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Imirimo n’imyitwarire yatumye Abanyarwanda bazinukwa ubukoloni

Yanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu
Kuya 18 May 2022 saa 08:51
Yasuwe :

Imibanire y’Abanyarwanda n’abakoloni, ntiyigeze ibaryohera na mba! Kubera imirimo y’agahato babaremeye isanga indi yahuzaga Abanyarwanda mu buzima bwabo bwa buri munsi, abakoloni bageze mu gihugu, bakayihindura imirimo y’agahato, aho kubagirira umumaro bayiryaniramo.

Ibikorwa by’agahato byatewe n’impamvu z’uko abakoloni bari bagamije mbere ya byose inyungu zabo zo kuvoma ibintu binyuranye bakoresheje Abanyarwanda bakabijyana iwabo. Bamwe bakagomba kubafasha mu butegetsi, bakageza ku baturage amabwiriza y’abazungu kandi bakareba ni ba yubahirizwa abatabikoze bagahanwa; ndetse n’abatware habagaho ubwo bakubitwa n’Abazungu.

Ibyo bikorwa by’agahato byarabavunnye bikabije. Ababiligi bari bafite ibitekerezo bibi baheraho muri uko gukandamiza Abanyarwanda.

Nk’uko tubikesha igitabo “Imizi y’u Rwanda” cyanditswe n’umusizi Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu, inzobere mu muco, amateka n’ubuvanganzo, muri iki gice tugiye kurebera hamwe, imiterere y’imirimo y’agahato yakorwaga n’Abanyarwanda mu gihe cy’ubukoroni yabaye igikabuzo cyo guhirimbanira gusubizwa ubusugire bwa rwo, kuko gukomeza kubana n’Ababiligi ari nko gukomeza gusaba amata aho akombwa!

Shiku

Shiku ni ahantu bahingaga ku gahato imirimo (ibipimo) yagenwe n’ubutegetsi bwa gikoroni kandi igahingwamo imyaka yemejwe n’ubwo butegetsi ngo izarwanye inzara. Shiku bivuga n’umurimo ubwa wo wo guhinga ku gahato bene iyo mirimo Imyaka yahingwaga ni ibijumba n’imyumbati.

Ijambo shiku rikomoka ku nshinga "gushikura", mu byerekeye ubuhinzi bikavuga guhingisha isuka ukurura n’ingufu ahantu h’umushike. Ariko shiku yashoboraga no guhingwa ku gasi (ku mpama), ngombwa bikaba kwegera umuhanda cyangwa aho witegeye. Kwegera umuhanda kwari ukugira ngo umutegetsi w’umuzungu cyangwa shefu bashime umwete wa sushefu w’aho hantu, banamuhe amanota.

Shiku yari ifite irindi zina habagaho ubwo bayita "akajagari" bigashaka kuvuga urusange rw’imirima yahingwagamo n’abantu benshi, ariko buri muntu akagira icyate cye. Icyo cyate cyari icye mu gihe uwahahingaga atari yasarura, kuko iyo yamaraga gusarura habaga aha sushefu.

Shiku yatangiye gukoreshwa mu mwaka wa 1926, ageragezwa imyaka ine yose. Mu mwaka wa 1930, guhinga shiku byabaye itegeko rikomeye; muri uwo mwaka ni bwo agahato ko guhinga imyumbati kateye rwaserera yo kujya kwikorera ibiti byayo no kuyihinga. Byateye imyivumbagatanyo hirya no hino, nko muri Shefeli ya Bumbogo n’agace k’u Buliza.

Abakoloni bari barategetse shiku kubera inyungu bwite z’abaturage: twibuke ko mu mwaka wa 1924-1925, inzara bise gakwege yaciye ibintu. Abazungu bibwiraga ko shiku izakemura ikibazo cy’inzara ku buryo budasubirwaho. Nta gushidikanya ko muri rusange umusaruro wa shiku wabaye ingirakamaro cyane cyane imyumbati. Ibyo ariko ntibyahagaritse inzara ya Ruzagayura mu mwaka wa l942 kugeza mu wa1944. Ibyo ari byo byose shiku yabaye ikintu cyanzwe cyane n’abaturage.

