28 Mutarama 1961: Umunsi wa mbere u Rwanda rugira Perezida n’ibendera muri Coup d’Etat y’i Gitarama

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 28 Mutarama 2020 saa 09:55
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Imyaka 59 irashize mu Rwanda humvikanye ijambo Perezida wa Repubulika, nyuma y’imyaka amagana igihugu kiyobowe n’ubwami n’ibirango byayo birimo ingoma ngabe. Ni nayo myaka kandi ishize u Rwanda rubonye ibendera, nyuma y’iry’Abadage n’Ababiligi barukolonije.

Imyaka 59 irashize mu Rwanda humvikanye ijambo Perezida wa Repubulika, nyuma y’imyaka amagana igihugu kiyobowe n’ubwami n’ibirango byayo birimo ingoma ngabe. Ni nayo myaka kandi ishize u Rwanda rubonye ibendera, nyuma y’iry’Abadage n’Ababiligi barukolonije.

Ni ibirango n’inyito zabonetse mu kavuyo, igihugu kiri mu bihe bidasanzwe benshi mu bana bacyo bari kugihunga abandi bicirwa abo aribo, ubutegetsi bwariho mbere buhiritswe.

Mu gitondo cyo ku wa Gatandatu tariki 28 Mutarama 1961, i Gitarama kuri Stade hari urujya n’uruza rw’amakamyo apakiye ba Burugumesitiri (nka meya w’ubu) n’abakonseye (ba gitifu b’imirenge) basaga 3500 baturutse imihanda yose y’igihugu.

Abo bari bitabiriye ubutumire bwa Minisitiri w’agateganyo w’umutekano, Jean Baptsite Rwasibo, wari wabahamagariye kwitabira inama igomba kwiga ku ‘ngamba zigamije kugarura amahoro n’umutekano mu gihugu’.

Benshi muri abo bayobozi bari batumiwe bari abayoboke b’ishyaka rya Grégoire Kayibanda, wari Minisitiri w’Intebe w’agateganyo.

Muri icyo gitondo, aho inama yagombaga kubera kuri Stade ya Gitarama hari hateguwe neza, buri perefegitura yateguriwe aho igomba kwicara hashyizwe n’ibyapa bibigaragaza.

Rwasibo yafashe ijambo, ashimira abari aho abibutsa ko ari intumwa z’abaturage.

Umwanya ukurikiye wahawe Kayibanda nka Minisitiri w’Intebe n’umuyobozi w’ishyaka rifite ubwiganze, atangira gusoma ibyemezo byafashwe na Guverinoma, asaba abitabiriye inama kubyemeza.

Yagize ati “Ubwami, Kalinga n’abiru bikuweho. Guhera ubu u Rwanda rubaye Repubulika, izarangwa n’ibendera ry’umutuku, umuhondo n’icyatsi.”

Nta gutora kwabayeho, ahubwo abitabiriye basabwaga kubyemeza bamanika amaboko, bakareba abarushije abandi ubwiganze.

Repubulika imaze kwemezwa birumvikana ko nta Repubulika itagira Perezida. Uwitabiriye inama wese yahawe agapapuro atora Perezida wa Repubulika, aba Mbonyumutwa Dominique wo mu ishyaka MDR Parmehutu ari na we mukandida rukumbi wari wiyamamaje.

Uwo munsi kandi batoye n’abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko nabwo hakoreshejwe kumanika akaboko ariko Loni iza kubyanga nyuma, ivuga ko hagomba kuba amatora rusange kandi aciye mu mucyo.

Mbonyumutwa yari Sous-Chef mu Ndiza, akaba umuyoboke w’imena w’ishyaka MDR Parmehutu. Yamenyekanye cyane mu Ugushyingo 1959 ubwo yakubitwaga urushyi n’insoresore z’Abatutsi, hagakwira ibihuha ko yishwe maze Abatutsi bo muri Gitarama bamwe bakicwa abandi bagasenyerwa.

