Icyo wamenya ku ruhare rw’ubuhanzi mu ifungurwa rya Nelson Mandela

Yanditswe na Twarabanye Venuste
Kuya 11 Gashyantare 2020 saa 11:49
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Kuva Nelson Mandela afunzwe yagarutse mu ndirimbo, imivugo, sinema n’ibitabo, byose byasabaga ko afungurwa ndetse na nyuma yo kuva mu buroko kugeza ubu aracyagarukwaho nk’intwari ya Afurika.

Kuva ku itariki ya 11 Gashyntare 1990 kugeza ku wa 11 Gashyantare 2020 imyaka 30 irashize Nelson Mandela avuye muri gereza yamazemo imyaka 27, azira kwamagana ivangura na Politiki ya gashakabuhake yakandamizaga abirabura muri Afurika y’Epfo mu kizwi nka ‘Apartheid’.

Ubutwari mu bikorwa bye, ineza mu myitwarire ye, ubutagatifu mu isura ye, Nelson Mandela yagize uruhare rukomeye mu ruhando rw’imyidagaduro. Ibyo byatumye igihe yafungwaga indirimbo na filimi zitandukanye byakoreshejwe mu kugaragaza akarengene ke kandi byarakomeje na nyuma kugeza ubu.

Nyuma y’imyaka 27 muri gereza, Mandela afunze, kurekurwa kwe kwabaye kwibohora kw’igihugu cye. Abanditsi b’indirimbo n’abahimba imivugo bakoresheje izina rye bavuga ko ivangura rirangiye uko niko abanyabugeni bamushushanyaga muri Afurika y’Epfo hose.

Umwanditsi w’ibitabo w’Umunyamerika, Toni Morrison, wahawe igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel yavuze ko ariwe munyapolitiki ukemura ibibazo adakoresheje imbunda yabonye.

Ati “Kuri njye Nelson Mandela ni we munyapolitiki wubashywe ku Isi. Umunyapolitiki udakemura ibibazo bye byose akoresheje imbunda. Mu by’ukuri biratangaje.”

Elizabeth Alexander, wavuze umuvugo mu irahira rya Perezida Obama mu 2009, yigeze kwandika umuvugo kuri Mandela yise "A Poem for Nelson Mandela"; warimo umukarago ugira uti “Nelson Mandela ari kumwe nanjye kubera ko nizerera mu bimenyetso; ibimenyetso bitwara imbaraga, ibimenyetso bisaba imbaraga; kandi uko niko abantu bakurikira umugabo uyoboye ari muri gereza kandi adashobora kubavugisha.”

Gutangaza ayo magambo byasaga no gutinyuka gukomeye kuko igihe Mandela yari afunze, we n’ishyaka yari ayoboye “African National Congress” bari ku rutonde mpuzamahanga rw’ibyihebe. Ibyo yabinyuzemo akura igihugu mu ivangura akijyana muri demokarasi n’amahoro bisesuye.

Mu myaka irenga 10 amaze atabarutse, Mandela akorerwa igitaramo cyo kumwibuka cyiswe "46664" muri Afurika y’Epfo ryafashwe hagendewe ku mubare wa gereza yari afungiyemo ya 466 n’umwaka yafunzwemo mu 1964.

Mu 1988, habura imyaka ibiri gusa ngo afungurwe, habaye igitaramo gikomeye cyahuje abahanzi benshi hagamijwe kwizihiza isabukuru y’amavuko y’imyaka 70 cyagenzuriwe kuri Televiziyo y’Abongereza (BBC) kugira ngo bakuremo ibijyanye na Politiki kuko agace irimo katahitishwaga.

Icyo gitaramo cyahuje ibyamamare birimo Stevie Wonder, Whitney Houston na Sting. Cyakora ku ruhande rumwe BBC yarakaje abari bashyigikiye Mandela kubera kudatambutsa ibyavugaga kuri Politiki muri icyo gitaramo ndetse abo muri Afurika y’Epfo bababajwe no kugitangaza muri rusange. Ni igitaramo cyafashwe nka kimwe mu bikorwa byamufunguje.

Igitaramo cyo kwishimira ifungurwa rya Mandela mu 1990 cyitabiriwe na Tracy Chapman, Neil Young na Mandela ubwe, wanishimiwe ku buryo budasanzwe. Ibitaramo mu izina rye byakomeje gukorwa, harimo ibyakozwe na Will Smith, U2’s Bono na Annie Lennox.

