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Ibihe by’ingenzi byaranze Mikhaïl Gorbatchev, bucura mu bayoboye URSS

Yanditswe na Zigiranyirazo Bajecteur
Kuya 1 September 2022 saa 11:58
Yasuwe :

Umuyobozi wa nyuma wa Leta Zunze w’Ubumwe bw’Abasoviyete (URSS), Mikhaïl Gorbatchev, yashizemo umwuka ku wa Kabiri w’iki cyumweru afite imyaka 91.

Uyu mugabo yamenyekanye cyane kubera uruhare rukomeye yagize mu guhosha Intambara y’Ubutita, aho mu 1990 byanamuhesheje igihembo cy’uwaharaniye amahoro cyitiriwe Nobel.

Uyu mugabo yavukiye mu gace k’icyaro ka Privolnoye hafi ya Stavropol muri Caucase y’Amajyaruguru.

Imyaka ye ya mbere yayimaze mu mirima aho se yakoreshaga imashini zifashishwa mu buhinzi akagenda yigisha umuhungu we ibijyanye n’akazi akora.

Radio-Canada yagerageje ku garagaza bimwe mu bihe by’ingenzi byaranze ubuzima bwa Gorbatchev utarakiranaga yombi iby’icurwa ry’intwaro za kirimbuzi cyane cyane mu gihugu cye na Amerika.

Yarerewe ku bibero by’ishyaka ry’aba-communiste

Gorbatchev ubwo yigaga ibijyanye n’amategeko muri Kaminuza ya Moscow yanaboneye impamyabumenyi mu 1955, yinjiye mu ishyaka rigendera ku mahame y’aba-communiste ndetse mu 1970 yagizwe Umunyamabanga wa mbere wa komite y’iryo shyaka mu gace yabarizwagamo.

Yatangiye kugera ku gasongero muri Werurwe, 1985

Nyuma y’urupfu rw’uwayoboraga URSS, Iouri Andropov watabarutse mu 1984 ndetse na Konstantin Tchernenko wamusimbuye na we agahita apfa nyuma y’umwaka umwe mu 1985, Gorbatchev yahise aba umuyobozi wa URSS, bimugira uwa kabiri ugeze muri uwo mwanya akiri muto nyuma ya Joseph Staline.

Gahunda ya ‘Perestroïka na Glasnost’ mu 1987-1988

Muri iyi gahunda, Gorbatchev yashyize imbaraga nyinshi mu kuvugurura politiki ya sisitemu y’ubukungu mu muryango w’Ubumwe bw’Abasoviyete yiswe Perestroïka ndetse na gahunda yo guha rugari abantu ku kijyanye n’ubwisanzure bwo gutanga ibitekerezo, ibizwi nka Glasnost.

Muri izi gahunda, Gorbatchev yagabanyije amafaranga yakoreshwaga mu bikorwa bya gisirikare by’umwihariko ku ruhando mpuzamahanga aho yacyuye ingabo zari muri Afghanistan.

Amasezerano yo kugabanya intwaro kirimbuzi

Ku wa 8 Ukuboza, 1987 ku bufatanye n’uwayoboraga Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, Ronald Reagan, basinye amasezerano agamije kugabanya intwaro kirimbuzi ziri mu bubiko bw’u Burusiya na Amerika.

Amasezerano ya Afghanistan muri Gicurasi, 1988

Aya masezerano ya Afghanistan ni yo yabaye intandaro yo gutangira kuvana ingabo za Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyete zigera ku bihumbi 120 muri icyo gihugu aho bahawe amezi 10 yo kuba bashizeyo nyuma y’imyaka irenga 10 bari bahamaze mu ntambara yaburiyemo ubuzima abagera ku 13 310, mu gihe abandi 35 478 bahakomerekeye naho ku ruhande rw’abasoviyete 311 bakaburirwa irengero.

Mu bindi bikomeye Gorbatchev yagezeho uretse kuyobora URSS no guhabwa igihembo cy’uwaharaniye amahoro cyitiriwe Nobel, nyuma y’umwaka utoroshye yanatangaje iby’ukwegura kwe nk’umuyobozi wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyete ku wa 25 Ukuboza mu 1991; ibihe byabayemo kugerageza kumuhirika ku butegetsi akamburwa agaciro mu gihe byakuzaga izina rya mukeba we, Boris Eltsine.

Ku wa 26 Ukuboza, 1991, icyari Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyete cyarasheshwe kirasenyuka maze nyuma y’imyaka itanu Gorbatchev agerageza kwiyamamariza kuyobora u Burusiya ntibyamuhira kuko yatsindiwe ku majwi ari munsi ya 1% bitewe n’uko bagenzi be bamushinjaga ku kuba URSS yarananiwe igasenyuka,

Mu 2008, Gorbatchev ku bufatanye n’umuherwe Aleksandr Lebedev wari unafite ikinyamakuru gikomeye cyitwa Novaya Gazeta, bashinze ishyaka rya politiki gusa uyu muherwe na we muri Mutarama uyu mwaka akaba ari bwo yatabarutse.


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