Bumwe mu buhanga n’ubuvumbuzi by’Abanyafurika bwirengagizwa nkana

Yanditswe na Iradukunda Serge
Kuya 6 Kanama 2020 saa 08:38
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Kuva kera abatuye Umugabane wa Afurika hari byinshi bishya bagiye bavumbura byabafashaga mu buzima bw’umunsi ku wundi, gusa kuri ubu mu ruhando rw’ikoranabuhanga na siyansi bisa nk’aho byirengagijwe kuko bigoye kubibona mu nyandiko nyinshi zisohoka buri mwaka.

Mu nyandiko zose zigaragaza uku kwirengagiza ubuvumbuzi bw’Abanyafurika, ni ibintu bisa nk’aho bikorwa nkana kuko ibyavumbuwe n’abandi barimo Abagiriki, Abaromani n’abandi bera n’ubwo baba barabigezeho bahereye ku byakozwe n’Abanyafurika birabitirirwa.

IGIHE yifashishije inyandiko zitandukanye yatoranyije bumwe mu buhanga n’ubuvumbuzi bwakozwe n’Abanyafurika mu nzego zitandukanye ariko ntibimenyekane ko babugezeho.

Imibare

Abantu bake nibo bazi ko ubuvumbuzi bwa bimwe mu bigizi imibare igezweho abantu biga uyu munsi bwatangiriye muri Afurika.

Mu myaka irenga ibihumbi 35 ishize, Abanyamisiri banditse inyandiko ku kibabi cya Papyrus izwi nka ‘Rhind Mathematical papyrus’. Iyi nyandiko kugeza ubu iri mu nzu ndangamurage y’Abongereza iriho amasomo yo kugabanya, gukuba, imigabane ndetse na zimwe muri formule za Géométrie.

Abanyamisiri bari bazi gushaka ubuso na volume y’ibinyampande bitandukanye, bari bazi gushaka intera n’inguni iri hagati y’ikintu n’ikindi ndetse bakamenya ko uruziga rugira dogere 360 na Π ikangana na 3.16 nk’uko bizwi mu mibare y’ubu.

Ku bijyanye no gupima amateka agaragaza ko Abanyafurika babigizeho ubumenyi mu 35 000 mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu.

Kimwe mu bikoresho Abanyafurika bakoreshaga bapima ni igufa ryo mu kaguru k’igitera rizwi nka ‘Lebombo bone’.

Iri gufa ryabaga rifite imirongo iciyeho nk’uko bimeze ku ilati y’uyu munsi rigakoreshwa mu kubara ukwezi k’umugore n’ibindi bintu bitandukanye.

Ubuvuzi

Imiti myinshi yifashishwa mu buvuzi bugezweho bw’uyu munsi ifite inkomoko mu baturage bo hirya no hino muri Afurika cyane cyane abo mu bihugu bya Misiri, Nigeria na Afurika y’Epfo.

Mu kwivura uburibwe babaga batewe n’indwara zitandukanye aba baturage bakoreshaga ibyatsi bibonekamo acide izwi nka ‘salicylic’ nk’uko uyu munsi abantu bakoresha aspirin, mu kwivura impiswi bagakoresha ‘Kaolin’ nk’uko ab’uyu munsi bakoresha ‘Kaopectate’.

Abanyafurika kandi bari barabashije kuvumbura imwe mu miti uyu munsi izwi nka ouabain, capsicum, physostigmine na Reserpine mbere y’uko Abanyaburayi bayivumbura.

Iby’ubuhanga bw’Abanyafurika mu bijyanye n’ubuvuzi bihamywa n’igitabo ‘The Egyptian’ cya Mika Waltari.

Muri iki gitabo Mika Waltari avuga ko Abanya-Misiri bo hambere bari bazobereye mu bijyanye no kubaga umutwe bakoresheje uburyo buzwi nka ‘trepanation’ aho hatoborwa umunya muto mu igufa ry’umutwe hagamijwe kuvura indwara z’umutwe.

Uretse ibi ubundi bushakashatsi bugaragaza ko Abanyafurika bagize ubumenyi mu bijyanye no gukingira na mbere y’uko bitangazwa ko Edward Jenner ariwe wavumbuye ibijyanye no gukingira ubwo yavumburaga urukingo rw’ubushita mu 1976.

Amakuru y’urubuga www.historyofvaccines.org agaragaza ko Abanyafurika batangiye igikorwa cyo gukingira mu 1000 mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu bikaza kujya mu bihugu nka Turikiya nyuma biza no gukwira mu Burayi.

