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Ishyano i Goma ubwo igihiriri cy’impunzi cyinjiraga muri Zaire; akaga ka macinya no gukomeza kwica Abatutsi

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Kuya 26 Mata 2021 saa 10:24
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Muri Nyakanga 1994 ubwo Ingabo za FPR Inkotanyi zari zikimara guhagarika Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, igihiriri cy’impunzi zirenga miliyoni ebyiri zavuye mu Rwanda zigana mu cyahoze ari Zaïre, zinjirira Goma na Bukavu. Muri uku kwakira izi mpunzi, abo muri iyi mijyi iherereye mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo y’iki gihe ntabwo bari bazi ishyano bari bikururiye kuko haje gukurikiraho akaga, macinya yica benshi, kwica Abatutsi bikomereza Zaire n’andi marorerwa ntavugwa.

Mu mwaka wa 1994 Umujyi wa Goma wari usanzwe utuwe n’abaturage basaga ibihumbi 200 bari bamenyereye kwiberaho nta nkomyi. Aba-zairois bo muri uyu Mujyi bikundiraga kurya neza, ugasanga muzika ya bamwe mu bahanzi n’amatsinda yari agezweho icyo gihe nka Wenge Musica, Koffi Olomide, Extra Musica n’abandi icurangwa hirya no hino mu ngo no mu tubari, akanyamuneza ari kose. Gusa kuva ku munota impunzi miliyoni ebyiri zinjiriye muri uwo Mujyi, ibintu byahise bihindura isura.

Ibaze nawe umujyi usanganwe ibikorwaremezo bigenewe abaturage ibihumbi 200 kwakira abandi barengaho miliyoni ebyiri bititeguwe! Ibikorwaremezo nk’amazu yo guturamo, imisarane, amazi yo kunywa no gutekesha n’ibindi byose byabaye iyanga ku buryo wasangaga izo mpunzi zituma ku mihanda, ibiti birarimburwa bamwe bari kubaka burende [utuzu tugondagonze two mu buhungiro], abandi bahuka amazi y’ikiyaga cya Kivu bakayanywa adatetse mu gihe habaga hashokamo amazirantoki ku rundi ruhande. Uruvange rw’ibyo byose rwaje kubyara icyorezo cya macinya cahitanye impunzi zibarirwa hagati y’ibihumbi 12 na 15.

Ku bo mu myaka ya vuba bashobora kuba bumva macinya nk’umugani kubera serivisi z’ubuvuzi, isuku n’isukura zateye imbere, ariko nabacira ku mayange ku nsanganya uwanduye iki cyorezo ahura nazo.

Macinya ni indwara iterwa no kurya cyangwa kunywa ibintu byanduye (birimo bagiteri izwi yitwa vibrio cholerae). Iyo abandi banyweye amazi cyangwa bagafata amafunguro afite aho ahuriye n’umwanda (amazirantoki) w’uyirwaye nabo bahita bandura ako kanya.

Iki nicyo cyatumye benshi mu bahungiye muri Zaire bandura iyi ndwara kuko bitumaga ku gasozi, imvura yagwa ikamanura wa mwanda iwujyana mu Kivu akaba ari nacyo baza kuvoma.

Uwayirwaye arangwa no guhitwa cyane, ndetse iyo imaze kumurembya agera aho ajya mu bwiherero yumvaga akubwe ariko yagerayo bikanga. Iyo atabonye ubuvuzi vuba Kubera uku guhitwa amazi agera aho akamushira mu mubiri kugeza apfuye.

Ngiryo ishyano ry’icyorezo ryagwiririye impunzi z’Abanyarwanda zari zarahungiye muri Zaire.

Mu kiganiro IGIHE yagiranye na Habumuremyi Marcel uri mu bahungiye muri uyu Mujyi mu 1994 akaza gutahuka mu Ukwakira 1996, yavuze ko Macinya yatangiye kumvikana cyane mu nkambi z’impunzi zimaze igihe gito zihageze.

Habumuremyi yavuze ko kuva yabaho atarabona ibintu nk’ibyo yaboneye i Goma. Ati “Kuva nabaho ni ubwa mbere nari mbonye icyorezo cyararika abantu ku musozi, nageze aho kubona abantu bapfuye ndabimenyera kuko aho wajyaga hose wahasanga intumbi za macinya.”

Yakomeje avuga ko byageze igihe kubera umubare munini w’abapfaga abantu batangiye gushyingurwa mu byobo rusange, ababuze ababashyingura bagashengukira ku gasozi.

Ububi bwa Macinya bunahamywa na Dr Roland Noël, wari umuganga ushinzwe kwita ku mpunzi z’Abanyarwanda zari muri Zone Turquoise akaza kwambukana nazo muri Zaire.

Nyuma y’igihe gito impunzi z’Abanyarwanda zigeze muri Zaire, Dr Roland yavuze ko hahise haduka icyorezo cya macinya bitewe n’umubare munini w’impunzi wari utangiye kwisuka muri uyu mujyi.