Niwo munsi Umwami yahiritswe adahari

Muri Nyakanga 1960, Umwami Kigeli Ndahindurwa yagiye mu nama i Bujumbura ya Teritwari ya Rwanda-Urundi. Ari i Burundi nibwo yamenyeshejwe ko atemerewe kugaruka mu gihugu, ajya gushaka ubuhungiro muri Zaire.

Kigeli ajya kujya mu nama, umwuka mu gihugu ntiwari umeze neza. Amashyaka y’abahutu ku isonga MDR Parmehutu na Aprosoma yari mu bukangurambaga bukomeye hirya no hino, abagaragariza ibibi by’ubwami.

Urugero tariki ya 20 Mata 1960, inama y’agateganyo yakoraga nk’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko (Conseil Provisoire), yahaye Kigeli imyanzuro isa no kumunaniza kugira ngo igihugu kigire amahoro. Iyo nama yari igizwe ahanini n’abaturukaga mu mashyaka y’abahutu atarashakaga ubwami.

Muri iyo myanzuro, bamusabye kuva i Nyanza akajya gutura i Kigali, gukorana n’abantu bane bagombaga kuba baturutse mu mashyaka yari ku isonga icyo gihe arimo MDR, Aprosoma, RADER na UNAR.

Bamusabye kandi gukuraho ingoma ngabe Kalinga ndetse n’inama y’abiru ikavaho, akaba umwami uganje ugendera ku Itegeko Nshinga. Kigeli yarabyanze kuko yabonaga ko ari akagambane.

Amaze kubyanga, amashyaka MDR, Aprosoma bandikiye Guverinoma y’u Bubiligi tariki 30 Mata 1960, avuga ko kuva umwami yanze kumva ibyifuzo byabo, bacanye umubano na we.

Tariki ya 6 Kamena 1960, abayobozi ba MDR Parmehutu bateraniye mu Ruhengeri bayobowe na Kayibanda, batangaza ko banze ubwami icyo bashaka ari repubulika.

Guhera muri uko kwezi ni nabwo habaye amatora y’inzego z’ibanze nkuko Loni yari yarabyemeje, MDR itsindira imyanya myinshi. Hatowe ba burugumesitiri 229 n’abajyanama ba komine 2896. Uwo munsi nta mugore cyangwa umwana batoye, hagombaga gutora abagabo gusa. Ni amatora abanditsi nka Lemarchand bavuga ko yabayemo ubyuriganya nka Butare, Bugesera, Kibungo na Nyanza.

Icyo gihe ishyaka Parmehutu niryo ryabonye imyanya myinshi ingana na 2201 muri ba burugumesitiri n’abajyanama ba komine.

Itariki ubwami bwahirikiweho, hari hashize amezi atandatu ubutegetsi busa n’uburi mu biganza by’Ababiligi.

MDR Parmehutu yasuzuguye ibyemezo bya Loni, ishyigikirwa n’Ababiligi

Uwo munsi Parmehutu yatangarijeho ko ubwami buvuyeho, Umwami Kigeli Ndahindurwa yari yaragiye i Kinshasa guhura n’Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Loni bagombaga kuganira ku bibazo by’u Rwanda.

Kubera ubusabe bw’umwami Kigeli wari mu buhungiro n’amashyaka nka UNAR yari amushyigikiye, tariki 20 Ukuboza, Inteko Rusange ya Loni yafashe imyanzuro ibiri.

Umwe wasabaga u Bubiligi guhuza impande za Politiki zitavuga rumwe mu Rwanda, kwemerera Kigeli kugaruka mu gihugu ndetse no gutegura amatora ya referandumu yagombaga kwemeza niba abaturage bashyigikiye ubwami na Kigeli.

Inama ihuza impande zitavuga rumwe yabereye mu Bubiligi muri Mutarama 1961, amajwi menshi y’abayitabiriye yashyigikiye ko ibyemejwe na Loni bishyirwa mu bikorwa.

Ishyaka MDR na Aprosoma barabyanze, bavuga ko imyanzuro ya Loni ihabanye n’ibyifuzo by’abaturage.

