Ibiteye amatsiko kuri Tchad ifite Perezida waguye ku rugamba mu masaha 24 atsinze amatora

Yanditswe na Dufitumukiza Salathiel
Kuya 22 Mata 2021 saa 03:54
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Hashize iminsi mike Idriss Déby Itno wayoboraga Tchad apfuye yishwe n’ibikomere by’amasasu yarashwe ubwo yari ku rugamba ahanganye n’inyeshyamba. Ni inkuru yateje igikuba mu gihugu kuko nta wari ubyiteze. N’abatavugaga rumwe na we, bumvikanye bivugira ko uburyo yagiye atari bwo bari biteze kuko ‘bishobora gushyira igihugu habi’kurusha uko byari bimeze.

Tchad ya Déby Itno iherereye mu Majyaruguru yo Hagati muri Afurika, ikaba ituwe n’abasaga miliyoni 16,8. Iri ku buso bwa kilometero kare 1.284.000, ni ukuvuga inshuro zisaga 46 ugereranyije n’u Rwanda. Ni igihugu kidakora ku nyanja ariko kiri mu bicukura peteroli nyinshi, zahabu ndetse na Uranium.

Kuva cyahabwa ubwingenge n’u Bufaransa mu 1960, cyari gifite umutekano n’imiyoborere myiza bishyigikiwe n’Abafaransa ndetse na Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika; ariko mu bihe bitandukanye kikabangamirwa n’ibibazo by’umutekano muke uri mu bihugu by’ibituranyi nka Nigeria,Libya,Sudan na Centrafique.

Mu myaka 30 Perezida Idriss Déby Itno yari amaze ku butegetsi kuva mu 1990,imitwe y’abarwanyi bitwaje intwaro ahanini ishingiye ku idini ya Islam yagiye igaba ibitero muri icyo gihugu iturutse muri abo baturanyi,ariko ingabo z’u Bufaransa zigafasha Tchad kuyisubiza inyuma.

Nko mu 2019, u Bufaransa bwafashije icyo gihugu gusubiza inyuma abarwanyi bari baturutse muri Libya bakinjirira mu Majyaruguru, hifashishwa ibitero by’indege baratatana. Mu 2008 nabwo abarwanyi baturutse muri Sudan bateye basatira inyubako ya Perezida, ariko ingabo za Leta zibasubizayo.

Perezida Itno wari warahiriye kuzahashya iyo mitwe imusagararira cyane cyane uwa Boko Haram ufite inkomoko muri Nigeria, mu 2016 yaje guhura n’ikibazo cy’undi mushya washinzwe n’abari abasirikari b’igihugu cye batavuga rumwe na we, utangira kumugabaho ibitero uturutse mu Majyaruguru, akenshi ukerekeza mu Murwa mukuru N’Djamena.

Uwo mutwe wiyise ugamije kuzana amahoro n’impinduka muri Tchad, FACT, waramuzonze kugeza ubwo umuhitanye ku wa 20 Mata 2021 bivuye ku bikomere by’amasasu yarasiwe mu rugamba rwawuhanganishije n’ingabo ze rwabaye ku wa 18 Mata 2021.Urupfu rwe rwavuzwe mu masaha 24 hatangajwe ko yatsindiye manda ya Gatandatu yo kuyobora icyo gihugu.

FACT yaje ite, irashaka iki?

Front pour l’Alternation et la Concorde au Tchad(FACT), yashinzwe na Mahamat Mahdi Ali, wahoze ari umugenzuzi muri Minisiteri y’Ibikorwa remezo nyuma akaza kwihuza n’Ihuriro ry’imitwe ivuga ko iharanira Demokarasi n’Amajyambere (UFDD) ryatangijwe na Général Mahamat Nouri, wari Minisitiri w’Ingabo wa Tchad akaza kwigomeka kuri Perezida Itno mu 2006.

Mahamat Mahdi Ali yatangiye kwifatanya n’imitwe irwanya ubutegetsi kuva mu bwana bwe, aho ku myaka 14 y’amavuko yinjiye mu basirikari ba Hissène Habré barwanyaga Perezida Félix Malloum, bakamuhirika ku butegetsi bakabwigarurira mu 1979.
Umushakashatsi kuri Tchad,Jérôme Tubiana, yabwiye Aljazeera ko mu 2015 ari bwo Mahdi Ali yoherejwe muri Libya na Mahamat Nouri wari warahungiye mu Bufaransa, ngo ajye kuyobora UFDD.

Uwo mugabo ngo yagezeyo asanga izo ngabo zitazi Général Nouri cyane, ahita yigira umuyobozi wazo ariko zicamo ibice bitatu kuko bamwe banze kumuyoboka.

Muri Mata 2016, nibwo Mahdi Ali yafashe uruhande rumushyigikiye atangiza FACT yiganjemo abo mu bwoko bw’Aba-Gorane, ari nabwo Hissène Habré wahiritswe ku butegetsi na Itno mu 1990 akomokamo. Intego nyamukuru y’uwo mutwe kwari ukwisuganyiriza muri Libya igahirika Guverinoma ya Perezida Itno, nko guhorera mwene wabo.

