishari (Masisi) kuva mu 1937 kugeza mu 1945 no kuva muri uyu mwaka kugeza mu 1960 mu bindi bice bya Congo, kugira ngo babe abakozi mu mirima, mu nzuri no mu birombe by’ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro by’abakoloni.

Icyiciro cya gatatu cy’abavuga Ikinyarwanda muri Congo cyari kigizwe n’impunzi ziganjemo Abatutsi zahungiye muri Congo muri za 1960 zigatuzwa mu nkambi zitandukanye, zimwe zikaza gufungwa hagasigara eshatu ari zo : Bibwe na Ihula muri Nord-Kivu, na Kalonge muri Sud-Kivu. Izi mpunzi hafi ya zose zatashye mu Rwanda guhera mu 1994.

Icyiciro cya kane ari nacyo cya nyuma kigizwe na none n’impunzi ziganjemo Abahutu zavuye mu Rwanda nyuma ya jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994. Nyinshi muri zo nazo zakomeje gutahuka mu Rwanda, ariko hari izagumyeyo zigize imitwe yitwara gisilikare nka FDLR ndetse n’abaturage basanzwe.

Uruhererekane rw’intambara zivugwamo abakoresha Ikinyarwanda muri Congo

Intambara ya Kanyarwanda (1963-1965) muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru

Intambara ya Kanyarwanda yaturutse ku banyapolitiki bakomoka mu bwoko bwiyita ko ari ubwa kavukire (Nande, Hunde, Nyanga) bashakaga guhungabanya no guhigika abakomoka mu bavuga Ikinyarwanda kubera gutinya ko bazabahiga mu matora bitewe n’ubwinshi bw’abaturage babo. Muri iyo ntambara, inzego z’ubutegetsi bw’igihugu zari cyane cyane mu maboko y’abiyitaga ba kavukire zayoboye ibikorwa by’ubigizi bwa nabi byibasiye Abahutu n’Abatutsi, ariko Ubutegetsi bugaragaza ubukana bwihariye mu gutoteza no kwica Abatutsi.

Iyo ntambara yatangiye muri Nyakanga 1963 kugeza Joseph Désiré Mobutu afashe ubutegetsi kuya 24/11/1965 (Rusamira, 2003 : 149). Yashyamiranyaga Abanyekongo bavuga Ikinyarwanda bo muri Masisi, Goma na Bwito ku ruhande rumwe, n’aba Nande, aba Hunde n’aba Nyanga bo muri ibyo bice ku rundi ruhande. Yari yabanjirijwe muri 1962 n’amakimbirane ashingiye ku kugira Nord-Kivu intara yigenga nkuko byasabwaga n’abahagarariye ayo moko mu nteko y’akarere ya Nord-Kivu, mu gihe abari bahagarariye abavuga Ikinyarwanda nka Cyprien Rwakabuba na Jean Népomuscène Rwiyereka bari abaminisitiri muri guverinema y’intara ya Kivu ndetse n’uwari Komiseri w’umujyi wa Goma Herman Habarugira basabaga ko intara ya Kivu yahuzaga Nord-Kivu, Sud-Kivu na Maniema igumaho idaciwemo ibice.

Hari n’impungenge z’abo muri ayo moko yiyitaga ko ari aya kavukire, z’uko abo bitaga abimukira b’Abanyarwanda babatwara ubutegetsi kuko mu matora ya mbere y’inzego z’ibanze yabaye Kongo imaze kubona ubwigenge muw’1960, abavuga Ikinyarwanda bari batowe kuri 80% (Nzitatira & Gachaha).

Mu mpera za 1962 kandi, habayeho ibikorwa by’abaturage bavuga Ikinyarwanda byo kwivumbura ku butegetsi bw’aba Hunde muri Masisi bwabakandamizaga, bica umupolisi n’umwungirije. Ibi byatumye abayobozi ku rwego rwa Nord-Kivu yari yaramaze kuba intara ndetse no ku rwa Teritwari ya Masisi bohereza ingabo zo kugarura umutekano, ariko zigeze mu baturage zirica zirasahura.