Yatwaraga ingufu nyinshi ku musaruro muke, ndetse rimwe na rimwe wa ntawo. Urugero ni nk’iyo ikirongozi(Kiyongozi) cyabwiraga umuturage wahingaga igice cy’igipimo akamutegeka kuba yaharangije hose nko mu minsi ibiri, noneho wa muturage agafata igitaka cy’ahahinzwe akacyorosa hejuru y’ibyatsi ku buryo urebera kure asanga umurima wose uhinze. Aribyo dukunze kwita gusiba ubuhinge mu mvugo y’abahinzi.

Umugore n’abana nabo bagombaga guhinga shiku no mu gihe umugabo yabaga adahari yaragiye mu ruzinduko cyangwa yaragiye guhaha. Indi mpamvu yatumye shiku yangwa urunuka ni uko akenshi yahingwaga kure y’ingo z’abayihingaga. Bityo bakaruha bajya guhinga no gusarura, iyo byabaga byarumbutse. Icyo umuntu yasozerezaho ni uko ububi bwa shiku bwatewe n’agahato gakabije bwazinzibiranije akamaro bari bayitezeho: abaturage ntibasobanuriwe bihagije ako kamaro. Nyuma y’intambara y’isi ya kabiri ni ho abaturage muri rusange bagaragaje ko bumvise akamaro ko guhinga ibijumba n’imyumbati.

Umugogoro

Umugogoro ni inka yatangwaga n’umuturage cyangwa umuryango, ikajya gukamirwa umuzungu aho yabaga acumbitse ku nkambi. Umugogoro byavuga n’icyo gikorwa cyo kujyana inka. Bavugaga: kujya ku mugogoro.

Inka y’umugogoro yagiraga n’ibindi biyiherekeza bitangwa n’abaturage: inkoko, amagi, ibitoke... Uwategekaga ko batanga umugogoro n’ibiwuherekeza kenshi abinyujije kirongozi na cyo kikabibwira umumotsi na sushefu. Uretse inka y’umugogoro hari n’izindi nka, Abakoroni bategekaga gutanga zo kuba zaterwaga ibyapa ku mubiri nko kwitako bityo zikamenyekana ntihagire uzikoraho mu bazitunze. Igihe bashakiye bakazijyana. Bagatanga udufaranga tw’umuhango, two kwikiza ngo bizavugwe ko zaguzwe.

Uburetwa

Uburetwa ni imirimo Umunyarwanda yagombaga gukorera umukoroni mu minsi yagenwe kandi ntayihemberwe. Mu gihe cy’ubukoroni uburetwa bwagiye bufata isura nshya ari ku mubare w’iminsi bwakorwagaho, ari ku nshungu, ari n’agaciro bwafashe ku bikorwa rusange by’agahato, ndetse n’ukuntu bwakwiriye hirya no hino. Ku byerekeye iminsi, abanditsi benshi, cyane cyane Ababiligi, bibanze kuri icyo kibazo cy’iminsi, bashaka kumenyekanisha ngo ukuntu barenganuye ababukoraga.

Bagahamya ko iminsi y’uburetwa yari ibiri ku minsi itanu yari igize icyumweru cya Kinyarwanda. Icyakora ibyo ni byo, ariko Ababiligi bagiye babihindura ku buryo bukurikira: Abategetsi b’Ababiligi bakoze amavugurura abiri yerekeye iminsi y’uburetwa.

Imvune uburetwa bwateye Abanyarwanda babubazwaga yumvikana neza uyishyize hamwe n’indi mirimo inyuranye y’ubukoroni nk’akazi na shiku, ndetse umuntu yakongeraho ibindi byabazwaga, ni ukuvuga umugogoro, inka zatangwaga zo kubagirwa Abazungu n’ababaherekeje, inkoko, amagi, ibitoki. Mu byatangwaga icyakabije gutera imvune ni umusoro.