Abarwanyi ba FACT bifatanyije n’aba Maréchal Khalifa Haftar wari ahanganye na guverinoma ya Libya, bituma habwa ibirindiro mu gace ka Misrata kari mu two Haftar yari yaramaze kwigarurira ndetse barahatorezwa.

Bamaze gufasha Haftar gufata Umurwa mukuru Tripoli, ibihugu bimushyigikiye birimo Amerika,u Bufaransa,u Bwongereza na Leta zunze Ubumwe z’Abarabu byamusabye ko abanyamahanga bagenda, maze ku wa 11 Mata 2021 FACT yerekeza iwabo muri Tchad mu buryo butari bwitezwe.

Mu gusubirayo, abo barwanyi batijwe umurindi na Maréchal Haftar ngo bahirike ubutegetsi bwa Itno cyane ko bari banabifite mu mugambi, baza bitwaje intwaro zikomeye ziganjemo izakuwe mu Burusiya.

Hashize imyaka myinshi ingabo za Tchad zirwana n'inyeshyamba zashakaga guhirika ubutegetsi bwa Idriss Déby

Icyakora abasesenguzi mu by’intambara bagaragaza ko guhirika ubutegetsi buriho uwo mutwe utapfa kubigeraho, nubwo ushobora gukora ibyahungabanya umutekano.

Umushakashatsi w’Umufaransa urebera hafi iby’intambara za gisivile zibera muri Afurika, Roland Marchal,yabwiye DW ati “Icya mbere, bari kure ya N’Djamena kandi ni wo mutima w’ubutegetsi, ndetse uduce bamaze gufata ubu ni utwiganjemo ubwoko bwabo ari two Gorane na Kréda. N’ubundi utwo byoroshye kudufata.”

Ni mu gihe umunyamakuru ubifatanya no gusesengura politiki w’Umunye-Tchad, Narcisse Laldjim, we avuga ko nubwo Leta yemeza ko yabasubije inyuma bagifite ubushobozi bwo guhungabanya umutekano butakwirengagizwa.

Ati “Ingufu zabo ni intwaro bakuye muri Libya. Bagabwemo ibice baratatana, ariko n’aho igice kimwe cyaba cyashizeho nk’uko umuvugizi w’ingabo yabivuze haracyariho abandi. Rero hakwitegwa ko imirwano ikomeye yabaho, bakaryamira amajanja.”

Ibitero byose FACT igaba yishingikirije Maréchal Haftar, kuko ngo akorana bya hafi na Tchad ndetse n’u Bufaransa, bityo akaba ashobora kubaha amakuru yabafasha mu rugamba, ariko n’intwaro akaborohereza kuzibona.

Imikorere ye ubu yamaze gutahurwa, Tchad n’u Bufaransa byamurakariye.
Amakuru avuga ko uwo mutwe ufite imodoka z’intambara ziri hagati ya 400 na 450 ndetse n’ibindi bikoresho bya gisirikari wahawe na Haftar n’u Burusiya, bikanakekwa ko abarwanyi bawo baba baratojwe n’Abarusiya.

Imirwano yo ku wa Gatandatu ushize yatumye ibikorwa bitandukanye by’iN’Djamena birimo n’mashuri bifungwa, abaturage bagumishwa mu ngo zabo. Biravugwa ko imihanda y’uwo Mujyi nta muturage uyitambamo, iragendwa n’abasirikare n’imodoka z’intambara gusa.

Nyuma y’itangazo ry’urupfu rwa Perezida Itno, FACT yavuze ko “Tchad atari ingoma ya cyami, bityo ko ubutegetsi bw’igihugu butagomba guhererekanywa n’abo mu muryango umwe”. Aha yakomozaga ku kuba yasimbujwe umuhungu we.

Kuki Perezida yagiye ku rugamba?

Kumva ko Perezida Itno yarashwe yagiye aho imirwano yabereye, byumvikanye nk’igitangaza kuri benshi cyane ko bitamenyerewe ko perezida yigira aho rwambikanye. Nyamara ku bazi Itno nta cyatunguranye kuko no mu mvugo ze yagiye avuga ko “atazahunga abamurwanya”.

Perezida Idriss Déby yakundaga kugaragara kenshi mu myambaro ya gisirikare ndetse yagiye ajya kenshi ku rugamba ari umukuru w'igihugu

Jeune Afrique yanditse ko Perezida Maréchal Itno yasubiyemo kenshi ko atazigera yihanganira abashaka kumurwanya, ati “Umunsi umwe muzumva ngo Déby yapfuye ariko ntimuzigera mwumva ngo yahunze”.

Uretse kuba Perezida, mbere y’uko Itno afata ubutegetsi yanabaye umusirikari ukomeye wa Tchad kuko yageze no ku rwego rwo kuba Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo. By’umwihariko yari afite ubuhanga mu kugurutsa indege za gisirikare ndetse akaba yarabiherewe impamyabushobozi mu Bufaransa.