Indirimbo zamagana ivangura zigasingiza Mandela zaranditswe cyane mu myaka ya 1980 kugeza afunguwe mu 1990. Umwanditsi akaba n’umuririmbyi w’Umwongereza, Eddy Grant yanditse indirimbo yise "Gimme Hope Jo’Anna" yarimo ubutumwa bwo kurwanya ivangura ryaberaga muri Afurika y’Epfo, avuga ko rikwiye kurangira yasohotse mu 1988.

Steve Van Zand wanamenyekanye nka Steven cyangwa Miami Steve afatanyije na Bruce Springsteen, Miles Davis n’abandi bahanzi bakoze indirimbo bise "Sun City," yarwanyaga Politiki y’ivangura yasohotse mu 1985.

Indirimbo zasohotse zivuga Mandela ku buryo bweruye zirimo iya, Bono-Joe Strummer yafatanyije n’abandi bayita, "46664"; iyiswe " Free Nelson Mandela," ya Special A.K.A., n’iy’itsinda ry’Abanya- Écosse, Simple Minds yitwa "Mandela Day."

Abakinnyi ba filimi b’ibyamamare baramwifashishije mu mafilimi. Aba barimo Umunyamerika w’umwirabura wamukinnye muri filimi mu 1997 aho yamugaragazaga nk’umuntu mwiza.

Morgan Freeman, yamukinye muri filimi yiswe "Invictus," cyangwa se udatsindwa mu 2009 yavugaga ku bijyanye n’uburyo Nelson Mandela yihuje n’ingabo zari ziyobowe n’umukinnyi wa Rugby w’Umunyafurika y’Epfo, Francois Pienaar wakinnye yitwa Matt Damon, agamije ko igihugu cyunga ubumwe.

Danny Glover yamukinnye mu yiswe "Malcolm X," yasohowe mu 1992. Iheruka yasohotse 2013 yiswe "Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom," yakinwe na Idris Elba ivuga ku buzima bwa Mandela.

Handitswe ibitabo bitandukanye birimo icy’inkuru ndende y’Umunyafurika y’Epfo, Nadine Gordimer yasohoye mu 1987 yayise "A Sport of Nature" cyahanuraga irangira ry’ivangura kigaragaza Mandela nk’umuyobozi uzabigeraho.

Hari umuvugo wo mu 1970 witwa "And I Watch it in Mandela," y’Umunya-Afurika y’Epfo John Matshikiza. Hari "When Mandela Goes," cya Jekwu Ikeme cyo mu 2004.

Abahanzi b’ingeri zitandukanye bagaragara nk’abatanze umusanzu wabo aho bakoze mu nganzo bakavuga imyato Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, intwari Isi izirikana. Uyu musaza yitabye Imana ku 5 Ukuboza 2013 afite imyaka 95.

Nelson Mandela yayoboye Afurika y’Epfo kuva mu 1994 kugeza mu 1999. Ni we mwirabura wa mbere watorewe kuyobora iki gihugu mu matora anyuze mu mucyo.

Nelson Mandela n'umuhanzi Bono waririmbye indirimbo zamagana Apartheid
Ifoto yafashwe ubwo Nelson Mandela yahuraga na Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Bwongereza Gordon Brown i Londres mu 2008

Bimwe mu bihangano byahimbiwe Nelson Mandela

Indirimbo zamagana ivangura zigasingiza Mandela zaranditswe cyane mu myaka ya 1980 kugeza afunguwe mu 1990. Umwanditsi akaba n’umuririmbyi w’Umwongereza, Eddy Grant yanditse indirimbo yise "Gimme Hope Jo’Anna" yarimo ubutumwa bwo kurwanya ivangura ry’abera muri Afurika y’Epfo, avuga ko rikwiye kurangira yasohotse mu 1988.

-  Steve Van Zand wanamenyekanye nka Steven cyangwa Miami Steve afatanyije na Bruce Springsteen, Miles Davis n’abandi bahanzi bakoze indirimbo bise "Sun City," yarwanyaga Politiki y’ivangura yasohotse mu 1985.

-  Indirimbo zasohotse zivuga Mandela ku buryo bweruye zirimo iya, Bono-Joe Strummer yafatanyije n’abandi bayita, "46664".

-  "Free Nelson Mandela" ya Special A.K.A. iri mu ndirimbo zakanyujijeho

-  Itsinda ry’Abanya- Écosse, Simple Minds ryaririmbye iyitwa "Mandela Day."

Nelson Mandela afatwa nk'intwari ya Afurika yarwanyije akarengane
Ku wa 11 Gashyantare 2020 nibwo Nelson Mandela yagombaga kuba yujuje imyaka 30 afunguwe

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