Imyaka 14 irihiritse Saddam Hussein wayoboye Iraq anyonzwe, Menya bimwe mu byamuranze

Yanditswe na Dufitumukiza Salathiel
Kuya 30 Ukuboza 2020 saa 04:11
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Ku itariki ya 30 Ukuboza mu 2006, nibwo Saddam Hussein wabaye Perezida wa Iraq yishwe anyonzwe, nyuma y’uko Urukiko Rukuru muri icyo guhugu rwari rwamuhamije ibyaha by’intambara n’ibyibasiye inyokomuntu.

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti wabaye perezida wa gatanu wa Iraq, yavutse ku wa 28 Mata mu 1937. Yari afite abagore batatu ari bo Nidal al-Hamdan, Samira Shahbandar na Sajida Talfah. Yabyaranye nabo abana batandatu barimo Uday, Raghad, Qusay, Hala na Rana Hussein.

Uyu mugabo yavutse mu muryango uciriritse, aho ababyeyi be bakoreraga ubuhinzi mu cyaro cyegereye Umujyi wa Tikrit mu majyaruguru ya Iraq. Bivugwa ko ako gace kari kamwe mu dukennye cyane mu gihugu, ndetse n’umuryango wa ubwe wari ukennye.

Kubera ibibazo by’ubuzima uyu mugabo yahuye nabyo akiri muto biturutse ku kuba se yarapfuye ataravuka, yagiye kuba kwa nyirarume, Khairallah Talfah mu murwa mukuru, Baghdad akiri muto.

Aho niho yatangiriye kwinjira mu bikorwa bya politiki, mu 1957 ajya mu ishyaka rya Ba’th Party nyirarume yari afitemo ijambo.

Mu 1959 Saddam yari umwe mu bagerageje umugambi wo kwica Minisitiri w’Intebe wa Iraq, Abd al-Karim Qasim ariko ukabapfubana, nyuma yo kuhakomerekera ahita ahungira muri Syria, aho yavuye ajya mu Misiri.

Yarahabaye ndetse akomereza amashuri ye mu Ishuri ryigisha amategeko rya Cairo, yahize kuva mu 1962 kugeza mu 1963, ubwo Ishyaka rya Ba’th yabagamo ryafataga ubutegetsi akajya gukomereza mu Ishuri ry’Amategeko ry’i Baghdad.

Budakeye kabiri, iryo shyaka ryahiritswe ku butegetsi muri uwo mwaka, maze Saddam arafungwa.

Yaje gutoroka gereza maze ahita agirwa umuyobozi w’Ishyaka, maze aba ari nawe wifashishwa muri Coup d’etat yakozwe mu 1968, Ba’th igasubira ku butegetsi.

Icyo gihe yabaye umwe mu bayobozi bakomeye bafata n’imyanzuro itandukanye ariko Perezida yari Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr.

Yabaye Perezida wa gatanu wa Iraq

Ahagana mu 1979, nibwo Saddam Hussein yageze ku mwanya w’umukuru w’igihugu nyuma yo kwegura kwa Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr.

Mu miyoborere ye, Saddam yahise ashyiraho umutwe w’abapolisi bakora mu ibanga rikomeye. Bari bafite inshingano zo kugenda baca intege igitambamira ubutegetsi kiri ku rwego mpuzamahanga cyose, ndetse yigira umuntu ukunzwe cyane muri rubanda.

Intego ye yari ugucisha bugufi Misiri yafatwaga nk’umuyobozi w’Abarabu mu Isi, no gushyira Iraq hejuru y’ibindi bihugu byose byo mu Kigobe cya Perse.

Muri Nzeri 1980, Saddam yashoje intambara yo kwigarurira uduce ducukurwamo peteroli twa Iran, ariko ingabo ze zikubitwa inshuro.

Uku gutsindwa no gushegeshwa kw’ibikomoka kuri peteroli byoherezwa hanze byatumye imigambi ya Saddam yo kuzamura ubukungu isubira inyuma.

