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Iherezo ry’ukwezi kwa buki kwa FARDC na MONUSCO

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 26 July 2022 saa 11:32
Yasuwe :

Hambere aha abaturage ba Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo (RDC), bakoze imyigaragambyo ikomeye yo kwamagana u Rwanda, barushinja gushyigikira abarwanyi b’umutwe wa M23 bakomeje imirwano n’igisirikare cya leta (FARDC).

Ni imyigaragambyo yabereye mu duce twa Goma, Bukavu n’ahandi. I Goma byari ibicika ubwo abaturage bari basizoye bashaka kwinjira mu Rwanda, batera amabuye abashinzwe umutekano ku mupaka bababereye ibamba.

Kuri ubu, zahinduye imirishyo kuko abaturage bahindukiriye ingabo z’Umuryango w’Abibumbye (Monusco) ziri muri RDC kuva mu myaka 24 ishize. Izi ngabo zirashinjwa kuba ntacyo zimariye abaturage mu kurandura imitwe yitwaje intwaro yabajujubije, bakaba bahoza akarago ku mutwe.

Imyigaragambyo yamagana izi ngabo yatangiye mu cyumweru gishize ikaza umurego kuri uyu wa Mbere. Abaturage bariye karungu bigabiza icyicaro cya Monusco i Goma, bafunga imihanda batwika imodoka irakongoka, barasahura ibiro barabyeza bigera n’aho gutwara senyenge zizitiye iki cyicaro ndetse n’ibikoresho bitanga amashanyarazi aturuka ku mirasire y’izuba.

Ikibazo gikomeje kwibazwa na benshi nyuma y’ibi bikorwa, ni uburyo Monusco mu minsi mike ishize yari cira aha nikubite w’abanye-Congo, uyu munsi ihindutse ruvumwa. Ese ukwezi kwa buki Monusco na FARDC barimo kurangijwe n’iki?.

Monusco yakunze gushinjwa ibyaha byinshi birimo no gufata abagore ku ngufu

Igisirikare cya FARDC kimaze iminsi mu ntambara n’umutwe wa M23, ni intambara guverinoma ya RDC yiyemeje gutsinda binyuze mu nzira za gisirikare. FARDC yasabwe ku mugaragaro gufatanya n’umutwe w’iterabwoba wa FDLR, Monusco isabwa gutanga ubufasha bw’ibikoresho.

Urugamba rwaratangiye ariko M23 irabatsinda. Ku rundi ruhande, u Rwanda rwatanze impuruza n’ibimenyetso ku mikoranire ya FARDC na FDLR, naho Monusco ishinjwa kuva mu nshingano zayo ikajya kurwana no gufasha abarwanyi.

Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga w’u Rwanda, Dr Vincent Biruta, muri Gicurasi uyu mwaka yatangaje ko hari amakuru yizewe y’uko FARDC ifatanya na FDLR mu kurwanya M23, aho bivanze bakaba igisirikare kimwe.

Agaruka ku mpungenge z’u Rwanda, Dr Biruta yagize ati “FDLR ifite gahunda yayo, ni ukugira ngo bagere ku mupaka w’u Rwanda noneho babashe kujya bakora ibikorwa byabo by’iterabwoba mu Rwanda”.

Dr Biruta yakomoje kuri Monusco avuga ko ari ingabo zajyanywe muri RDC no kugarura umutekano mu burasirazuba bwayo no kurwanya imirtwe yitwaza intwaro, none zikaba zihitamo abo zirwanya ndetse zikagira n’abo zikorana na bo.

Aha yavugaga ko Monusco yahisemo kurwanya M23 yirengagiza indi mitwe yitwaje intwaro nka Mai Mai, FDLR n’iyindi. Iyi mitwe yatewe icyuhagiro na Monusco bifatanya kurwanya M23.

Ubu bufatanye ariko ntibwarambye kubera igitutu n’ibimenyetso by’uko mu bo Monusco ikorana nabo harimo n’umutwe w’iterabwoba wa FDLR.

Twibutse ko M23 yarashe kajugujugu ya Monusco yarimo abasirikare umunani. Iki ni ikindi kimenyetso cy’ubufatanye bwa FARDC na Monusco.

Monusco kandi yasabwaga na leta ya RDC kwemeza ko M23 ishyigikiwe n’u Rwanda, kugira ngo icyo kirego kigire ireme. Ntibyatinze umuvugizi wa Monusco, Mathias Gillman, atangariza abanyamakuru ko nta kimenyetso na kimwe bafite kigaragaza ko hari ubufasha u Rwanda ruha M23.

Raporo y’impuguke za Loni yo kuwa 12 Kamena, yunze mu ry’umuvugizi wa Monusco ivuga ko izo mpuguke zabuze ikimenyetso na kimwe cy’uko hari umusirikare w’u Rwanda uri muri M23 cyangwa se ibikoresho bya gisirikare by’u Rwanda bihari.