Uko kwivumbura niko kwatumye batumiza inama igitaraganya y’abayobozi b’inzego z’ibanze bose tariki 28 Mutarama.

Mu gusuzugura imyanzuro ya Loni, Kayibanda na MDR bifashishije u Bubiligi. Ibyo byemezwa n’uko mbere gato ya Coup d’Etat y’i Gitarama, mu ijoro ryokuwa 25 Mutarama Kayibanda ubwe yagiye kureba Umubiligi Col Guy Logiest wari Rezida udasanzwe w’u Rwanda, amumenyesha iby’inama yo guhirika ubwami.

Mu 1988, Logiest yanditse igitabo aho avugamo ati “Ntabwo nashoboraga kumushyigikira ku mugaragaro muri icyo gikorwa cyo kwivumbura, ariko sinashoboraga no kumubuza.”

“Nta bwo nabishakaga ariko nta n’uburyo (bwo kubyanga) nari mfite […] Namusezeranyije kumufasha mu gutegura iyo nama kugira ngo turinde ituze rya rubanda, dutwara abayitabiriye, gutegura aho izabera no gutanga indangururamajwi.”

Ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda ntibwatanze umusaruro

Tariki 25 Nzeli 1961, habaye amatora ya kamarampaka nkuko yari yarasabwe na Loni kugira ngo abanyarwanda bagaragaze niba bemera Ubwami na Kigeli, cyangwa niba bemera Repubulika.

Mu bitabiriye amatora, 79 % bemeje ko batagishaka ubwami na Kigeli ubwe. Nyuma gato, Umwami Kigeli wari mu buhungiro yagaragaje ko atemera ibyavuye mu matora, avuga ko habayemo uburiganya ariko biba iby’ubusa.

Senateri Antoine Mugesera, umwe mu bagize Urwego rw’Igihugu rw’Inararibonye mu 2018 ubwo yamurikaga igitabo cye ‘Rwanda 1959-1962, La Révolution manquée’, yavuze ko impinduramatwara yatangijwe na Kayibanda na bagenzi be ntacyo yamariye u Rwanda.

Ati “Ubwami nta gihe butavuyeho ariko ikibazo bimitse irondamoko. Nta cyerecyezo cy’abashaka impinduramatwara bari bafite. Iyo batimika irondamoko bari kubona ubutegetsi ariko ntihabe ibyago nk’ibyo twagize. N’abahutu ntibababohoye, ahubwo babatamitse uburozi bw’irondamoko.”

Yakomeje avuga ko ikibazo u Rwanda rwagize ari uko habuze abashaka impinduramatwara nyabo, ngo babikore baharanira ineza y’abanyarwanda bose.

Ati “Ntabwo Ababiligi bakunze Kayibanda, bakunze uwabahaga icyizere ko bazakomeza gutegeka. N’abatutsi bari kubona ubwigenge iyo baha icyizere Ababiligi, bati ibyo mushaka ko dukora tuzabikora.”

Nubwo Mbonyumutwa ari we watorewe kuba Perezida wa mbere w’agateganyo, ubutegetsi bwari mu biganza bya Kayibanda wari Minisitiri w’Intebe. Ibyo bigaragazwa nuko muri Nzeri hamaze kuba amatora yemewe y’abadepite, aribo basigaranye ububasha bwo gutora Perezida, mu Ukwakira 1961 bagatora Kayibanda nka Perezida wemewe usimbura Mbonyumutwa.

Tariki ya 1 Nyakanga 1962 ubwo u Rwanda rwahindukaga Repubulika ku mugaragaro
Umunsi w'amatora ya Kamarampaka tariki 25 Nzeli 1961
Kayibanda, Mbonyumutwa n'abandi bari ibikomerezwa muri MDR Parmehutu ubwo hemezwaga ko ubwami buvuyeho
Umwami Yuhi V Musinga imbere y’ibendera Abadage bakoreshaga mu bihugu bakolonije birimo n'u Rwanda. Kuwa 28 Mutarama nibwo u Rwanda rwagize ibendera ryarwo

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