Intambara hagati ya Iraq na Iran yarakomeje kugeza mu 1988, ubwo ibihugu byombi byemeraga gushyira intwaro hasi bigasoza imirwano.

Nubwo Iraq yisanze ibereyemo amahanga umwenda uremereye nyuma y’iyo ntambara, Saddam yakomeje gushyiraho imitwe y’ingabo zitwaje intwaro.

Uyu mugabo wahoraga ashotorana n’ibihugu by’abaturanyi, muri Kanama 1990 nabwo yohereje ingabo gutera Kuwait. Icyo gihe ngo yari agamije kwigarurira agace icyo gihugu gikuramo peteroli nyinshi, mu rwego rwo kuzahura ubukungu bwa Iraq.

Ibyo kuhigabiza ariko byahise bikomwa mu nkokora n’ibihano igihugu cye cyafatiwe n’Umuryango Mpuzamahanga Ugenzura Ubucuruzi hagati y’ibihugu.

Icyo gihe kandi Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zateguye ingabo zo kujya guhangana n’iza Saddam, Umuryango w’Abibumbye nawo usohora itangazo ryamagana ibyo Iraq yakoze, uvuga ko hari bwitabazwe uburyo bw’ingufu mu gukemura ikibazo.

Ibyo ariko Saddam yabibwirwaga asa n’uwavuniye ibiti mu matwi akomeza kwinangira kuvana ingabo ze muri Kuwait.

Kuwa 16 Mutarama 1991, mu kigobe cya Perse hatangijwe intambara yiswe “Persian Gulf War” maze nyuma y’ibyumweru bitandatu Ingabo za Amerika zifatanyije n’iz’Umuryango w’Abibumbye zikura iza Iraq ku butaka bwa Kuwait.

Gutsindwa kwa Iraq byazamuye ukwigumura kw’Abashiya n’Abakiride, ariko Saddam agenda abahashya, bituma ibihumbi by’abaturage bahungira mu nkambi zegereye ku mupaka uri mu majyaruguru y’icyo gihugu.

Ababarirwa mu bihumbi barishwe, naho abandi batazwi ingano bagenda baburirwa irengero muri za gereza bari bafungiyemo.

Amasezerano y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye mu guhosha intambara yari akubiyemo ko Iraq ibujijwe gukora ibitwaro bya kirimbuzi, n’ibindi bihano bitandukanye bijyanye n’ubucuruzi, ibintu byahungabanyije ubukungu bw’icyo gihugu mu buryo bukomeye.

Saddam ariko ntiyavuye ku izima ngo yemere kumvikana n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, bituma mu 1998 agabwaho igitero cy’indege n’Ingabo za Amerika mu cyiswe Operation Desert Fox.

Ubwo ingabo z’ Umuryango w’Abibumbye zashakaga kwinjira mu gihugu cye ngo zirebe ko ari kubahiriza ingamba yo kudacura ibitwaro kirimbuzi nk’uko yari yabisabwe, Saddam yabashwishurije ko batahinjira. Ibyo byatumye ibihugu bimwe bitangira guhuriza ku mugambi wo kumukura ku butegetsi.

Muri ibyo bihe by’intambara, byagaragaye ko Saddam yari ari gutoza umwe mu bahungu be witwa Uday cyangwa Qusay ngo azamufashe gutsinda.

Ni mu gihe kandi Saddam yari akomeje gukaza umutekano n’uburinzi mu rugo rwe kuko yari yatangiye kwiyumvamo ko ahanganye na Amerika. Nubwo we ubwoba bwari bwatangiye kumutaha, Abarabu benshi bamubonaga nk’aho ari we muyobozi wenyine mu karere ushaka kwigobotora ikandamiza ry’Abanyamerika.

Ubwo ibitero bitazibagirana mu mateka ya Amerika byo kuwa 11 Nzeri 2001 byagabwaga, Guverinoma y’iki gihugu yashinje Saddam kuba acumbikiye imitwe y’iterabwoba, ivuga ko ishaka kongera gushyiraho gahunda yo guhagarika ikorwa n’ikoreshwa ry’intwaro za kirimbuzi.