Ati “Goma ni umujyi uringaniye wari utuwe n’abantu hafi ibihumbi 200. Mu minsi mike wuzuye impunzi zibarirwa muri miliyoni ebyiri. Biragoye kubyiyumvisha, buri hose wahabonaha abana, abagore, n’abagabo! Bavunaga amashami y’ibiti ngo bubake nyakatsi, bote cyangwa bateke ibyo kurya. Muri iki gihe twari twaratangiye kujya dutoragura imirambo y’abantu. Nyuma gato y’uko mpageze ku wa 21 Nyakanga 1994 hateye icyorezo cya macinya.”

Kubera umubare munini w’abicwaga n’iki cyorezo, Ingabo z’u Bufaransa zari zikambitse mu mujyi wa Goma, ari nawo warimo icyicaro gikuru cyayoborerwagamo Operation Turquoise, zahawe inshingano zo kubashyingura mu byobo rusange. Dr Roland yavuze ko bitewe n’ibyo abasirikare b’Abafaransa bari bamaze iminsi babona hakiyongera uku guhabwa inshingano zo gushyingura abishwe na macinya, byabateye ihungabana kugeza ubwo hafashwe icyemezo cyo kuboherereza umuganga w’indwara zo mu mutwe mu rwego rwo kubaha ubufasha.

Dr Roland yagize ati “Abasirikare bato b’Abafaransa basabwe gushyingura abishwe n’icyorezo cya macinya. Barahahamutse, ubuyobozi bw’Ingabo z’u Bufaransa bwohereje umuganga w’indwara zo mu mutwe kugira ngo abiteho. Nk’uko nabikubwiye ni ubwa mbere abasirikare bari bahawe inshingano zo gushyingura abishwe na macinya bari bohererejwe umuganga w’indwara zo mu mutwe.”

Uku guhangabana kw’abasirikare b’Abafaransa bakoreraga i Goma kwafashe indi ntera ubwo umwe muri bo yiyahuraga asubiye mu Bufaransa, imbarutso y’uko kwiyahura iba ibyo yaboneye muri Zaire.

Muri raporo Ikigo Mpuzamahanga gishinzwe gukora ubushakashatsi ku ndwara z’impiswi (ICDDR) cyakoze cyagaragaje ko ikigero cy’abicwaga na macinya mu bayirwaye cyari kuri 15%, gusa ngo ibi ni kubabaga babashije kugera mu bitaro kuko hari n’undi mubare munini w’abapfaga batageze kwa muganga.

Kubera ubukana iyi ndwara yari ifite mu mpunzi z’Abanyarwanda muri 1994, ICDDR yaje gufata intego yo kohereza itsinda ry’abaganga 8 riyobowe na Dr AK Siddique muri Zaire kugira ngo bakore ubu bushakashatsi kuri iki cyorezo.

Iri tsinda ryaje kugaragaza ko mu byatumye iki cyorezo kirushaho gufata indi ntera harimo n’uko nta makuru arambuye abaganga bari bagifiteho.

Kubera kuvoma amazi mabi n'isuku nke, impunzi zaje kwibasirwa na macinya yica abatari bake

Jenoside yakomereje i Goma

Uretse ibijyanye na macinya, Dr Roland mu kiganiro yagiranye n’Ikinyamakuru ‘Afrikarabia’, yavuze ko andi marorerwa yaboneye muri Zaire ari ajyanye n’uburyo Abatutsi bakomeje kwicirwa hakurya y’imbibi z’igihugu cyabo, ibyo we avuga ko ari ‘Jenoside yakomereje i Goma’.

Dr Roland yavuze ko ubwo yageraga muri Zaire mu Mujyi wa Goma aribwo yatangiye gusobanukirwa neza ibyari bimaze kuba mu Rwanda ko koko ari Jenoside.

Ati “Ubwo nahageraga natagiye gutekereza ku byabaga nk’uko nabyanditse mu gitabo cyitwa ‘Les Injures incurables du Rwanda.’ Ntibyafashe igihe kinini cyo kumva ko abari impunzi, nyuma yo kwica abaturanyi babo b’Abatutsi bahunze batinya ko habaho kwihorera.”

Dr Roland yavuze ko nubwo hari abahunze barakoze Jenoside hari n’undi mubare wafashwe bugwate na Ex-FAR.

Ati “Abenshi ntabwo bari Abanyarwanda bahungaga ukuza kw’abasirikare b’Abatutsi ahubwo bagiye bashishikarizwa guhunga n’Abahutu b’intagondwa [...] byaterwaga n’ubwoba bwari bufitwe n’abayobozi babo, ibihuha, iterabwoba ndetse n’imvugo z’urwango zacaga kuri Radio Télévision des Mille Collines (RTLM).”

Abajijwe niba yarigeze yumva ibyacaga kuri RTLM, Dr Roland yavuze ko yabyumvise ndetse yemeza ko na nyuma yo kugera muri Congo ibyo bitangazamakuru byahembereye urwango mu Rwanda byakomeje gukorera mu nkambi.