Umusesenguzi mu bya politiki akaba n’umunyamakuru, Gatabazi Tite, avuga ko kuba Monusco yaratangiye kwitandukanya na FARDC ndetse ikanemeza ko M23 iyirusha imbaraga bityo itabasha kuyitsinda, byari bivuze ko FARDC nta bushobozi ifite.

Ati “Leta ya RDC ifite umujinya w’uko Monusco yanze kuyoba ngo ijye mu murongo wayo, aha niho umujinya waturutse, habaho icyo twakwita tura tugabane niwanga bimeneke”.

Monusco yanze gukomeza kwifatanya n’igisirikare kidafite ubushobozi bwo kurwana, yanga kugwa mu mutego w’abategetsi ba RDC, ko u Rwanda rufatanya na M23 ndetse yiyemeza gukura akarenge mu mirwano kugira ngo idakomeza kwitera icyasha cyo gukorana n’imitwe y’iterabwoba nka FDLR.

Ibi byatumye abanyapolitiki bahisemo inzira yo gutsinda M23 mu buryo bwa gisirikare bagira ipfunwe, babona ko Monusco batakiri kumwe, ni ko gutangira kuyibasira.

Perezida wa Sena, Modeste Bahati Lukwebo, yumvikanye avuga ko ingabo za Monusco zikwiriye kuzinga utwangushye zikava mu gihugu. Icyo gihe yaganiraga na bamwe mu banyamuryango b’Ishyaka rye rya AFDC ku wa 15 Nyakanga 2022 i Goma. Iryo shyaka ni rimwe mu agize ihuriro rya Félix Tshisekedi.

Yagize ati “Monusco igomba kuzinga ibyayo ikagenda.”

Uwahoze ari Perezida wa RDC, Joseph Kabila, yakunze kunenga Monusco avuga ko ’bakunze kubaza Monusco ngo ibabwire nibura umutwe umwe witwaje intwaro yabashije kurandura, ukabura’.

Umuriro wakongejwe na Lukwebo, wagaragaye ubwo urubyiruko rw’ishyaka riri ku butegetsi rwahagurutse rutwika imodoka, rurasahura, rukubita abakozi ba Monusco, rurasenya, rwangiza ibikoresho byo mu biro, rutwika amabendera, rushyira mu kaga abakozi kugeza ubwo kajugujugu ari yo yaje kubabamururaho.

Amashusho yose ari gukwira ku mbuga nkoranyambaga, ntaho polisi ya RDC, abategetsi cyangwa abayobora ishyaka hafi ya Monusco i Goma bagaragaye bamagana ibyo bikorwa.

Gatabazi ati “Kuba baruciye bakarumira hakaza kugaragara Twitter y’umuvugizi wa guverinoma yo kwikiza, biteye isoni n’agahinda”.

Hari amashusho y’abasirikare ba FARDC bagaragaye bari kuri moto bahetse umurasire w’izuba utanga amashanyarazi bari basahuye ku biro bya Monusco. Hari n’abandi batwaye intebe na za televiziyo. Ibi binyuranyije n’inshingano RDC ifite kuri Monusco.

Monusco ni urwego rw’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ruri muri RDC ku masezerano hagati ya Loni na guverinoma ya RDC. Mu byo RDC yemeye kandi igomba gukora harimo kurinda abantu n’ibikoresho bya loni. Nubwo ari abasirikare, bagomba kurindwa na guverinoma ya RDC.

Gatabazi ati “Nonese intara iyobowe n’abasirikare n’abapolisi, bayongereye ubushobozi kuki nta bashinzwe umutekano baje kurinda inyubako, ibikoresho n’abakozi ba Loni?”.

Yakomeje avuga ko kuba ari Perezida wa Sena wabivuze, urubyiruko rw’ishyaka riri ku butegetsi rugahaguruka ngo rujye kwamagana Monusco, abashinzwe abaturage bakicecekera, ‘ari ikintu gisa nk’aho ari akagambane ka leta’.

Umubano hagati ya FARDC na Monusco wari ntamakemwa
Mu ntambara zitandukanye Monusco ikunda kuba iri kumwe n'ingabo za FARDC

RDC yaciye inzira itari yo

Monusco iriho ku bwumvikane bwa Loni na RDC. Ntabwo RDC isaba Monusco kugenda ahubwo ibisaba akanama k’umutekano ka Loni kayohereje. Ibyo abanye-Congo barimo ni ubutamoso.

Mu itangazo Monusco yasohoye, yamaganye ibikorwa by’urugomo rwakozwe n’abaturage. Intumwa idasanzwe yungirije ishinzwe ibikorwa, akaba n’umuyobozi w’agateganyo w’ubutumwa bwa Monusco, Khassim Diagne, yavuze ko ibikorwa byakozwe bitemewe kandi nta n’umusaruro byatanga.

Ati “Monusco ifite inshingano ihabwa n’akanama k’umutekano ka Loni ngo ifatanye n’ubuyobozi mu kurinda abasivili. Ifatanya n’abaturage ndetse n’inzego z’umutekano mu kurwanya imitwe yitwaje intwaro”.