Mu nama y’inteko ishinga amategeko ya Nord-Kivu yabaye kuwa 15 Ukwakira 1963, bamwe mu bayigize basabye ko ‘Abanyarwanda bose … birukanwa mu ntara ya Nord-Kivu’, abandi bavuga ko ‘Abatutsi bonyine ari bo baturwanya’, birangira hashyizweho Komisiyo yihariye yo kwiga ‘ikibazo cy’Abanyarwanda’.

Iyi Komisiyo yashyikirije Inteko rusange imyanzuro irimo ‘kwirukana Abatutsi, impunzi kimwe n’Abimukira, bagasubira mu gihugu cyabo ; guhindura iteka rigenga amatora ryo kuya 23 Werurwe 1960 riha Abanyarwanda b’abimukira uburenganzira bwo gutora ; gushyiraho indangamuntu zihariye z’Abanyarwanda b’abimukira; no gukura Abatutsi ba kavukire muri Nord-Kivu (Rutshuru) bakwoherezwa mu zindi ntara kure y’u Rwanda’ (Assemblée provinciale, compte-rendu. Cité dans Bucyalime, 1997 : 522-523).

Inteko rusange yemeje iyo myanzuro ukuyemo uwa nyuma wo kwimurira kure y’u Rwanda Abatutsi ba kavukire b’Abanyejomba. Perezida wayo Raphael Buunda (w’umu Hunde) kandi yahise ashyira umukono kw’iteka (Edit no 11/63 du 15 Octobre 1963) ritegeka ko Abatutsi bose b’impunzi n’abimukira bari ku butaka bwa Nord-Kivu birukanwa bagasubizwa mu gihugu cyabo cya kavukire, rikanasaba guverinema ya Province guhita ishyira mu bikorwa iryo teka (Ibid, 523).

Abatutsi muri Goma na Masisi bagiriwe nabi cyane icyo gihe, abari basanzwe bahatuye nka ba kavukire cyangwa abimukira nabo batangira gufatwa nk’impunzi, ndetse ibya ngombwa bibaranga ubutegetsi bwabibaka bukabigumana, naho ibyari bisanzwe mu nyandiko z’irangamimerere ku biro by’inzego z’ubutegetsi bukabitwika cyangwa bukabizimiza (Bucyalimwe, 1997 ; Rwasamanzi, 2020).

Gutoteza no gukandamiza abavuga Ikinyarwanda harimo no kubica byarakomeje, noneho byegereje amatora yo mu 1965 hongera kuvuka imyivumbagatanyo yabo ku butegetsi. Abategekaga Nord-Kivu icyo gihe aribo Denis Paluku (umu Nande) na Muleyi Benezeth (umu Hunde) babeshye ubutegetsi bukuru bw’i Léopoldville (Kinshasa) ko iyo myivumbagatanyo y’Abanyarwanda yari iyo gushyigikira inyeshyamba z’aba Mulele, kandi nyamara zitararangwaga muri Nord-Kivu.

Guverinoma ya Léopoldville yahise yohereza ingabo n’abapolisi bo guhangana n’abari bagaragajwe nk’abarwanya ubutegetsi. Muri Masisi na Goma izo ngabo zaje zifata ikitwa Umututsi, benshi muri bo bicirwa ahitwa Kirotshe, n’imirambo myinshi ijugunywa muri Lac Vert hafi ya Sake (Nzitatira & Gachaha).

