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Ihihibikana n’amashiraniro yaremye ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda

Yanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu
Kuya 2 June 2022 saa 10:03
Yasuwe :

Benshi bakunze kujya impaka ku nkomoko y’ururimi Abanyarwanda bakoresha ari rwo rw’Ikinyarwanda rukabura gica, abandi bakagira ngo ni ikintu cyimejeje nk’ibihumyo n’imegeri zo mu ishyamba nyamara ntibamenye ko ari abakurambere bagotse baturemera ururimi ruzadufasha guhangamo ibiduhuza, ubusabane n’ibitararamo.

Ihangwa ry’ururimi ni ki kimwe byashyizwemo imbaraga nyinshi kugira ngo ruzabe isoko y’ibindi byinshi bizubakirwaho intekerezo nyarwanda.

Bamwe baruryaho umunyenga bakishimisha baruhangaho ibibafasha mu myidagaduro, abandi bakarwiga bakaruminuza wahura na bo bararukenetse bakigaragaza nk’aho ari bo soko yarwo.

Abandi iyo ubatekerereje amateka y’uburyo u Rwanda rwari runyanyagiyemo ibihugu 29, baterura impaka z’ukuntu batumva uburyo abantu baba badahuje ibihugu ariko bakavuga ururimi rumwe kandi wareba na none ugasanga bimwe mu bihugu byo mu Majyepfo ya Afurika, na byo byarahanze ururimi gakondo rwabo kandi mu magambo n’amazina arugize ugasanga 80% afitanye isano n’Ikinyarwanda.

Aho ni ho uhera wibaza ubuhanga abo bakurambere baba barakoresheje ngo bahange ururimi rubeho, ruhame, rushinge imizi, rugire intebe ihoraho mu cyicaro cy’izindi ndimi ku Isi.

Imiremere, imikoreshereze y’ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda, kuruganiramo no kuruhangamo, ni kimwe mu bimenyetso simusiga kigaragaza ingano y’ikirenga y’intekerezo z’ihangabuhanga abakurambere mpangarwanda bari bafite, zatumye barema ibihanitse babyikesha.

Imyemerere isi yose ihuriyeho ni uko buri rurimi rubyarwa n’urundi ari na yo mpamvu usanga nyinshi mu ndimi zo ku isi zitandukanywa n’akantu gato cyane. Uko ni ko n’ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda rwabyawe n’Urunyankore rukoreshwa n’abaturage babarizwa ku butaka bwa Nkore muri Uganda na bwo bwahoze ari ubutaka bw’u Rwanda.

Nk’uko tubikesha igitabo ”Intwari z’imbanza, zubatse u Rwanda rugahamya igitinyiro, kigaruka ku iremwa ry’ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda n’ihihibikana ryakozwe n’abakurambere mpangarwanda ngo rugere ku ntera rugezeho ubu.

Iki gitabo gikomeza kiduha ibirari by’amateka y’iturwa ry’u Rwanda kidutekerereza ko abatuye u Rwanda bwa mbere (Abasinga n’Abazigaba) barwangura rukiri amashyamba ya cyimeza, bakayatutira, bakayatsura, bakayahindura gakondo y’ubutaka butuwe, bakabuhangaho ibihugu. Ni imiryango yiyomoye ku Bahima bari abaturage ba Nkore, baza gushaka ubwinyagamburiro bw’imiryango yabo n’amatungo ya bo.

Ibi bikaba byumvikanisha ko bagiye banimukana ururimi gakondo rw’iwabo bakoreshaga rw’Urunyankore. Ari na yo mpamvu uzasanga n’ubundi inyito bakoreshaga muri ibyo bihe ziri mu Runyankore nk’Abasinga bisobanuye mu Kinyarwanda:”Abanyentsinzi”. Iyimuka ry’abo rikaba ryarabaye ahasaga mu wa 300.

Bigeze ahasaga mu wa 700 hadutse irindi tsinda ry’abimukira baturutse mu ihembe rya Afurika, banyura imihana yose kugeza ubwo basesekaye mu by’ino, basanga Abasinga n’Abazigaba barakabye. Babura ubwinyagamburiro bw’aho bakura gakondo yabo nshya yabaraje ishinga, ikabaraza rwantambi imyaka myinshi batarayigeraho.