Nubwo kuri iyo nshuro Saddam yemereye intumwa z’Umuryango w’Abibumbye kwinjira muri Iraq mu 2002, byagaragaye ko ataruzuza ibyo asabwa bituma Amerika n’u Bwongereza bihagarika umubano n’igihugu cye.

Ku wa 17 Werurwe 2003, Perezida wari uyoboye Amerika, George W. Bush yategetse Saddam kuva ku butegetsi bitarenze amasaha 48 cyangwa hagakoreshwa uburyo bw’intambara, ndetse avuga ko nanava ku butegetsi Amerika ikeneye kugira uruhare mu ishyirwaho rya guverinama nshya, no gushaka ibitwaro kirimbuzi biri muri icyo gihugu.

Saddam yanze kubyubahiriza, maze kuwa 20 Werurwe agabwaho igitero n’Ingabo za Leta Zunze ubumwe za Amerika zifatanyije n’iz’u Burayi.

Yokejwe igitutu araswaho n’indege, abonye ari byinshi bikomeje kwangirika yemera kuva ku butegetsi ngo arokore ubuzima bw’Abanya-Iraq. Ingabo za Amerika n’iz’u Burayi zigaruriye umurwa mukuru Baghdad, maze Saddam ayabangira ingata ajya mu buhungiro.

Uwo mugabo ngo yakoze mu isanduku ya Leta afatamo impamba izamufasha gucika Abanyamerika ntibamufate. Abahungu be Uday na Qusay bamubaga hafi, baguwe gitumo bicirwa i Mosul kuwa 22 Nyakanga, naho we aza gufatwa ku wa 13 Ukuboza.

Saddam yafashwe asanzwe aho yari yihishe mu ndaki yari hafi y’ubuhunikiro muri Tikrit. Nubwo yari afite intwaro, ngo yahise amanika amaboko abonye abasirikare ba Amerika nta sasu na rimwe arashe.

Yakatiwe urwo gupfa

Mu Ukwakira 2005 ni bwo Saddam yagejejwe imbere y’Urukiko Rukuru rwa Iraq, uru rukiko rwari rumaze gutangira gahunda yo kuburanisha abari bagize guverinoma yatsinzwe.

We n’abo bareganwaga bashinjwaga ibyaha byo kwica abasaga ibihumbi 148 bo mu mujyi wa Al-Dujayl.

Mu rubanza rwamaze amezi icyenda, Saddam ntiyahwemye kuvuga ko urwo rukiko rudakora nk’uko rwakabaye rukora koko, ko ahubwo inyungu za Amerika ari zo rwimirije imbere.

Ahagana muri Nyakanga 2006 urukiko rwasubitse iburanisha, rurisubukura mu Ugushyingo.

Saddam yahamijwe ibyaha byibasiye inyoko muntu birimo kwica abigambiriye, gufunga abantu binyuranyije n’amategeko, kwirukana abaturage mu gihugu, no kubatoteza maze ahanishwa kwicwa amanitswe.

Kuwa 30 Ukuboza 2006 habura umunsi umwe ngo umwaka urangire, nibwo urukiko rwashyize mu bikorwa igihano Saddam Hussein yahawe, aranyongwa.

Saddam Hussein wabaye Perezida wa gatanu wa Iraq yishwe anyonzwe nyuma yo guhamywa ibyaha bitandukanye n'urukiko rukuru
Saddam Hussein yavutse mu muryango ukennye
Nyuma y'uko ishyaka rye riteguye umugambi wo guhiraka ubutegetsi ntirihirwe yahungiye muri Misiri ahiga umwaka umwe mu by'amategeko
Yashinje urukiko kudakora ibikwiye ahubwo rukimiriza imbere inyungu za Amerika
Bimwe mu byavugwaga n'abacamanza yarabyumvaga akabaseka
Urukiko rwanzuye ko Saddam yicwa anyonzwe

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