Iyo usomye ibitabo nka ‘A history of black scientists’ cya Kresge na ‘The Lost Sciences of Africa’ cya Van Sertima bikwereka ko Abanyafurika kandi bari bafite ubumenyi mu bijyanye no gushyiriramo umuntu irindi ryinyo, gusuzuma umurambo guteranya igufa ryatandukanye.

Amato n’ingendo zo mu mazi

Mu mateka byamenyakanye cyane ko Abanyaburayi aribo babaye aba mbere kugera muri Amerika ya Ruguru n’iy’Epfo bifashishije amato. Iyo usomye inyandiko zivuga ku mateka y’Abanyafurika zikwereka ko hari Abanyafurika babashije kugera muri Amerika y’Epfo mu myaka ibarirwa mu magana mbere y’Abanyaburayi.

Ibi byemezwa n’intiti z’Abanyamerika ubwabo zirimo Umunyamateka akaba n’umwarimu muri Kaminuza ya Harvard, Leo Weiner.

Mu gitabo uyu mugabo yashyize hanze akacyita ‘Africa and the Discovery of America’ avuga ko kuba Abanyafurika barageze muri Amerika mbere y’Abanyaburayi byemejwe na Christopher Columbus witirirwa kuvumbura uyu mugabane.

Muri iki gitabo, uyu mugabo avuga ko mu nyandiko Columbus yishyiriye hanze ko yavuze ko ‘Abanyamerika gakondo bamubwiye ko abantu bafite uruhuru rwirabura bageze kuri uyu mugabane baturutse mu majyepfo ashyira uburasirazuba bari mu bwato.’

Uretse izi ngendo zo muri Amerika, abahanga mu mateka ya Afurika berekana ko abaturage b’uyu mugabane bagiye bakora ingendo zijya mu bihugu nk’u Bushinwa ari naho bakuye inzovu.

Ibivugwa na Weiner bitujyana ku bundi buhanga Abanyafurika bahoranye bwo kubaka amato.

Abashakashatsi berekana mu bwami bwa Mali n’ubwa Songhai bari barabashije gukora ubwato bufite metero 30 z’uburebure na metero 3 z’ubugari ndetse bukagira ubushobozi bwo kwikorera ibintu bipima toni 80.

Ubumenyi bw’ikirere

Uretse ibijyanye n’imibare Abanyafurika kandi hari bimwe bari barabashije kugera mu bijyanye n’ubumenyi bw’isanzure ndetse no kubara ibihe.

Abamenyekanye cyane ni Abanya-Misiri kuko kera bari babashije kumenya ibihe bigize ukwezi (cycles of the moon) ndetse baranagabanyije umwaka mo ibihembwe 12 nk’uko bimeze uyu munsi aho ugabanyijemo amezi 12.

Uretse ibi Abanya-Misiri kandi bari barabashije gushyiraho ingengabihe igizwe n’iminsi 365, mu gihugu cya Kenya hari amabuye azwi nka ‘African Stonehenge’ bivugwa ko yubatswe muri 300 mbere y’ivuka rya Yesu.

Aya mabuye ajya gusa neza n’ari mu gace ka Wiltshire mu Bwongereza yifashishwaga n’abari batuye muri aka gace mu kubara no kumenya ibihe.

Uretse ibi iyo usomye ibitabo nka “Great Zimbabwe: An Ancient African City-State.” Cya Asante na Blacks in Science: Ancient and Modern cya Shore bikwereka ko Abanyafurika bahoranye ubuhanga kandi mu bijyanye no gukora ibyuma, ubwubatsi n’ubucuruzi.

Ubwenge bw’Abanyafurika si ubwo mu bihe bya kera gusa kuko n’uyu munsi bagikomeje kwerekana ko bashoboye bakora ubuvumbuzi butandukanye burimo ikoti ripima umusonga ryavumbuwe n’Umunya-Uganda, Brian Turyabagye; igikoresho cy’ikoranabuhanga gipima imikorere y’umutima kizwi nka ‘Cardio Pad’ cyavumbuwe n’Umunya-Cameroon, Arthur Zang ndetse n’amafaranga adafite igihugu ashingiyeho kandi ntashobore kugaragara cyangwa ngo afatwe mu ntoki yitwa ‘Cryptocurrency’ ya BitPesa yavumbuwe n’Umunyakenya Elizabeth Rossiello.

Abahanga mu mateka ya Afurika bavuga ko hari ubuvumbuzi bwinshi bufite imizi kuri uyu mugabane

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