No ku butegetsi bwe yakomeje kugaragaza urukundo rw’igisirikare, akenshi akagaragara yambaye impuzangano z’abasirikari ndetse akajya ku rugamba.

Idriss Déby yari umusirikare mu maraso kuva yajya ku butegetsi mu 1990 yagiye abigaragaza

Mu 2020 Inteko ishinga Amategeko ya Tchad yamuhaye ipeti rya “Maréchal” rifatwa nk’irihambaye mu gisirikare, biba igihamya ntakuka ko uwo mugabo acyiyumva nk’umusirikari.

Kujya ku rugamba yari yarabigize akamenyero kuko no mu 2020 yari mu mirwano ingabo ze zahanganiyemo na FACT hafi y’Ikiyaga cya Tchad.

Ku wa 17 Mata 2021 Maréchal Itno yongeye gusubira ku rugamba yerekeza mu gace ka Mao abasirikare be bayobowe n’umuhungu we, Mahamat Idriss Déby, bari bahanganiyemo na FACT.

Mu rukerera rwo ku wa 18 Itno n’abari bamuherekeje bageze mu gace ka Nokou kaberagamo imirwano, gaherereye muri kilometero 40 mu Majyaruguru ya Mao.

Aha yahageze asanga rwambikanye, maze acakirana n’abarwanyi ba FACT bahungaga igitero simusiga bari bagabweho n’umuhungu we,barasana n’abasirikari bari kumwe nawe, birangira na we aharasiwe.

Hatangajwe ko mu masasu yarashwe harimo iryamufashe mu gatuza rikamwangiza ibihaha, bimuviramo kuhasiga ubuzima.

Itno yaba yarakorewe coup d’état?

Inkuru y’urupfu rwa Perezida Itno yatangajwe n’Igisirikare cye ku wa 20 Mata 2021, ariko hari amakuru avuga ko yapfuye akimara kuraswa ku wa 18 Mata, bikagirwa ibanga.

Igisirikare ni cyo cyahise gifata ubutegetsi, gitegeka ko Umuhungu we, Mahamat Idriss Déby, ayobora inzibacyuho y’amezi 18, hakazabona gukorwa amatora y’umukuru w’igihugu.

Ayo mabwiriza y’igisirikare anyuranyije n’Itegeko Nshinga rya Tchad, kuko ryo rivuga ko mu gihe Perezida adahari inzibacyuho iyoborwa n’Umuyobozi w’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko kandi amatora agakorwa mu minsi 90.

Abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bahise bavuga ko iyo ari coup d’état yakorewe Perezida Itno, bigakekwa ko yarashwe n’abasirikari be aho kuba abarwanyi ba FACT. Ibyo kandi barabishimangiza kuba hari n’abandi basirikari bakuru batanu uwo mutwe watangaje ko baguye muri urwo rugamba, naho barindwi bakahakomerekera.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko hari n’abasesenguzi bavuga ko gushyiraho Général Mahamat Idriss Déby ngo ayobore inzibacyuho, byakozwe mu rwego rwo gukomeza kwiyegereza u Bufaransa bushyigikira icyo gihugu mu bya gisirikare, kuko iyo uwo mwanya uhabwa umusivile byari kugorana ko ubwo bufatanye bukomeza kubaho kandi muri ibi bihe bukenewe cyane.

Général Mahamat Idriss Déby ni muntu ki?

Général Mahamat Idriss Déby wahawe kuyobora inzibacyuho, yagize uruhare rukomeye mu ngabo z’igihugu cye kuva mu 2013, ubwo yagirwaga umuyobozi wungirije w’ingabo Tchad zirwanya ibikorwa by’iterabwoba muri Mali.

Uyu mugabo kandi yayoboye ishami rya gisirikare rishinzwe kurinda umukuru w’igihugu.

Ni we wari uyoboye urugamba rwo gusubiza inyuma FACT, ari narwo rwabaye intandaro y’urupfu rwa se, ndetse atanga icyizere cyo kuzakora ibikomeye.

Yakunze kumenyekana cyane ku izina rya “Général Kaka” biturutse ku kuba yararezwe na nyirakuru ubyara se.

Général Mahamat Kaka yarwanye urugamba rwe rwa mbere mu 2006 ubwo abarwanyi barwanyaga se bateye Umurwa mukuru N’Djamena. Yagiye anyura mu mahugurwa n’amashuri bya gisirikare mu bihe bitandukanye, ndetse yigeze no kwitabira ayo mu Bufaransa mu ishuri rya Aix-en-provence.

Idriss Déby yishwe hashize amasaha make atsindiye manda ya gatandatu
Mahamat Idriss Déby wasimbuye se ku butegetsi asanzwe mu gisirikare cya Tchad
Igisirikare nicyo cyatangaje urupfu rwa Idriss Déby Itno
Umuhungu wa Idriss Déby (iburyo) asanzwe mu gisirikare dore ko guhera mu 2006 yari mu ngabo z'icyo gihugu

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