Ingengabitekerezo y’urwango yari yarabibwe mu Rwanda n’ubutegetsi bwa gikoloni, igateza ubwicanyi n’ubuhunzi byibasira Abatutsi yari imaze kwimakazwa no muri Congo. Uwari umukozi wa HCR muri icyo gihugu François Preziosi dore uko abisobanura:

Ati ‘’Nabonye ko abategetsi bo muri Nord-Kivu bariho bakoresha iri jambo [Tutsi] nk’igikoresho cya poropaganda. Ikintu kibi cyose mu karere kabo giterwa n’Umututsi. Iri jambo risa n’aho rikubiyemo uruvange rw’ubwoba budafite ikibutera nyacyo, urwango, no kubabazwa no kutagera ku ntego, mbese bisa cyane n’ijambo ‘Umuyahudi’ mu Budage bwa Hitileri. Kuri iyo mpamvu, umuntu wese usa n’Umututsi aba ashobora gukubitwa, kwicwa cyangwa gufungwa, kimwe ndetse n’uwariwe wese ubafasha. Nabonye i Sake ubutumwa buvuye muri guverinema ya Nord-Kivu bwohererejwe Guverinema nkuru i Léopoldville. Muri ubwo butumwa, ibikorwa bibi byose n’ubugizi bwa nabi muri Nord-Kivu babyitiriye Abatutsi’ (Preziosi, memo. As quoted in UNHCR, 2000 : 50).

Uyu Preziosi wari muri bake bagaragariza impunzi z’Abanyarwanda impuhwe yaje kwicirwa hafi y’inkambi ya Kalonge agerageza kuzirengera (UNHCR, ibid.). Muri Sud-Kivu naho icyo gihe hari umutekano mucye ku mpunzi z’Abanyarwanda ndetse no kuri ba kavukire b’Abanyamulenge, utewe n’intambara y’abiswe ba Mulele barwanyije Leta ya Kongo hagati ya 1963 na 1965.

Intambara y’1993 muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru

Intambara yo muw’1993 muri Nord-Kivu yaturutse ku mugambi wo kubuza Abatutsi guhagararirwa mu Nama Nkuru y’Igihugu (Conférence Nationale Souveraine- CNS) yateraniye i Kinshasa kuva muri Kanama 1991 kugeza mu Ukuboza 1992. Yashyamiranyije na none amoko y’aba Nande, Hunde, Nyanga na Tembo; n’Abanyarwanda.

Mu ntangiriro ayo moko yari yafatanyije n’aba Hutu kurwanya Abatutsi bavuga ko ari abanyamahanga badakwiye guhagararirwa mu Nama Nkuru y’Igihugu. Koko byatumye Abatutsi badahagararirwa muri iyo nama, n’abari bayirimo nka Cyprien Rwakabuba watangiye politiki Kongo ikibona ubwigenge, na Musenyeri Patient Kanyamacumbi wari Umunyamabanga mukuru w’Inama y’abepiskopi Gatolika ba Congo bayirukanwamo. Ya moko yandi ariko yaje guhindukirana Abahutu avuga ko nabo ari abanyamahanga. Bo bari bashoboye kugira ababahagararira, ndetse bane muri bo binjizwa no mu nteko ishinga amategeko y’inzibacyuho.

Mu izina rya ya moko ane, uwitwa Kaseso yandikiye CNS ashinja batatu muri ba Bahutu bane ko atari abenegihugu. Bamureze mu rukiko kubasebya, Kaseso aratsindwa ahanishwa igifungo cy’ukwezi kumwe n’ihazabu ya miliyari nyinshi z’Amazayire. CNS nayo yatesheje agaciro ikirego cya Kaseso (Ngabu, 1993).

Ibi byarakaje cyane rero abahagarariye ya moko ane, bituma bategura umugambi w’imvururu n’ubwicanyi bwibasiye Abanyarwanda muri zone za Masisi na Walikale. Habanje kuba impinduka mu butegetsi bwa gisivile na gisirikare muri Nord-Kivu muw’1992, zitegura imvururu. Abajandarume bakomoka mu zindi ntara basimbuwe n’abo muri ya moko ane, n’umubare wa sitasiyo za jandarumori uriyongera. Guverineri w’intara Jean-Pierre Kalumbo Mbogho (umu Nande) ndetse na visi Guverineri Bamwisho (umu Nyanga) nabo bakomokaga muri ayo moko.