Ati “Nabonye kopi y’ikinyamakuru Kangura ifite ifoto ya François Mitterrand ku rupapuro rw’inyuma, ndetse numvise na RTLM, yakomeje gukora mu gihe nari ndi hariya i Goma. Nibuka indirimbo nziza zanyuragaho.

Sinumvaga Ikinyarwanda ariko hari umuganga w’Umunyarwanda wansemuriraga. Yambwiraga ko bavugaga ko bagomba guhagarika ‘Inyenzi’ no kwica Abatutsi bose kugeza ku wa nyuma. Ndetse banatangaga n’amazina.”

Dr Roland yavuze ko ubwo bageraga muri Congo by’umwihariko mu Mujyi wa Goma bahasanze impunzi z’Abahutu zari zaraturutse mu yahoze ari Perefegitura ya Gisenyi n’ahandi mu Rwanda.

Yavuze ko izi mpunzi zakomeje ibikorwa byo guhiga Abatutsi no kubica, cyane cyane bibanze ku bari hafi y’Ikibuga cy’Indege cya Goma.

Ati “Hafi yacu, abajenosideri bishyireyeho amategeko yabo. Twumva ko hafi ya Goma ku mupaka wa Gisenyi, bari bashyigikiye cyane Juvénal Habyarimana. Niyo mpamvu twasanze i Goma Abahutu benshi b’intagondwa bahahungiye, mu nkambi z’impunzi no hafi y’Ikibuga cy’indege bahohoteraga abantu. Bashakaga Umututsi wa nyuma wasigaye ngo bamwice.”

Nyuma yo kubona ubu bwicanyi Dr Roland ngo yabwiye Umu-Colonel w’Umufaransa ariko we amubwira ko ntacyo babikoraho ko ’batse ubufasha ariko ntibahabwe igisubizo."

Yakomeje avuga ko uretse ubwicanyi bwabereye mu nkengero z’iki Kibuga cy’Indege cya Goma, hanabereye ibikorwa bya kinyamaswa nko guca abana amaboko n’ibirenge.

Ati “Abatutsi nibo bari bake ariko barakomerekejwe cyane, by’umwihariko abana bacibwaga amaboko kugira ngo batazabasha kwandika n’ibirenge ngo batazongera kugenda! Mu by’ukuri mu gihe cya Zone Turquoise, Jenoside yakomereje hafi y’Ikibuga cy’Indge cya Goma.”

Uretse abasirikare Dr Roland yavuze ko ibyo we n’abandi baganga baboneye mu Rwanda byabateye ihungabana kugeza nubwo hari mugenzi we waje kwiyahura.

Ati “Twese twarahungabanye kubera kutatubwira birambuye ibijyanye n’ubutumwa twari tugiyemo ndetse n’amabwiriza twahawe. Twari turi mu gicuku […] mugenzi wanjye wakoraga mu bijyanye no gutanga inkingo nyuma y’igihe gito yariyahuye. Wibuke ko twari abaganga b’abasivile, batari abasirikare bakiri mu kazi, ntabwo twateguwe, byari bikomeye cyane.”

Mu rwego rwo gukemura iki kibazo cy’impunzi z’u Rwanda zari zikomeje gupfa urusorongo no guhagarika ibitero by’abacengezi abasize bakoze Jenoside bari bamaze igihe bagaba ku Rwanda, Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yohereje ingabo muri Zaïre ngo zisenye inkambi ndetse zinacyure ingeri nyinshi z’Abanyarwanda bari barahunze, aho bamwe basaga nk’abafashwe bugwate na Ex FAR n’Interahamwe bari barangajwe imbere na Leta y’Abatabazi yari isigaye ikorera mu buhungiro.

Kubera iki gikorwa byageze mu Ugushyingo impunzi zirenga ibihumbi 500 zimaze kubohozwa ndetse zarasubijwe mu Rwanda, umwaka wa 1996 wagiye kurangira mu Rwanda hamaze gutahuka impunzi zirenga miliyoni 1,2 zirimo n’izavuye muri Tanzania, gusa muri iki gihe hari hakibarwa izindi zisaga ibihumbi 200 zari zigifashwe bugwate. Mu 1997 nabo baje kubohozwa n’Ingabo z’u Rwanda basubizwa mu gihugu.

Dr Roland wabanye n'impunzi muri Congo yavuze ko imfu z'amacinya zatumye abasirikare b'Abafaransa bagira ihungabana rikabije
Aha Dr Roland yari ari kwita ku nkomere z'Umunyarwanda yari yarahugiye muri Zaire
Ababyeyi bapfiraga mu maso y'abana babo, bakabura n’uwo baririra
Mu nkambi abantu bararwaye batangira gupfa umunsi ku wundi, abenshi bicwaga n'umwuma kubera macinya yabateraga gucibwamo cyane
Abarembye batwarwagwa mu ngorofani

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