Bitewe n’imiterere y’ubutaka n’ikirere basanze muri aka karere bikabaneza, byatumye bemera gucumbikirwa n’Abazigaba imyaka 300, mbere y’uko bakabya inzozi zabo zo kubona gakondo yabo nshya. Muri iyo myaka yose bamaze mu Rweya rw’Abazigaba, bize ururimi rwa bo rw’Urunyankore, birengagiza urwo bimukanye iwabo ngo babashe gusabana no gushyikirana na bo. Abo ni bo biyise izina izina ry’Urunyankore ry’Abanyiginya risobanuye:”Abantu barambye ku butunzi n’ubupfura” ari na yo yabaye inkomoko y’inyito y’umuryango mugari babumbiyemo.

Ubwo ururimi bakoreshaga baza kuri ubu butaka, ni na rwo bakomeje gukoresha imyaka myinshi, bitewe nuko abo baje basanga kuri ubu butaka bwa mbere ari rwo rurimi bakoreshaga. Ibyo byagaragazwaga n’amazina bitaga ibintu bimwe na bimwe ndetse n’abana babo nka: Abasinga (Abatsinze) Rutayisire (Rutamujyanye) Badasingwa (Badatsindwa) Rudasingwa ( Rudatsindwa) Musinga ( Mutsinzi ) n’ayandi.

Gihanga wahanze igihugu cy’i Gasabo ari na cyo cyabaye inkomoko y’u Rwanda ahasaga mu wa 1091, ni we washyizeho iherezo ry’amateka n’izimizwa ry’ururimi rw’Urunyakore rwari rumaze imyaka iyinga magana inani (300-1100)’ ari rwo ruganje muri aka karere. Anaba ibimburiro ry’ amateka mashya y’intambara nkundura yo kurema ururimi rushya.

Mu iyima rya Gihanga ni bwo yatangije intambara nkundura yo kurema ururimi rushya, nk’umwihariko w’igihugu cye cy’i Gasabo yari amaze guhanga, aho bakunze gukoresha imvugo yo gushyoma ngo bagaragaze ko bafite ururimi rwabo rwihariye, bigobotoye Urunyankore.

Twavuga nka: ABAYIRU, kwa Gihanga bavugaga ABIRU n’ayandi, kugeza ahasaga mu wa 1675 mu Rwanda bari bagikoresha ururimi rw’Urunyankore kivanzemo no gushyoma ariko bagamije kurukuraho inkomoko y’ururimi rwabo rushya nk’abafite igihugu cyigenga.

Ku ngoma ya Cyilima Rujugira ahasaga mu wa 1675, ubwo hari hamaze kugwira amuga mashya agize ururimi rw’igishyomo, ni bwo hatangiye guhimbwa imivugire mishya y’ururimi Abanyarwanda bakoreshaga, batangira gusa n’abasezera ku rurimi rw’amahanga bari bamaze imyaka myinshi bakoresha mu buryo burunduye.

Ururimi batangiye gukoresha icyo gihe ni rwo dukunze kumenya mu mateka nk”Urunyacyilima” Urunyacyilima, ni imvugo n’amagambo yo hambere bitiriye umwami Cyilima Ruj z’ihaugira ku bw’imbaraga yashyize mu guhanga ururimi gakondo mu bihe by’ingoma ye.

Kuva icyo gihe Abanyarwanda bahugukiye gushaka no guhanga amagambo mashya asanga andi bari bamaze kugwiza kuva ku ngoma ya Gihanga, ngo barusheho gukungahaza ururimi rwabo rushya.

Ababigizemo uruhare rukomeye cyane ni Abasizi bari bashinzwe gusingiza Umwami n’Ingoma ye, hamwe n’Abacurabwenge bari Abanyantekerezo z’ihangabuhanga n’Amateka y’igihugu (Philosophes). Urunyacyilima rwakoreshejwe mu mivugire y’Abanyarwakda kuva mu wa 1675 kugeza mu wa 1900, mu gihe cy’umwaduko w’ibituku mu Rwanda.

Izina ry’Urunyacyilima ryahawe ururimi rwakoreshwaga kuva ku Ngoma ya Cyilima Rujugira, ryavuyeho kuva mu wa 1900, Abanyaburayi batangiye kwinjira muri aka karere, aho baje basanisha inyito y’igihugu n’ururimi bavuga. Ni ho hakomotse inyito y’ururimi Abanyarwanda bakoresha, aho barwise “IKINYARWANDA” Kuko ari ururimi rukoreshwa n’Abanyarwanda batuye igihugu cy’u Rwanda.


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