Ubwicanyi bwatangiriye muri Walikale kw’isoko ry’ahitwa Ntoto kuri 20/3/1993 hicwa Abanyarwanda benshi, bukeye bukomereza ahitwa Boyi hicwa Abanyarwanda basohokaga mu nsengero, abandi benshi nabo bagwa mu ruzi rwa Luindi bahunga.

Urubyiruko rwitwara gisilikare rw’aba Nyanga rwitwaga aba Ngilima nirwo rwagize uruhare runini muri ubwo bwicanyi, ruza kwunganirwa n’urw’aba Hunde biyitaga aba Mayi-Mayi muri zone ya Masisi. Urubyiruko rw’Abahutu narwo rwaremye umutwe wiyitaga aba Mongols. Abicanyi basobanuye ko intandaro yabaye ibendera ry’u Rwanda ryari ryamanitswe ku butaka bwa Kongo (Ngabu, 1993).

Muri ako gace ka Walikale koko hari Abanyarwanda benshi batujwe na perezida Habyarimana ku butaka yari yaragabiwe na mugenzi we Mobutu, bikavugwa ko ngo bitwaraga nkaho bakiri mu Rwanda ! Gusa iby’ibendera ry’u Rwanda byo byari ikinyoma ; ahubwo ryari iry’ishyaka DSN (Démocratie pour le Salut National) ry’uwitwa Sekimonyo wa Magango, Umuhutu wakomokaga muri zone ya Rutshuru.

Ubwicanyi bwibasira Abanyarwanda bwafashe na zone ya Masisi mu ntangiriro za Mata 1993 ndetse bugera no muri zone ya Rutshuru muri Bwito. Ubwo Musenyeri Faustin Ngabu (1993) wa diyosezi gatorika ya Goma yatangazaga raporo kuri ubwo bwicanyi kuya 11/5/1993, habarurwaga abarenga 3.000 bishwe, abagera ku 50.000 bakuwe mu byabo, n’imitungo myinshi yangijwe, inzu zatwitswe n’inka zanyazwe. Rusamira (2003 : 153) avuga ko abiciwe Ntoto gusa bashobora kuba babarirwa mu bantu 14.000.

Abanyarwanda benshi bamaze guhungira muri Kongo nyuma ya jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda, umutekano wakomeje kuba mucye mu burasirazuba bwa Kongo, bituma Abatutsi, aba Hunde n’aba Nyanga bo muri Masisi bahungira mu Rwanda, kuko bose bari bibasiwe n’abarwanyi b’Abahutu bo muri Kongo bashyigikiwe n’Interahamwe n’abahoze ari ingabo z’u Rwanda (Rusamira, 2003 : 153).

Uretse ibi bihe bibiri by’intambara zikomeye zibasiraga Abanyarwanda muri Kongo, hagiye habaho imvururu, itoteza n’umutekano mucye muri rusange mu bindi bihe bitandukanye, ari mu biturage aho bari batuye, ari no mu mashuri aho abana bigaga. Ibi byabaga bishingiye akenshi ku mpaka n’amategeko agenga ubwenegihugu yagiye ahinduka bitewe n’abiyitaga ko ari ba « kavukire » bangaga ko Abanyarwanda babarusha imbaraga muri politiki kubera umubare munini wabo (Kimonyo, 2017 : 50-52 ; Ngabu, 1993 : 5-6). Impamvu ikomeye cyane ariko yari ubukangurambaga bw’urwango n’amacakubiri byakomokaga mu Rwanda (Rutazibwa, 1999 : 147-153 ; 176-181 ; Rusamira, 2003 : 152 ; Rwasamanzi, 2020).

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