Umubumbe wa Mars ukomeje gutakaza amazi mu buryo budasanzwe

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 15 Mutarama 2020 saa 09:47
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Umubumbe wa Mars wahoze ufatwa nk’uhehereye ndetse ko ushobora kubaho ubuzima n’amazi, impinduka zatangiye mu myaka miliyari 3.5 ishize zerekana ko ibintu bishobora kuba bitameze nk’uko abashakashatsi babikekaga.

Kugeza ubu Mars isigaranye ikirere gito cyane, ku buryo imyuka cyangwa ya mazi aba yahindutse umwuka kubera ubushyushye, birimo kuzamuka bikagera kure cyane, ntibyongere kugira uruhare mu gutanga amazi kuri uyu mubumbe, ibizwi nka ‘condensation’.

Nubwo Mars ifatwa nk’Umubumbe Utukura’ ubu ni ahantu humagaye kandi hakonje, nubwo ibibaya byaho ndetse n’ahantu hateze neza nk’ahahoze inyanja mu myaka miliyari nyinshi ishize, bituma abahanga bizera ko hahoze cyangwa hashobora kuba hari amazi ahagije.

Ubu amazi agaragara asigaye mu rubura ruri mu duce tumwe two ku ruhembe rw’uyu mubumbe, urwo rubura narwo bibarwa ko rubitse 10% by’amazi yose hamwe yahoze atemba kuri uyu mubumbe nk’uko ubushakashatsi bubigaragaza.

Indi nyigo iheruka gutangazwa muri Geophysical Research Letters, yagaragaje ikarita yerekana ko urwo rubura narwo ari igice gito kiri hagati mu ivumbi.

Inyigo zerekana ko ayo mazi nta handi yagiye uretse mu isanzure. Izuba ryagiye ryohereza imirasire ikaze cyane mu kirere cya Mars, igatandukanya ibigize amazi, hydrogene na oxygene buri kimwe kikajya ukwacyo, maze igice kinini cy’iyi hydrogene kikazimirira mu isanzure bitewe n’uburyo yorohereye.

Mu bushakashatsi bushya bwashyizwe mu kinyamakuru ‘Science’ cyandika ibijyanye n’ubuvumbuzi, bugaragaza ko umwuka w’amazi ukomeje kuzimirira mu isanzure, ku buryo Mars irimo gutakaza amazi kurusha uko abantu babitekerezaga.

Abashakashatsi bifashishije uburyo bwo gukurikirana imyuka iri kuri Mars, bagendeye ku bipimo bifatwa n’ikigo cy’u Burayi gishinzwe iby’isanzure European Space Agency n’ikigo cy’u Burusiya, Roscosmos. Bagenzuye uko amazi yagiye aboneka kuri Mars mu myaka ya 2018 na 2019.

Ibipimo byerekanye ko mu kirere cyo hejuru cyane uvuye kuri Mars harimo imyuka myinshi y’amazi kurusha iyagakwiye kuba ihari, bivuze ko amazi yarenze aho yagakwiye kuba ari nk’uko umwe mubayoboye ubu bushakashatsi, Franck Montmessin, wo muri Kaminuza ya Paris-Saclay mu Bufaransa, yabitangaje.

Mu gihe cy’ubushyuhe, ingano y’amazi Mars itakaza yo ngo iri hejuru cyane, ku buryo usanga no mu gihe hadashyushye cyane kuri uyu mubumbe haboneka ivumbi.

Aba bashakashatsii ngo batunguwe n’ingano y’imyuka y’amazi iri mu kirere cyo hejuru cyane n’uburyo yahageze, mu gihe batekerezaga ko “yari ikwiye gutangirwa n’ubukonje buba hekuru hariya, ikaba yakwiyegeranya igatanga ibicu.”

Kuba uyu mwuka urimo amazi ushobora kugera mu kirere cya Mars ntihagire ikiwutangira ngo wongere uvemo ibitonyanga by’amazi n’ibicu, “tugomba gutekereza ko gutakaza amazi kuri Mars byihuse cyane kurusha uko abantu babitekerezaga”, nk’uko Montmessin yabitangaje.

Byitezwe ko ubushakashatsi buri imbere bugomba kugaragaza neza ingano y’amazi arimo kwinjira mu kirere n’uburyo bikorwamo.

Ibyo byose bizaganisha ku kwemeza niba mu myaka runaka abantu bashobora kuzatura kuri Mars, cyangwa niba izahinduka umubumbe ugizwe n’ubutayu gusa.

Umubumbe wa Mars ukomeje guhinduka ubutayu

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