Ishusho y’uburezi bw’u Rwanda mu gihe cya politiki y’iringaniza

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 16 Kanama 2020 saa 02:07
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Kuva mu 1973 kugeza mu wa 1994, Guverinoma ya Juvenal Habyarimana yashyizeho politiki y’iringaniza rishingiye ku bwoko no ku turere, ryitwaga ko rigamije guha abantu bose amahirwe angana mu byerekeye uburezi n’imirimo, ishyigikirwa n’Abasenyeri Gatolika bariho mu Rwanda icyo gihe bayibonaga nk’uburyo bwo gukosora amateka.

Buhoro buhoro iyo politiki yaranzwe n’ivangura ryakorerwaga Abatutsi, n’Abahutu batakomokaga mu Majyaruguru y’Uburengerazuba. Ni byo byatumye mu mpera ya za 80, imyanya myinshi ikomeye mu nzego za gisirikare, iza politiki, iz’ubukungu n’iz’ubutegetsi mu Rwanda yari yikubiwe n’abakomokaga ku Gisenyi no mu Ruhengeri.

Mugesera Antoine wigeze kuba Umusenateri akaba ari mu Nama Ngishwanama y’Inararibonye, yagaragaje ko politiki y’iringaniza yari iri mu mabwiriza ya leta ku gihe cya Perezida Kayibanda n’iya Habyarimana.

Ati “Kayibanda yayashyizeho mu 1971, ari amabwiriza yanditse, ariko mbere ya Coup d’état yabaye i Gitarama ya Mbonyumutwa, mu ijambo rye yavuze ko amashuri azagomba kugira iringaniza. Icyo gitekerezo kirakomeza kirakura.”

Yavuze ko icyo gihe hagenwaga umubare w’abanyeshuri perefegitura igomba kubona uhuje n’abaturage bayo, komine nazo zikagabana umubare bitewe n’umubare w’abaturage b’ubwoko runaka.

Ati “Niba hari abatwa aba n’aba barabona aba, abahutu ni aba, abatutsi ni aba. Bakavuga bati nibagera mu karere nabwo barabona aba n’aba. Buri karere ubwoko bwako burabona iyi myanya, niko babivugaga mu magambo ariko abantu babigwagamo cyane.”

Mugesera asobanura ko bavugaga ko hari bamwe bize mbere, bityo ko n’abandi bakwiye “gusa n’abihimura” ku buryo byapyinagazaga benshi.

Ati “Ukabona umwana aratsinze, kuko amanota barayerekanaga ariko bakavuga bati akarere kanyu kazabona imyanya iyi n’iyi, gutsinda icyo gihe byari amanota hagati ya 70 na 60.”

Iyo politiki yaterwaga n’impamvu nyinshi nk’amashuri make, aho wasangaga ubuyobozi buvuga ngo ubwo ari make iyo myanya ikwiriye gusaranganywa ariko bikarangira abantu b’ubwoko runaka cyangwa abakobwa bakabirenganiramo.

Ati “Abakobwa bakabapyinagaza. Iyo mwatsindaga muri abana 30 ba komine, imyanya yahabwaga akenshi abahungu, badakurikije n’amoko.”

Usibye ubu buryo imyanya yagenwaga, ngo iyo hagiraga umuntu runaka wo mu buyobozi ugirana ikibazo n’abamukuriye, abo mu gace avukamo babaga bagendesheje kuko batibonaga mu mashuri bazira mwena wabo.

Atanga urugero yagize ati “Ndibuka umuntu witwa Lizinde wagiranye ikibazo na Habyarimana. Yavaga mu Bugoyi, icyo gihe abakobwa baho barapyinagajwe. Bari abahutu ariko kuko ngo Lizinde ahavuka abaho barabapyinagaje cyane bararengana kubera umuntu umwe, ukazira umuntu umwe kuko ngo yanganye na Habyarimana.”

“Hazamo munyangire, ruswa, hari n’akantu kazaga ko kuvuga ngo abanyabutare bavukana atanu, kuvuga ngo barize bariya mube mubaretse, ukumva hari uturere bikomye.”

Abahezwaga ariko bakiga, bigaga bate?

Mugesera avuga ko ari umwe mu bahejwe azizwa ko avuka muri Butare. Ngo hari igihe wasangaga umututsi agize amahirwe yo kuba yatambuka akiga, cyangwa se undi wari wahejwe agatanga ruswa akabona umwanya.

Ati “Akenshi uwo wahaga inka yarakwemereraga. Ikindi hari imyanya minisitiri ubwe yari afite itanu ku ijana, yo gutanga. Akayiha abantu b’inshuti ze, iyo myanya iyo wajyaga kureba uwo muntu w’inshuti ya minisitiri ukagira icyo umubwira, ni ruswa isanzwe, akagukundira.”