Guhingishwa kawa

Aba mbere badukanye ikawa mu Rwanda ni Abapadiri bera. Abo ba Misiyoneri bari bakeneye ikawa yo kunywa. Guhera mu mwaka wa 1903 ni bwo batangiye kuyihinga mu misiyoni ya Mibilizi mu Kinyaga (Ubu ni mu Karere ka Rusizi), nyuma ikwira buhoro buhoro mu gihugu.

Ariko ikawa yatangiye kwamamara mu wa 1925, aho ubutegetsi bw’Ababiligi butegetse abaturage kuyihinga. Guhera mu myaka ya 1933/1934, ni bwo Abanyarwanda batangiye guhinga ikawa ku itegeko n’ubwo hari ababikoraga ku bushake buke kubera inyungu babibonagamo. Muri rusange gutera ikawa abantu ntibayitabiriye.

Abantu ntibumvaga igituma ubutaka bwiza bwaragombaga kugenerwa ikawa indi myaka ikajya ahasigaye. Mu ntagiriro, uburyo bwo guhinga ikawa bwabayemo gushakisha, byatonze abaturage. Urugero ni nko gutera ikawa mu rutoke, hanyuma bagatema urutoke ngo ikawa zisanzure;

Imirimo y’ikawa yari myinshi kandi iravuna; hari gutegura ingemwe, hari gucukura imyobo, kuzitera, kuzuhira, kuzisasira, kuzikiza udukoko, kuzifumbira, kuzisarura, kuzanika n’ibindi.

Izo mvune ntibyari byoroshye kuyihanganira mu gihe batumvaga akamaro k’ikawa, amafaranga bakuragamo yari make cyane. lyo mvune yiyongeraga ku bindi bikorwa by’agahato.

Kugira ngo Abanyarwanda bigobotore imirimo y’agahato yakabuwe n’abakoroni, byaturutse ku cyemezo nkirahe cyafashwe n’Umwami Mutara Rudahigwa, ari na byo byabaye inkuruzi yo kumwanga urunuko kugeza ubwo bamwirengeje ku wa 25 Nyakanga 1959.

N’ubwo bamwirengeje agatanga amarabira ariko yasize myinshi mu mirimo y’agahato ayisheshe burundu! Aho mu wa 1949 yafashe icyemezo cyo gukuraho uburetwa no guca ikiboko cyifashishwaga muri iyi mirimo y’agahato. Mu wa 1954, aca iteka rikuraho ubuhake na bwo bwari bumaze gufata isura mbi ihabanya n’iyo bwari bufite mu ihangwa ry’u Rwanda.

Akazi

Tubanze dusuzume akazi icyo ari cyo. Akazi byari Ibikorwa byagahato bidahemberwa, byazanywe n’ubutegetsi bwite bw’Abazungu. Ingero z’ibyakorwaga: Gukora imihanda; Gutera amashyamba (abasore 300 bagombaga gutera nibura hegitari imwe y’inturusu mu wa 1930);Kubaka amazu y’ubutegetsi no gutwara ibikoresho (ibiti, amatafari); Gucukura imiringoti, n’ibindi.

Abakoraga akazi ni abagabo basoraga. Umumotsi hamwe na hamwe bamwitaga "Ndayuhurume" (inda yuha urume/ikime): ni ukubera ko yajyaga guhamagara abaturage mu museso abashishikariza isuka n’agatebo ngo bajye ku kazi.

Akazi kakoreshejwe ku gitugu, kajyanirana n’ikandamizwa ry’abaturage kabahoza ku nkeke yo guhamagarwa buri gihe kukajyaho no kutagira umunsi n’umwe umuturage yabaga azi ko yakora gahunda ashaka.

Igihe cy'Ubukoloni cyaranzwe n'imirimo y'uburetwa yatumye Abanyarwanda banobora

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