Diagne yakomeje avuga ko imyigaragambyo, gutera urujijo ndetse no kudashyira hamwe atari byo bizazana amahoro n’umutekano.

Monusco yari imaze iminsi ikorana neza na FARDC aho banajyanye mu rugamba rwo kurwanya M23

Monusco mu kimwaro

Kubona abaturage binubira Monusco bifite ishingiro. Monusco akazi kayo ka mbere ni ukurinda abasivili, ariko imyaka yose bahamaze abaturage barapfa ibareba, birirwa birukankana n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro. Abaturage bafite ishingiro ryo kuvuga ko ntacyo ibamariye.

Gatabazi ati "Ubu abantu birirwa bapfa nk’ibimonyo, abandi barahunga ubutitsa, imitungo yabo igasaburwa Monusco irebera".

Kuba abaturage binubira Monusco ntawabibaveba, usibye ko n’ibitagenda neza harimo uruhare runini rwa leta kuko kuba Monusco ihari bitabuza leta kugira ingabo na polisi no kubyubakira ubushobozi. Monusco ntabwo isimbura leta ahubwo irayunganira.

Icya kabiri ni uko Monusco mu 2012 yongerewe ingufu n’ubushobozi, yaba intwaro, abantu n’inshingano. Baje kurwanya imitwe y’inyeshyamba. Mu 2013 nibwo barwanye na M23 yafashe Goma barayinesha. Igitangaje Monusco igomba gusobanura ni uko ibyo yahawe icyo gihe bigihari ariko iyo mitwe yiyongereye ikaba irenga 120.

Igikomeje kwibazwa, Monusco ikora iki? Yaje kurwanya iyo mitwe yose cyangwa ni M23 gusa?.

Monusco yeretswe ko idakora inshingano zayo zo kurandura imitwe yitwaje intwaro nka FDLR, Mai Mai n’iyindi ahubwo irengera inyungu z’amahanga.

Kuba Monusco yaratsinzwe bikabije, byigeze kugarukwaho na Perezida Kagame wavuze ko mu myaka irenga 20 ingabo zimaze muri RDC zitabashije gushyira mu bikorwa icyazijyanyeho.

Ati “Hari ingabo za Loni ziriyo zavuye mu bindi bihugu, mu myaka 24 ishize ziracyafite inshingano zidahinduka, isi yose ikomeje guceceka. Nta n’umwe ushaka kugira icyo abivugaho, none byagenze gute ko zagiye muri iki gihugu gukemura ibibazo?”

Kuva mu 1999 hatangizwa ubutumwa bwa Loni bwo kugarura amahoro muri RDC, Amakuru agaragaza ko hakoreshwa ingengo y’imari ingana na miliyari y’amadolari buri mwaka. Mu gihe bumaze, ni ukuvuga ko hamaze gukoreshwa asaga miliyari 23 z’amadolari.

Ingabo za Monusco mu bikorwa bigayitse

Usibye ibirego byo gufata abagore n’abakobwa ku ngufu byarezwe ingabo za MONUSCO nk’uko byagiye bigaragazwa muri raporo zirimo iyashyizwe ahabona mu 2008, bikozwe n’abasirikare bakomoka mu Buhinde, hari ibindi bikorwa bigayitse byavuzwe kuri izi ngabo.

Mu 2007 na 2008, amakuru menshi yagiye hanze avuga ko hari abanya-Pakistan bari mu ngabo za MONUC binjiye mu bucuruzi n’abarwanyi bo mu mutwe wa FNI muri DRC aho bahabwaga zahabu na yo bakayiha intwaro nubwo Loni yabihakanye ivuga ko nta ruhare abanya-Pakistan bagize muri ibi bikorwa.

Nyamara ntibyabujije Human Rights Watch kunenga uburyo Loni yitwaye mu iperereza kuri iki kibazo.

Ingabo zo mu Buhinde kandi zashinjwe imikoranire idahwitse na FDLR nk’uko byashyizwe ahagaragara muri raporo ya Africa Confidential yo muri Gicurasi 2008.

Ibi birego byari birimo gukoresha kajugujugu za gisirikare za Loni mu kwinjira muri Pariki ya Virunga, gufata amahembe y’inzovu ku mitwe yitwaje intwaro yaguranwaga amasasu.

Inkurikizi z’ibi bikorwa zirimo ko Monusco yananiwe kwambura intwaro iyo mitwe. Hari kandi kugurana amadolari zahabu, kugura marijuana na FDLR n’ibindi nubwo nta kuri kudashidikanywaho kwagaragaye kuri ibi birego.

Monusco imaze imyaka 23 muri RDC ariko inengwa ko nta musaruro yatanze
Monusco ifite inshingano zirimo kurandura imitwe yitwaje intwaro ariko nta n'umwe irabasha kurandura
Monusco inengwa ko ikoresha miliyari y'amadolari ku mwaka ariko ntitange umusaruro

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