Ubundi buryo bwashobokaga kugira ngo umuntu yige, bwari ubwo kujya gukomereza amasomo hanze y’u Rwanda ari nako Mugesera yabigenje.

Ati “Narangije amashuri yisumbuye, nari ntuye hafi y’i Burundi ndagenda niga i Burundi, nyuma niga muri Congo ngaruka mu Rwanda ndangije, naraje nsanga murumuna wanjye bamwimye amashuri nawe mwohereza muri Congo, yari amayeri menshi. Utabishoboye ntibyari gukunda kuko iyo ugiye hanze ugomba kugira inshuti zikwakira, ugomba kugira amafaranga, ugomba kugira ibintu byinshi. Wasangaga bikomeye, umuturage usanzwe w’umuhinzi ntiyari koherezayo umwana.”

Mugesera asobanura ko iyo politiki yari ishyigikiwe n’abihayimana kuko ba musenyeri ba Kiliziya Gatolika bigeze no kwandika inyandiko ishyigikira gahunda y’iringaniza mu 1990.

Ati “Banditse ibaruwa n’ubu nayikwereka bavuga ko bashyigikiye iringaniza. Bo ubwabo. Mu 1990 [...] bariya basenyeri bo bananditse ibaruwa ku mugaragaro bandikira abakirisitu babo bati mugomba gushyigikira iringaniza.”

Gusa yatanze urugero rwa bamwe mu basenyeri ba za diyosezi zimwe batabyitagaho aho barimo Musenyeri Sibomana.

Ati “We ntiyabyitagaho, abandi bo babyitagaho [...] naho barabyanditse si urubwa, baravuga bati bakirisitu mwese mushyigikire iringaniza ngo rirashaka gukosora amateka, barabivuze.”

Musenyeri Joseph Sibomana yayoboye Diyosezi ya Kibungo igishingwa kuwa 5 Ukwakira 1968 kugera ku wa 30 Werurwe 1992, aza kwitaba Imana mu 1999, ubu ashyinguwe muri kiliziya ya Cathédrale ya Kibungo.

Abazi amateka bavuga ko Musenyeri Sibomana yanze gushyira mu bikorwa politiki y’iringaniza mu mashuri, mu iseminari nto ya Zaza, ananga kwirukana abakozi bakoraga muri “economat Général” ya Kibungo muri gahunda y’iringaniza yari yazanwe na Leta y’icyo gihe.

Minisitiri w’Uburezi, Dr Uwamariya Valentine, yavuze ko nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, himakajwe uburezi budaheza buca ukubiri n’iyo politiki yari yarashyizwe imbere mu gihugu.

Yatanze urugero ko mu 1995 wasangaga mu mashuri harimo abantu benshi bakuze, kuko bari barabuze uko bajya kwiga.

Ati “Ndabyibuka mu 1995, umuntu wese washatse kwiga icyo gihe yarize. Nanjye ubwanjye nibwo ninjiye muri kaminuza, icyo gihe twiganaga n’abantu bakuze cyane bigaragara ko bari barabuze ubundi buryo n’aho kwigira, ukabona umuntu ukuze ushobora no kuba akubyaye murigana mu ishuri.”

Usibye kuba buri wese yarahawe amahirwe yo kwiga, hashyizwe imbaraga mu kongera amashuri ku buryo nta muntu ubura uko yiga kubera ibyumba bike, hashingwa kaminuza zigenga, amashuri y’imyuga n’ibindi.

Politiki y’iringaniza isobanurwa nk’inyundo karundura yakoreshejwe mu gusenya burundu umushinga wo kubaka u Rwanda, cyane cyane inkingi y’ubumenyi, ubumwe n’imibereho myiza y’abaturage, byose byagombaga kubageza ku iterambere riramye.

Mugesera asobanura ko iyi politiki yari ibisigisigi by’ibikorwa by’abakoloni mu Rwanda kuko rujya kubona ubwigenge mu gihugu hari amashuri make, kandi ko icyo gihe hari abantu mbarwa b’abasivile barangije kaminuza.

Ati “Ndakeka ko ari umwe. Yitwaga Makuza Anastase. Mu Rwanda [mbere y’ubwigenge] niba hari ikintu kitabaye, ni ukwigisha abantu ngo bazamuke, n’abigaga mu maseminari, dipolome zabo zari zitarahabwa agaciro.”

Mu mashuri abakoloni bari barashyizeho, ngo icyo yari agamije si ugutanga ubumenyi ahubwo yari ayo guhugura abazabafasha kuyobora.

Antoine Mugesera yavuze ko politiki y'Iringaniza yari ishyigikiwe n’abihayimana kuko ba musenyeri ba Kiliziya Gatolika bigeze kwandika inyandiko iyishyigikira
Minisitiri w'Uburezi, Dr Uwamariya yavuze ko uburezi Guverinoma y'u Rwanda ishyize imbere ari ubuha amahirwe buri wese hatitawe ku bwoko cyangwa aho aturuka

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